Andrew K. Heidinger

Andrew K. Heidinger
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA · National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service

PhD

About

184
Publications
21,265
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6,781
Citations
Citations since 2016
19 Research Items
3693 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500

Publications

Publications (184)
Article
The detection of multilayer clouds in the atmosphere can be particularly challenging from passive visible and infrared imaging radiometers since cloud boundary information is limited primarily to the topmost cloud layer. Yet detection of low clouds in the atmosphere is important for a number of applications, including aviation nowcasting and genera...
Article
Modern polar-orbiting meteorological satellites provide both imaging and sounding observations simultaneously. Most imagers, however, do not have H 2 O and CO 2 absorption bands and therefore struggle to accurately estimate the height of optically thin cirrus clouds. Sounders provide these needed observations, but at a spatial resolution that is to...
Article
Full-text available
Satellite meteorology is a relatively new branch of the atmospheric sciences. The field emerged in the late 1950s during the Cold War and built on the advances in rocketry after World War II. In less than 70 years, satellite observations have transformed the way scientists observe and study Earth. This paper discusses some of the key advances in ou...
Article
Full-text available
Inland waters are warming at highly variable rates that often differ from regional air temperature trends. This variable warming is partially attributable to an individual lake’s geographical and morphological characteristics. In very large lakes, significant intralake variability in long-term warming trends has also been observed. In light of this...
Chapter
Imagers flown on the global constellation of meteorological satellites are providing more and more quantitative information that is being used to assess the state of the atmosphere and forecast its evolution. This article highlights current progress in deriving quantitative cloud products from the visible, near-infrared, and infrared observations o...
Article
Full-text available
Long-term (1981-2011) satellite climate data records (CDRs) of clouds and aerosols are used to investigate the aerosol-cloud interaction of marine water cloud from a climatology perspective. Our focus is on identifying the regimes and regions where the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) are evident in long-term averages over the global oceans through an...
Article
Full-text available
Ch 7. Regional Climates: f. Europe and the Middle East
Article
The operational VIIRS cloud-base height (CBH) product from the Suomi-National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite is compared against observations of CBH from the cloud profiling radar (CPR) on board CloudSat. Because of the orbits of SNPP and CloudSat, these instruments provide nearly simultaneous observations of the same locations on Eart...
Article
Knowledge of cloud-base height (CBH) is important to describe cloud radiative feedbacks in numerical models and is of practical relevance to the aviation community. Whereas satellite remote sensing with passive radiometers traditionally has provided a ready means for estimating cloud-top height (CTH) and cloud water path (CWP), assignment of CBH re...
Article
Full-text available
Formerly known as the Cloud Retrieval Evaluation Workshop (CREW; see the list of acronyms used in this paper below) group (Roebeling et al. 2013, 2015), the International Cloud Working Group (ICWG) was created and endorsed during the 42nd Meeting of CGMS. The CGMS-ICWG provides a forum for space agencies to seek coherent progress in science and app...
Article
In this paper, we used cloud imagery from a NASA field experiment in conjunction with three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations to show that cloud spatial structure manifests itself as a spectral signature in shortwave irradiance fields – specifically in transmittance and net horizontal photon transport in the visible and near-ultraviolet w...
Article
Full-text available
The SAAWSO (Satellite Applications for Arctic Weather and SAR (Search And Rescue) Operations) field programs were conducted by Environment Canada near St. Johns, NL and Goose Bay, NL in the winters of 2012–13 and 2013–14, respectively. The goals of these programs were to validate satellite-based nowcasting products, including snow amount, wind inte...
Article
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An important component of the AVHRR PATMOS-x climate date record (CDR)-or any satellite cloud climatology-is the performance of its cloud detection scheme and the subsequent quality of its cloud fraction CDR. PATMOS-x employs the NOAA Enterprise Cloud Mask for this, which is based on a naïve Bayesian approach. The goal of this paper is to generate...
Article
Full-text available
Continuous satellite-derived cloud records now extend over three decades, and are increasingly used for climate applications. Certain applications, such as trend detection, require a clear understanding of uncertainty as it relates to establishing statistical significance. The use of reanalysis products as sources of ancillary data could be constru...
Article
Full-text available
Despite its importance as one of the key radiative properties that determines the impact of upper tropospheric clouds on the radiation balance, ice cloud optical thickness (IOT) has proven to be one of the more challenging properties to retrieve from space-based remote sensing measurements. In particular, optically thin upper tropospheric ice cloud...
Article
Full-text available
Satellite aerosol and cloud climate data records (CDRs) have been used successfully to study the aerosol indirect effect (AIE). Data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) now span more than 30 years and allow these studies to be conducted from a climatology perspective. In this paper, AVHRR data are used to study the AIE on wate...
Article
Full-text available
We found that cloud spatial structure manifests itself as spectral signature in shortwave irradiance fields – specifically in transmittance and net horizontal photon transport in the visible and near-ultraviolet wavelength range. In this paper, we demonstrate this through radiative transfer calculations with cloud imagery from a field experiment, a...
Article
Full-text available
Despite its importance as one of the key radiative properties that determines the impact of upper tropospheric clouds on the radiation balance, ice cloud optical thickness (IOT) has proven to be one of the more challenging properties to retrieve from space-based remote sensing measurements. In particular, optically thin upper tropospheric ice cloud...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a technique to generate cirrus optical depth and particle effective size estimates from the cloud emissivities at 8.5, 11 and 12 μm contained in the Collection-6 (C6) MYD06 cloud product. This technique employs the latest scattering models and scattering radiative transfer approximations to estimate cloud optical depth and parti...
Article
Blooms of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi were detected around the world from 1982 through 2006 using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) remote sensing reflectances. The annually averaged surface area of these blooms has decreased over the past 25 years in regions where E. huxleyi blooms are most prevalent - the Bering Sea, the...
Article
Full-text available
Variability and trends in total cloud cover for 1982-2009 across the contiguous United States from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres-Extended (PATMOS-x), and EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring Clouds, Albedo and Radiation from AVHRR Data Edition 1 (CLARA-A1) satell...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of this document is to describe the algorithm used to create the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) Climate Data Record (CDR) from 1982 to the present. APP uses the observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard the NOAA polar orbiting satellites. APP is a fundamental climate data record (FCDR). Its purpose is...
Article
Tornadoes in the Southeast and Central U.S. are episodically accompanied by smoke from biomass burning in Central America. Analysis of the 27 April 2011 historical tornado outbreak shows that adding smoke to an environment already conducive to severe thunderstorm development can increase the likelihood of significant tornado occurrence. Numerical e...
Conference Paper
The difficulty of modeling and observing cloud processes continue to stymie efforts at tracking and projecting cloud behavior in a changing climate. While robust determination of the global cloud feedback remains elusive, the ~30-year radiance record from High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounders (HIRS) and the corresponding visible imagery datab...
Article
Full-text available
The Fourth Cloud Retrieval Evaluation Workshop (CREW-4) was held in Germany in March 2014. The workshop was attended by about 70 participants from various universities, research institutes, and satellite agencies in Asia, Europe, and the United States. The session 'Cloud parameter retrieval methods' reported on updates made to existing operational...
Article
Full-text available
The role of clouds remains the largest uncertainty in climate projections. They influence solar and thermal radiative transfer and the earth's water cycle. Therefore, there is an urgent need for accurate cloud observations to validate climate models and to monitor climate change. Passive satellite imagers measuring radiation at visible to thermal i...
Article
Full-text available
A unique high-temporal-resolution datasets, collected from a current geostationary imager, that are being used to highlight future geostationary imager capabilities and are used as part of a Proving Ground project is discussed. The GOES-14 imager was operated in an experimental rapid scan 1-min mode during parts of the summer in 2012 and 2013. Thes...
Article
The emergence of satellite-based cloud records of climate length and quality hold tremendous potential for climate model development, climate monitoring, and studies on global water cycling and its subsequent energetics. This article examines the more than 30-yr Pathfinder Atmospheres-Extended (PATMOS-x) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AV...
Article
Full-text available
The role of clouds remains the largest uncertainty in climate projections. They influence solar and thermal radiative transfer and the earth's water cycle. Therefore, there is an urgent need for accurate cloud observations to validate climate models and to monitor climate change. Passive satellite imagers measuring radiation at visible to thermal i...
Article
Full-text available
Binary cloud masks generated from the manual interpretation of imagery serve as one source of truth data in the evaluation of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) cloud mask (VCM) algorithm in the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Calibration/Validation (CalVal) Program of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Th...
Article
Meteorological clouds often exist in the liquid phase at temperatures below 0˚C. Traditionally, satellite-derived information on cloud phase comes from narrow bands in the shortwave- and thermal-infrared, with sensitivity biased strongly toward cloud top. In situ observations suggest an abundance of clouds having supercooled liquid water at their t...
Article
The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Pathfinder Atmospheres-Extended (PATMOS-x) dataset offers over three decades of global observations from the NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) project and the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) [Meteorological Operationa...
Article
[1] The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Mask (VCM) determines, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, whether or not a given location contains cloud. The VCM serves as an Intermediate Product (IP) between the production of VIIRS Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and 22 downstream Environmental Data Records (EDRs) that each depend upon the VCM o...
Chapter
For the distant past, our observational record of climate change in North America is based on paleoclimatic proxy data, as discussed in Chap. 1. For the last 150 years or so, systematic, continuous instrumental measurements at weather stations have been the primary source of the climate record, as reviewed in Chap. 2. For the last four decades, obs...
Conference Paper
Lake effect snow (LES) commonly occurs in the Great Lakes region and can be a prolific snowfall and hazardous weather producer, yet the NEXRAD network often does not effectively observe LES since the lowest radar elevation angles can overshoot shallow LES structures. In an effort to mitigate these NEXRAD observational shortcomings for LES events, w...
Article
The Day/Night Band channel of the VIIRS instrument onboard Soumi NPP is a visible/near-infrared sensor (500-900 nm band pass) capable of measuring extremely low magnitudes of light, down to the levels of reflected moonlight and beyond. Whereas similar measurement capabilities have existed on predecessor sensors (principally, the Defense Meteorologi...
Article
Because of spectral shifts from instrument to instrument in the operational NOAA satellite imager longwave infrared channels, the NOAA/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) has developed a single-channel land surface temperature (LST) algorithm based on the observed 11-m radiances, numerical weather prediction dat...
Article
Full-text available
Daytime measurements of reflected sunlight in the visible spectrum have been a staple of Earth-viewing radiometers since the advent of the environmental satellite platform. At night, these same optical-spectrum sensors have traditionally been limited to thermal infrared emission, which contains relatively poor information content for many important...
Article
Full-text available
Thirty-one years of imager data from polar orbiting satellites are composited to produce a satellite climate data set of cloud amount for the Great Lakes region. A trend analysis indicates a slight decreasing trend in cloud cover over the region during this time period. The trend is significant and largest (similar to 2% per decade) over the water...
Article
Geostationary satellites [e.g., the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)] provide high temporal resolution of cloud development and motion, which is essential to the study of many mesoscale phenomena, including thunderstorms. Initial research on thunderstorm growth with geostationary imagery focused on the mature stages of storm...
Article
[1] Accurate cloud top height retrievals from hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounder radiances are needed for weather and climate prediction. To account for the nonlinearity of the cloud parameters with respect to the IR radiances, a one-dimensional variational retrieval algorithm is used to derive the cloud top heights (CTHs) from the Atmospheric Inf...
Article
Full-text available
For the first time in serveral years, the El Nino-Southern Oscillation did not dominate regional climate conditions around the globe. A weak La Ni a dissipated to ENSOneutral conditions by spring, and while El Nino appeared to be emerging during summer, this phase never fully developed as sea surface temperatures in the eastern conditions. Neverthe...
Article
Full-text available
The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Radiation Panel initiated the GEWEX Cloud Assessment in 2005 to compare available, global, long-term cloud data products with the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). The GEWEX Cloud Assessment database included cloud properties retrieved from different satellite sensor meas...
Article
Subpixel cloud contamination is one of the major issues plaguing passive satellite aerosol remote sensing. Its impact on the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrieval has been analyzed/evaluated by many studies. However, the question of how it influences the AOT trend remains to be answered. In this paper, four long-term advanced very high resoluti...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the development of an ice cloud radiance simulator for the anticipated Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) solar channels. The simulator is based on the discrete ordinates radiative transfer (DISORT) model. A set of correlated k-distribution (CKD) models is developed for t...
Article
Full-text available
A computationally efficient high-spectral-resolution cloudy-sky radiative transfer model (HRTM) in the thermal infrared region (700-1300 cm-1, 0.1 cm-1 spectral resolution) is advanced for simulating the upwelling radiance at the top of atmosphere and for retrieving cloud properties. A precomputed transmittance database is generated for simulating...
Article
[1] A fully automated, globally applicable algorithm to retrieve ash and dust cloud properties from infrared satellite measurements is presented. The algorithm, which will serve as the official operational algorithm of the next generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R), utilizes an optimal estimation framework that allow...
Article
Satellite drift is a historical issue affecting the consistency of those few satellite records capable of being used for studies on climate time scales. Here, the authors address this issue for the Pathfinder Atmospheres Extended (PATMOS-x)/Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) cloudiness record, which spans three decades and 11 disparat...
Article
Full-text available
We describe an algorithm for creating a virtual, statistically estimated 13.3-ìm band for the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), an instrument aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) operational satellite, Suomi NPP. VIIRS does not have a 13.3-ìm band, although this band has important applications such...
Article
Full-text available
To overcome the complexities associated with combining or comparing multi-sensor data, a statistical gridding algorithm is introduced for projecting data from their unique instrument domain to a uniform space–time domain. The algorithm has two components: 1) a spatial gridding phase in which geophysical properties are filtered on the basis of a set...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Online presentation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZvzgZulauE0 Presentation file: http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/news/articles/2109