Andrew D Kligerman

Andrew D Kligerman
United States Environmental Protection Agency | US EPA · Integrated Systems Toxicology Division

Ph.D.

About

115
Publications
5,227
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,344
Citations
Citations since 2016
0 Research Items
684 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
Additional affiliations
November 1987 - present
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Position
  • Genetic Toxicologist

Publications

Publications (115)
Article
Context: Soy biodiesel is the predominant biodiesel fuel used in the USA, but only a few, frequently conflicting studies have examined the potential health effects of its emissions. Objective: We combusted petroleum diesel (B0) and fuels with increasing percentages of soy methyl esters (B20, B50 and B100) and determined the mutagenicity-emission fa...
Article
We showed previously that exposure of human lung cells (BEAS-2B) to TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2 ) produced micronuclei (MN) only when the final concentration of protein in the cell-culture medium was at least 1%. Nanoparticles localize in the liver; thus, we exposed human liver cells (HepG2) to nano-TiO2 and found the same requirement for MN indu...
Article
Although it is widely known that arsenic-contaminated drinking water causes many diseases, arsenic's exact mode of action (MOA) is not fully understood. Induction of oxidative stress has been proposed as an important key event in the toxic MOA of arsenic. The authors' studies are centered on identifying a reactive species involved in the genotoxici...
Article
The widespread use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in consumer products increases the probability of exposure to humans and the environment. Although TiO2 nanoparticles have been shown to induce DNA damage (comet assay) and chromosome damage (micronucleus assay, MN) in vitro, no study has systematically assessed the influence of medium com...
Article
Full-text available
A technique is described for obtaining well-spread metaphases from solid tissues of fishes without the use of methodologies that rely on tissue grinders, centrifuges, digestive enzymes, or tissue culture. This procedure involves the formation of a cell suspension from acetic alcohol fixed tissues using 50% acetic acid. The suspension is applied to...
Article
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. Heterozygous mice of strain B6;129S7-Sod1(tm1Leb)/J were obtained from Jackson Laboratories and bred to produce offspring that were heterozygous (+/Sod1(tm1Leb)), homozygous wild-type (+/+), and homozygous knockout (Sod1(tm1Leb) /Sod1(tm1Leb)) for the Cu/Zn supe...
Article
Full-text available
Arsenic is categorized by the WHO as the most significant environmental contaminant of drinking water due to the prevalence of geogenic contamination of groundwaters. Arsenic and the compounds which it forms are considered to be carcinogenic. The mechanism of toxicity and in particular of carcinogenicity of arsenic is still not well understood. The...
Article
Arsenic is a human skin, lung, and urinary bladder carcinogen, and may act as a cocarcinogen in the skin and urinary bladder. Possible modes of action of arsenic carcinogenesis/cocarcinogenesis include oxidative stress induction and inhibition of DNA damage repair. We investigated the effects of arsenic in drinking water on DNA damage repair in uri...
Article
In response to the 2005 revised U.S Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Cancer Guidelines, a strategy is being developed to include all mutagenicity and other genotoxicity data with additional information to determine whether the initiating step in carcinogenesis is through a mutagenic mode of action (MOA). This information is necessary to deci...
Article
Arsenic is a human carcinogen, and only recently animal models have been developed that are useful in investigating its carcinogenic mode of action (MOA). However, how arsenic induces cancer is still an open question. In a previous paper, we proposed a model detailing how arsenic might induce DNA lesions leading to cytogenetic damage [A.D. Kligerma...
Article
In response to the 2005 revised US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Cancer Guidelines, a Risk Assessment Forum's Technical Panel has devised a strategy in which genetic toxicology data combined with other information are assessed to determine whether a carcinogen operates through a mutagenic mode of action (MOA). This information is necessary...
Article
Full-text available
Urinary bladder transitional epithelium is the main site of bladder cancer, and the use of transitional cells to study carcinogenesis/genotoxicity is recommended over the use of whole bladders. Because the transitional epithelium is only a small fraction of the whole bladder, the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay), which r...
Article
That arsenic can induce cancer in humans has been known since the late 17th century, yet how arsenic induces cancer has been the subject of numerous scientific publications. Various modes of action (MOA) have been proposed for arsenic's carcinogenicity. In this paper we review our previous studies on the ability of arsenicals to cause DNA damage, t...
Article
1,3-Butadiene (BTD) is an important commodity chemical and air pollutant that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen in mice, and to a lesser extent, a carcinogen in rats. To better assess butadiene's carcinogenic risk to humans, it is important to understand its mode of action and how this relates to differences in responses among species. In a...
Article
The potential adverse effects of dermal and inhalation exposure of jet fuels are important for health hazard evaluation in humans. The genotoxic potential of jet fuels, JP-8 and Jet-A, was investigated in an animal model. Mice were treated dermally with either a single or multiple applications of these jet fuels. Peripheral blood and bone marrow sm...
Article
Dichloromethane (DCM) is considered a probable human carcinogen. Laboratory studies have shown an increased incidence of lung and liver cancer in mice but not in rats or hamsters. Despite the correlation between metabolism of DCM by the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pathway and the occurrence of tumors in different species, the mechanism of tumor...
Article
We investigated the spindle inhibitory properties of six arsenicals differing in their methylation or oxidation state. Human lymphoblasts were exposed for 6 h to either sodium arsenate (NaAs(V)), sodium arsenite (NaAs(III)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), or dimethylarsinous acid...
Article
1,1-Dichloropropene (1,1-DCPe) is a contaminant of some source waters used to make drinking water. Because of this and the fact that no toxicological data were available for this compound, which is structurally similar to the rodent carcinogen 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-DCPe), 1,1-DCPe was placed on the Contaminant Candidate List of the US Environmen...
Article
The genotoxic potential of the jet fuels, Jet-A and JP-8, were examined in mice treated on the skin with a single dose of 240 mg/mouse. Peripheral blood smears were prepared at the start of the experiment (t = 0), and at 24, 48 and 72 h following treatment with jet fuels. Femoral bone marrow smears were made when all animals were sacrificed at 72 h...
Article
Arsenic is a prevalent human carcinogen whose mutagenicity has not been characterized fully. Exposure to either form of inorganic arsenic, As(III) or As(V), can result in the formation of at least four organic metabolites: monomethylarsonic acid, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), dimethylarsinic acid, and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)). The met...
Article
Full-text available
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is the most thoroughly studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Many mechanisms have been suggested to explain its carcinogenic activity, yet many questions still remain. K-region dihydrodiols of PAHs are metabolic intermediates depending on the specific cytochrome P450 and had been thought to be detoxification products...
Conference Paper
Experiments were designed to investigate how the route of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mice and rats affects the induction of cytogenetic end points and DNA adduction. Both mice and rats were exposed to 100 mg/kg of benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), or chrysene (Chr) by gavage...
Article
Arsenic is a natural drinking water contaminant that impacts the health of large populations of people throughout the world; however, the mode or mechanism by which arsenic induces cancer is unclear. In a series of in vitro studies, we exposed leukocytes from humans, mice, rats, and guinea pigs to a range of sodium arsenite concentrations to determ...
Article
Experiments were designed to investigate how the route of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mice and rats affects the induction of cytogenetic end points and DNA adduction. Both mice and rats were exposed to 100 mg/kg of benz[ a ]anthracene (B[ a ]A), benzo[ b ]fluoranthene (B[ b ]F), benzo[ a ]pyrene (B[ a ]P), or chrysene (Ch...
Article
Experiments were designed to investigate how the route of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mice and rats affects the induction of cytogenetic end points and DNA adduction. Both mice and rats were exposed to 100 mg/kg of benz[ a ]anthracene (B[ a ]A), benzo[ b ]fluoranthene (B[ b ]F), benzo[ a ]pyrene (B[ a ]P), or chrysene (Ch...
Article
Triazine herbicides are prevalent contaminants of groundwater in the agricultural regions of the United States. The literature on the genotoxicity of triazines is rife with conflicting data, though the general tendency is for most studies to report negative results. In order to investigate further the genotoxicity of triazines, we exposed mice to t...
Article
The reactivities of methyloxoarsine (MAs(III)) and iododimethylarsine (DMAs(III)), two methylated trivalent arsenicals, toward supercoiled phiX174 RFI DNA were assessed using a DNA nicking assay. The induction of DNA damage by these compounds in vitro in human peripheral lymphocytes was assessed using a single-cell gel (SCG, "comet") assay. Both me...
Article
Atrazine, simazine, and cyanazine are widely used preemergence and postemergence triazine herbicides that have made their way into the potable water supply of many agricultural communities. Although there are several contradictory genotoxicity studies in the literature, our previous in vitro studies with human lymphocytes showed that atrazine, sima...
Article
Atrazine, simazine, and cyanazine are widely used preemergence and postemergence triazine herbicides that have made their way into the potable water supply of many agricultural communities. Although there are several contradictory genotoxicity studies in the literature, our previous in vitro studies with human lymphocytes showed that atrazine, sima...
Article
Atrazine, simazine, and cyanazine are widely used pre-emergence and post-emergence triazine herbicides that have made their way into the potable water supply of many agricultural communities. Because of this and the prevalence of contradictory cytogenetic studies in the literature on atrazine, simazine, and cyanazine, a series of in vitro experimen...
Article
Brominated trihalomethanes (THMs) are disinfection by-products present frequently in chlorinated drinking water. Brominated THMs are mutagenic in a variety of systems and are carcinogenic in rodents. The metabolism of brominated THMs is thought to involve a GSH conjugation reaction leading either to formaldehyde or DNA-reactive intermediates via gl...
Article
3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), a primary metabolite of butadiene, is a direct-acting "S-dependent" genotoxicant that can induce sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosome aberrations (CAs) in cycling cells in vitro. However, EB is almost inactive when splenic or peripheral blood lymphocytes are exposed at the G(0) stage of the cell cycle. To invest...
Article
Alachlor is a widely used herbicide for which there is significant human exposure, principally through groundwater contamination and inhalation. Because alachlor is purported to be carcinogenic and mutagenic, we initiated studies to determine if induced cytogenetic damage could be used as a biomarker for exposure to this herbicide. Both isolated an...
Article
To understand better the species differences in carcinogenicity caused by 1,3-butadiene (BD), we exposed G0 lymphocytes (either splenic or peripheral blood) from rats, mice and humans to 3, 4-epoxy-1-butene (EB) (20 to 931 microM) or 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) (2.5 to 320 uM), two of the suspected active metabolites of BD. Short EB exposures induc...
Article
As a first step in investigating the genotoxic effects of the principal metabolites of 1,3-butadiene (BD) in both rats and mice, splenocytes (which have little mixed function oxidase activity) from each specimen were exposed to a series of concentrations of either 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB) (20 to 931 microM) or 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) (2.5 to 160...
Article
Male B6C3F1 mice (8 weeks of age) were exposed by inhalation to divinylbenzene-55 (DVB-55), at target concentrations of 0, 25, 50 and 75 ppm for 6 h per day for 3 days. Following exposure the animals were killed blood smears were prepared for micronucleus (MN) analysis, and the spleens were removed and cultured for sister chromatid exchange (SCE) a...
Article
Whole blood from two male individuals was X-irradiated using a linear accelerator at 200 cGy/min to give a total exposure of 300 cGy. Lymphocytes were cultured using standard techniques with the addition of 3 micrograms/ml cytochalasin B at 26 h to produce binucleation through the inhibition of cytokinesis for the scoring of micronuclei after the f...
Article
Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is one of a class of common air pollutant formed by the action of sunlight on volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. PAN has been shown to be a bacterial mutagen. To determine if PAN can cause DNA damage in mammalian cells, we exposed murine peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) to various volumes of PAN in vitro a...
Article
The sensitivity to micronucleus (MN) induction of human, mouse, and rat peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) exposed to bleomycin sulfate (BLM) in vitro was compared in cytochalasin B-induced binucleated (BN) cells. For the PBLs of each species, either 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 160 micrograms/ml BLM was added to 5 ml aliquots of whole blood for 4...
Article
Trichloroethylene (TCE) (CAS No. 79-01-6) is an industrial solvent used in degreasing, dry cleaning, and numerous other medical and industrial processes. Controlled inhalation studies were performed using male C57BL/6 mice and CD rats to determine if TCE can induce cytogenetic damage in vivo. Animals were exposed in groups of five to target concent...
Article
Phosphine (PH3) is a highly toxic grain fumigant that can be produced from the reaction of metal phosphides with water. To determine the in vivo cytogenetic effects of inhalation of PH3, male CD-1 mice were exposed to either 0, 5, 10, or 15 ppm target concentrations of PH3 for 6 hr. Twenty hours after the termination of exposure, the spleens of the...
Article
Phosphine (PH3) is a highly toxic grain fumigant to which there is significant human workplace exposure. To determine the in vivo cytogenetic effects of inhalation of PH3, male F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to target concentrations of 0, 1.25, 2.5, or 5 ppm PH3 for 6 hr/day for 9 days over an 11-day period. Approximately 20 hr after the...
Article
Full-text available
DNA-carcinogen adducts offer a potential dosimeter for environmental genotoxicants reaching the exposed individual. Because the target tissues for many chemical carcinogens are not readily accessible for monitoring adducts in humans, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) have served as surrogate sources of exposed DNA. Both benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and b...
Article
Male Fischer 344 rats and female B6C3F1 mice were each exposed through their drinking water to a mixture of pesticides and ammonium nitrate that simulated contaminated groundwater in California (California Chemical Mixture [CCM]). Exposures were for 71 or 91 days, respectively. In addition, B6C3F1 female mice were exposed for 91 days to another pes...
Article
Female B6C3F1 mice and Fischer 344 rats were exposed to styrene at nominal concentrations of 125, 250 and 500 ppm by inhalation for 6 h per day for 14 consecutive days. One day after the final exposure, murine peripheral blood lymphocytes, spleen and lungs were removed, and the cells were cultured for analysis of chromosomal aberrations, micronucle...
Article
Full-text available
Benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F) was administered (100 mg/kg by i.p. injection) to male Sprague--Dawley rats. Lungs, livers and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were harvested 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after treatment. Several DNA adducts were observed in each tissue, with maximal levels occurring at approximately 7 days after treatment. Lung D...
Article
The data for the in vivo genotoxicity of styrene (STY) are equivocal. To evaluate the clastogenicity and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE)-inducing potential of STY in vivo under carefully controlled conditions, B6C3F1 female mice were exposed by inhalation for 6 h/day for 14 consecutive days to either 0, 125, 250 or 500 ppm STY. One day after the fi...
Article
A series of in vitro experiments were conducted to determine if there are innate differences in the sensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from different mammalian species to clastogens. Mouse, rat, and human whole blood samples were exposed to either 0, 0.38, 0.75, 1.5, or 3.0 Gy x-radiation or 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 micrograms/ml ble...
Article
Full-text available
DNA adducts produced in vivo in rat lung, liver and peripheral blood lymphocytes following the i.p. administration of several synthetic benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) metabolites and ring-substituted derivatives have been analyzed by the nuclease P1 version of the 32P-postlabeling assay. These include 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, 7-, 8-, 9-, 10-, 11- and 12-hyd...
Article
We compared the radiosensitivity of human, rat and mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) by analyzing micronuclei (MN) in cytochalasin B-induced binucleated (BN) cells. For each species and dose 4-ml aliquots of whole blood were X-irradiated to obtain doses of 38, 75, 150 or 300 cGy. Controls were sham-irradiated. After exposure to X-rays, mono...
Article
The clastogenicity of ethyl acrylate (EA) was examined in vivo by injecting i.p. five male C57BL/6 mice per dose group with either 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg EA dissolved in saline. Controls received solvent only. Acrylamide (100 mg/kg), because of its similarity in structure and mode of action to EA, was used as a positive control. Twenty-four ho...
Article
The present study was designed to investigate the genotoxicity of 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (4-OHCP) and phosphoramide mustard (PAM), both reactive metabolites of cyclophosphamide (CP), for possible differences in SCE-inducing activity in mouse T- and B-lymphocytes. Mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated and stimulated to divide with eith...
Article
The present study was designed to determine and compare the clastogenicity of m-AMSA and camptothecin (CAMP) in vivo in mouse bone marrow and peripheral blood lympho–cytes (PBLs), and in vitro in mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells. m-AMSA interferes with topoisomerase II to induce double-strand DNA breaks. CAMP interferes with topoisomerase I to induce si...
Article
Thirty-six male C57B1/6 mice were X-irradiated whole body with 3 Gy to generate lymphocytes with dicentric chromosomes to study the persistence of these lymphocytes in the spleen and peripheral blood to estimate the life span of mature B- and T-cells. Peripheral blood and spleen were removed from groups of four mice immediately after radiation expo...
Article
Full-text available
Although phosphoramide mustard (PM) is generally recognized as being the most genotoxic metabolite of cyclophosphamide (CP), the contribution of acrolein to the cytogenetic toxicity of CP is unclear. Besides covalently binding to DNA, acrolein can inactivate critical proteins necessary for replicative DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell membrane...
Article
Full-text available
Male CD rats were injected with single i.p. doses of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), livers, and lungs were removed at various times after administration. DNA adducts were analyzed in each tissue by 32P postlabeling with nuclease P1 enhancement. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies were concomitantly measured in cu...
Article
Chromosome damage was studied in female B6C3F1 mice exposed to dichloromethane (DCM) by subcutaneous or inhalation treatments. No increase in the frequency of either sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) or chromosome aberrations (CAs) in bone marrow cells was observed after a single subcutaneous injection of 2,500 or 5,000 mg/kg DCM. Inhalation exposu...
Article
Full-text available
Both mice and rats were injected i.p. with doses of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranging from 10 to 100 mg/kg to and compare species sensitivity to and the relationship between sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction and DNA adduct formation. Twenty-four hours after injection, blood was removed by cnrdiac puncture and the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PB...
Article
Cyclophosphamide (CP) and two of its known metabolites, 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (4-OHCP) and phosphoramide mustard (PAM), were analyzed for their ability to induce sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in vitro and in vivo. At equimolar concentrations, CP is a more potent SCE inducer in vivo than PAM and P...
Article
Experiments were designed to investigate the induction of micronuclei (MN) in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) after in vitro or in vivo exposure to 60Co gamma radiation. For the in vitro experiments, 4 ml of blood from male C57BL/6J mice were either irradiated in 6 ml Falcon culture tubes as whole blood or isolated to obtain mononuclear l...
Article
Full-text available
Both mice and rats were injected i.p. with doses of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) ranging from 10 to 100 mg/kg to compare species sensitivity to SCE induction and DNA adduct formation, as well as the relationship between these endpoints. Twenty-four hours after injection, blood was removed by cardiac puncture and the PBLs analyzed for both DNA adduct form...
Article
Experiments were conducted to compare the chromosome damaging effects of 60Co gamma radiation on mouse and human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Either whole blood or isolated and pelleted mononuclear leucocytes (MNLs) were irradiated with a 60Co unit to yield exposures of 1, 2, 3, or 4 Gy. In addition, mice were whole-body irradiated in vivo...
Article
Full-text available
Diaziquone (AZQ) (NSC 182986), a lipid-soluble benzoquinone derivative currently being tested as an experimental chemotherapeutic agent, was used to treat mouse and human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) to determine its genotoxic potential by examination of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction. In vitro exposure to AZQ caused a linear incr...
Article
Male C57B1/6 mice were injected i.p. with either 1.25 or 5.0 mg/kg diaziquone (AZQ) and killed at various time intervals from 1 to 99 days post treatment for examination of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) persistence in the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and splenocytes. SCE frequencies were found to decay steeply during the first week after e...
Article
Full-text available
Methyl isocyanate (MIC) was tested for genetic toxicity in a variety of in vitro and in vivo assays. Negative results were obtained in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay using five bacterial strains in a preincubation protocol. The Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal test also gave negative results in studies that involved three routes of...
Article
A mouse peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) micronucleus (MN) test was developed using a modification of the technique for assessing MN in human PBLs described by Fenech and Morley (1985). Male C57Bl/6 mice (5/dose) were injected i.p. with either 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 mg diaziquone (AZQ)/kg. After 24 h the mice were bled by cardiac puncture, PBLs...
Article
Methyl isocyanate (MIC) was tested for genetic toxicity in a variety of in vitro and in vivo assays. Negative results were obtained in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay using five bacterial strains in a preincubation protocol. The Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal test also gave negative results in studies that involved three routes of...