Andrew Francis Hill

Andrew Francis Hill
La Trobe University · Department of Biochemistry

BSc(HONS) DIC PhD

About

289
Publications
49,221
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
27,320
Citations
Introduction
Professor Andy Hill studies the molecular and cellular biology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and prion diseases. Andy’s research team uses in vitro and in vivo models to look at how abnormal proteins cause neurodegeneration in these disorders. His aim is to understand the mechanisms underlying these diseases in more detail, with the goal of translating this into the design of novel therapeutics and diagnostics.
Additional affiliations
April 2015 - present
La Trobe University
Position
  • Head of Department
December 2012 - April 2015
University of Melbourne
Position
  • Professor and Associate Director, Bio21 Institute
January 2002 - December 2002
University College London

Publications

Publications (289)
Article
Full-text available
Essential metals such as copper, iron, and zinc are cofactors in various biological processes including oxygen utilisation, cell growth, and biomolecular synthesis. The homeostasis of these essential metals is carefully controlled through a system of protein transporters involved in the uptake, storage, and secretion. Some metal ions can be transfo...
Article
Bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine stress and immune systems permits classically anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids to exert pro-inflammatory effects in specific cells and tissues. Liver macrophages/Kupffer cells play a crucial role in initiating inflammatory cascades mediated by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines followin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tasmanian devils are threatened with extinction by Devil Facial Tumor Disease (DFTD), which consists of two genetically independent transmissible cancers (DFT1 and DFT2). Both cancers typically cause death due to metastases. However, the mechanisms underpinning DFTD metastasis are not well understood. The nano-sized, membrane-enclosed extracellular...
Article
Full-text available
Hepatic glutathione synthesis and antioxidant protection are critically important for efficient detoxification processes in response to metabolic challenges. However, this biosynthetic pathway, regulated by nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), previously demonstrated paradoxical repression following exposure to glucocorticoid stress...
Preprint
Lipid dyshomeostasis is associated with the most common form of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD). Substantial progress has been made in identifying positron emission tomography (PET) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for AD, but they have limited use as front-line, non-invasive diagnostic tools. Small extracellular vesicles (EVs) are relea...
Article
Full-text available
The misfolding and aggregation of the largely disordered protein, α-synuclein, is a central pathogenic event that occurs in the synucleinopathies, a group of neurodegenerative disorders that includes Parkinson's disease. While there is a clear link between protein misfolding and neuronal vulnerability, the precise pathogenic mechanisms employed by...
Article
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include exosomes and microvesicles and have been shown to have roles in the CNS ranging from the removal of unwanted biomolecules to intercellular communication to the spread of pathogenic proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases. EVs carry protein, lipid, and genetic cargo, and research over more than a deca...
Preprint
The misfolding and aggregation of the largely disordered protein, α-synuclein, is a central pathogenic event that occurs in the synucleinopathies; a group of neurodegenerative disorders that includes Parkinson’s disease. While there is a clear link between protein misfolding and neuronal vulnerability, the precise pathogenic mechanisms employed by...
Article
Full-text available
The misfolding and aggregation of α-synuclein (αsyn) in the central nervous system is associated with a group of neurodegenerative disorders referred to as the synucleinopathies. In addition to being a pathological hallmark of disease, it is now well established that upon misfolding αsyn acquires pathogenic properties, such as neurotoxicity, that c...
Article
Full-text available
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes extensive metabolism, and its transport and proteolytic processing can be modulated by its ability to form a homodimer. We have investigated the functional consequences of stabilised APP dimer expression in cells by studying the engineered dimerisation of the APPL17C (residue 17 in Aβ sequence) construc...
Article
Full-text available
The discovery that extracellular vesicles (EVs) can transfer functional extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) between cells opened new avenues into the study of EVs in health and disease. Growing interest in EV RNAs and other forms of exRNA has given rise to research programmes including but not limited to the Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium (ERCC...
Article
Full-text available
This report summarises the presentations and activities of the ISEV Workshop on extracellular vesicle biomarkers held in Birmingham, UK during December 2017. Among the key messages was broad agreement about the importance of biospecimen science. Much greater attention needs to be paid towards the provenance of collected samples. The workshop also h...
Article
Full-text available
Oral swirls are a noninvasive, rapidly collected source of salivary microRNA potentially useful in the early detection of disease states, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study was to predict the presence of oral squamous cell carcinoma using a panel of OSCC-related dysregulated microRNA found in oral swirls, identi...
Article
Full-text available
STING is an innate immune cytosolic adaptor for DNA sensors that engage malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) or other pathogen DNA. As P. falciparum infects red blood cells and not leukocytes, how parasite DNA reaches such host cytosolic DNA sensors in immune cells is unclear. Here we show that malaria parasites inside red blood cells can engag...
Chapter
Next-generation deep sequencing (NGS) technology represents a powerful and innovative approach to profile small RNA. Currently, there are a number of large-scale and benchtop sequencing platforms available on the market. Although each platform is relatively straightforward to operate, constructing cDNA libraries can be the most difficult part of th...
Chapter
Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes and microvesicles, have been shown to contain potential microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers that may be utilized in the diagnosis of various diseases from cancer to neurological disorders. The unique nature of the extracellular vesicle bilayer allows miRNA to be protected from degradation making it an ideal source o...
Article
Full-text available
In late 2016, the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) canvassed its members on standardization efforts in extracellular vesicle research. ISEV scientists responded with their views on the experimental guidelines and "minimal information for studies of EVs", or MISEV, published in 2014, and made recommendations for future adjustm...
Article
Full-text available
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are heterogeneous populations of nano- and micro-sized vesicles secreted by various cell types. There is mounting evidence that EVs have widespread roles in transporting proteins, lipids and nucleic acids between cells and serve as mediators of intercellular communication. EVs secreted from stem cells could function as...
Article
Full-text available
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, are released by all cells, including those of the nervous system. Capable of delivering lipid, protein and nucleic acids to both nearby and distal cells, exosomes have been hypothesized to play a role in progression of many diseases of the nervous system. To date, most analyses on the role of these vesicl...
Article
Full-text available
The BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib can be used to treat patients with metastatic melanomas harboring BRAF V600 mutations. Initial antitumoral responses are often seen, but drug-resistant clones with reactivation of the MEK-ERK pathway soon appear. Recently, the secretome of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been ascribed im...
Article
Full-text available
Owing to the relationship between extracellular vesicles (EVs) and physiological and pathological conditions, the interest in EVs is exponentially growing. EVs hold high hopes for novel diagnostic and translational discoveries. This review provides an expert-based update of recent advances in the methods to study EVs and summarizes currently accept...
Article
Full-text available
The release of RNA-containing extracellular vesicles (EV) into the extracellular milieu has been demonstrated in a multitude of different in vitro cell systems and in a variety of body fluids. RNA-containing EV are in the limelight for their capacity to communicate genetically encoded messages to other cells, their suitability as candidate biomarke...
Article
We argue that the field of extracellular vesicle (EV) biology needs more transparent reporting to facilitate interpretation and replication of experiments. To achieve this, we describe EV-TRACK, a crowdsourcing knowledgebase (http://evtrack.org) that centralizes EV biology and methodology with the goal of stimulating authors, reviewers, editors and...
Article
Full-text available
Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), including microRNAs (miRNA), enclosed in exosomes are being utilised for biomarker discovery in disease. Two common exosome isolation methods involve differential ultracentrifugation or differential ultracentrifugation coupled with Optiprep gradient fractionation. Generally, the incorporation of an Optiprep gradient p...
Article
Full-text available
More than thirty years ago two precipitate findings were discovered that challenged conventional thinking in biology. The first was the identification of a misfolded protein with transmissible properties associated with a group of neurodegenerative diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The second was the discovery of a new pa...
Article
Full-text available
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent an important mode of intercellular communication. Research in this field has grown rapidly in the last few years, and there is a plethora of techniques for the isolation and characterization of EVs, many of which are poorly standardized. EVs are heterogeneous in size, origin and molecular constituents, with co...
Data
Techniques used for the isolation and characterization of extracellular vesicles: results of a worldwide survey
Article
Full-text available
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent an important mode of intercellular communication. Research in this field has grown rapidly in the last few years, and there is a plethora of techniques for the isolation and characterization of EVs, many of which are poorly standardized. EVs are heterogeneous in size, origin and molecular constituents, with co...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Understanding the pathogenic role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in disease and their potential diagnostic and therapeutic utility is extremely reliant on in-depth quantification, measurement and identification of EV sub-populations. Quantification of EVs has presented several challenges, predominantly due to the small size of vesicle...
Data
A standardized method to determine the concentration of extracellular vesicles using tunable resistive pulse sensing
Article
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, are small membranous vesicles released from many biotypes, contributing to the disease progression and spreading. These extracellular vesicles provide an important mode of cell-to-cell communication by delivering proteins, lipids and RNA to target cells. Exosomes are found associated with neurodegenerativ...
Article
Proteinopathies represent a group of diseases characterized by the unregulated misfolding and aggregation of proteins. Accumulation of misfolded protein in the central nervous system (CNS) is associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (or prion diseases), Alzheimer's disease and the synucleinopa...
Article
In melanoma, more than 50% of the patients harbor BRAF somatic missense mutations, most affecting the V600 region. Vemurafenib, a potent BRAF inhibitor used for the treatment of late stage melanoma, has shown promising results by causing programmed cell death in melanoma cells. Recently, extracellular vesicles including apoptotic bodies, microvesic...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disorder and is the most common form of dementia. Minimally invasive approaches are required that combine biomarkers to identify individuals who are at risk of developing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, to appropriately target clinical trials for therapeutic discovery as well as lifestyle str...
Article
Full-text available
Background To address the lack of standard terminology to describe extracellular RNA (exRNA) data/metadata, we have launched an inter-community effort to extend the Gene Ontology (GO) with subcellular structure concepts relevant to the exRNA domain. By extending GO in this manner, the exRNA data/metadata will be more easily annotated and queried be...
Article
Full-text available
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset neuromuscular degenerative disorder with a poorly defined etiology. ALS patients experience motor weakness, which starts focally and spreads throughout the nervous system, culminating in paralysis and death within a few years of diagnosis. While the vast majority of clinical ALS is sporadic...
Article
Full-text available
The microtubule-associated protein tau has a critical role in Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies. There is accumulating evidence that tau aggregates spread and replicate in a prion-like manner, with the uptake of pathological tau seeds causing misfolding and aggregation of monomeric tau in recipient cells. Here, we focused on small extrace...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disorder and is the most common form of dementia. Minimally invasive approaches are required that combine biomarkers to identify individuals who are at risk of developing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, to appropriately target clinical trials for therapeutic discovery as well as lifestyle str...
Article
Full-text available
The administration of MPTP selectively targets the dopaminergic system resulting in Parkinsonism-like symptoms and is commonly used as a mice model of Parkinson's disease. We previously demonstrated that the neuroprotective compound Cu(II)(atsm) rescues nigral cell loss and improves dopamine metabolism in the MPTP model. The mechanism of action of...
Article
Full-text available
Growing evidence indicates that small extracellular vesicles, called exosomes, are prominent mediators of neurodegenerative diseases such as prion, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Exosomes contain neurodegenerative disease associated proteins such as the prion protein, β-amyloid and α-synuclein. Only demonstrated so far in vivo with prion dise...
Article
Full-text available
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles released by cells and play important roles in intercellular communication and pathogen transfer. Exosomes have been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, including prion disease and Alzheimer's disease. Prion disease arises upon misfolding of the normal cellular prion protein, PrP(C), into the d...
Article
Full-text available
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, are released by different cell types and participate in physiological and pathophysiological processes. EVs mediate intercellular communication as cell-derived extracellular signalling organelles that transmit specific information from their cell of origin to their target cells. As a...
Article
Polyglutamine (polyGln) expansions in nine human proteins result in neurological diseases and induce the proteins' tendency to form β-rich amyloid fibrils and intracellular deposits. Less well known are at least nine other human diseases caused by polyalanine (polyAla)-expansion mutations in different proteins. The mechanisms of how polyAla aggrega...
Article
Full-text available
Small non-coding RNAs have been significantly recognized as the key modulators in many biological processes, and are emerging as promising biomarkers for several diseases. These RNA species are transcribed in cells and can be packaged in extracellular vesicles, which are small vesicles released from many biotypes, and are involved in intercellular...
Article
Full-text available
The prion protein (PrPC) is a cell surface glycoprotein mainly expressed in neurons, whose misfolded isoforms generate the prion responsible for incurable neurodegenerative disorders. Whereas PrPC involvement in prion propagation is well established, PrPC physiological function is still enigmatic despite suggestions that it could act in cell signal...