Andrew Harrison

Andrew Harrison
University of Limerick | UL · Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences

PhD

About

247
Publications
201,799
Reads
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3,395
Citations
Citations since 2016
116 Research Items
2332 Citations
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Introduction
Drew is an Associate Professor in the Physical Education & Sport Sciences Department at UL and served as Department Head from 2006 to 2012. He established and co-directs the Biomechanics Research Unit at UL. He was President of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sport 2011-2014 and received the ISBS Geoffrey Dyson Award in 2014. He has authored or co-authored over 120 peer-reviewed papers, 5 book chapters, one edited book and presented several international keynote presentations.
Additional affiliations
April 2021 - present
University of Limerick
Position
  • Managing Director
September 2006 - September 2012
University of Limerick
Position
  • Head of Department
June 2006 - December 2013
University of Limerick
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
September 2007 - June 2008
Loughborough University
Field of study
  • Athletics Coaching (IAAF Elite Coach)
September 1992 - September 1997
University of Salford
Field of study
  • Biomechanics
September 1983 - July 1986
University of Strathclyde
Field of study
  • Biomechanics

Publications

Publications (247)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The response time (RT) in the sprint start in athletics is determined automatically from sensors on the blocks but the final decision on whether an athlete is disqualified is determined by visual inspection of the sensor data. This study explored the level of uncertainty of the visual detection of athletes' RT in the sprint start. Fifteen sprinters...
Article
Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to identify prospectively measured ankle sprain risk factors in field-based team contact sports. Methods: Eight databases including SPORTDiscus, CINAHL Complete, MEDLINE (EBSCO), Education Source, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase and Pubmed were searched using specific Boolean terms. A modified-CASP...
Conference Paper
Background Rugby participation rates are rising, particularly in the female game where a 60% increase in player numbers was observed from 2013 to 2017. Despite the recent growth, the female amateur game is lacking comprehensive long-term injury surveillance. Objective To compare injuries in male and female amateur Rugby Union. Design Prospective...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tendon stiffness (KT) is a widely examined musculoskeletal measure due to its reported links with muscle-tendon unit performance and as a potential injury risk factor. This study examined the influence of ankle joint angle (θANK) on KT and the inter-day reliability of KT across θANK. KT was measured during maximal voluntary plantarflexion contracti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study examined differences in explosive muscular torque production of the plantar flexors of participants with differing training backgrounds. Explosive performance of a group of elite sprinters (n = 14) and physically active individuals (n = 14) were examined during explosive and maximal isometric contractions across different muscle-tendon u...
Article
Full-text available
Background The shoulder has been reported as a frequent location of injury in adult professional and amateur rugby, with match injury incidence rates ranging from 1.8 to 3 per 1000 player-hours (h). An increased understanding of the incidence and mechanism of shoulder injuries in school rugby players is vital to establish effective injury preventiv...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate identification of surface electromyography (EMG) muscle onset is vital when examining short temporal parameters such as electromechanical delay. The visual method is considered the 'gold-standard' in onset detection. Automatic detection methods are commonly employed to increase objectivity and reduce analysis time, but it is unclear if the...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Rugby union is a physically demanding sport that carries an inherent risk of injury. Despite being a popular and widely played team sport, little is known about injuries occurring across the male and female amateur game. Purpose: To establish and compare injury incidence, nature, and severity in male and female Irish amateur rugby un...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the effects of plyometric training and combined training programs on vertical jump kinematics and kinetics of female basketball players. Thirty-six female basketball players were included in the study and further divided into three groups: plyometric training, n = 11; combined training n =13; and...
Article
Full-text available
The sprint start in athletics is strictly controlled to ensure the fairness of competition. World athletics (WA)-certified start information systems (SIS) record athletes’ response times in competition to ensure that no athletes gain an unfair advantage by responding in < 100 ms after the start signal. This critical review examines the legitimacy o...
Technical Report
Full-text available
ForewordComprehensive injury surveillance systems in amateur Rugby Union are needed to enhance player welfare and this innovative project to date has involved the research, design and implementation of an online injury recording platform. Collection has now been completed of a third season’s data and this 2019/20 season report documents our collabo...
Technical Report
Full-text available
ForewordComprehensive injury surveillance systems in underage Rugby Union are needed to enhance player welfare and this innovative project to date has involved the research, design and implementation of an online injury recording platform. Collection has now been completed of the season’s data and this second schools’ 2019/20 season report document...
Article
Principal components analysis (PCA) of waveforms and functional PCA (fPCA) are statistical approaches used to explore patterns of variability in biomechanical curve data, with fPCA being an accepted statistical method grounded within the functional data analysis (FDA) statistical framework. This technical note demonstrates that PCA of waveforms is...
Article
Background: Irish school children have demonstrated poor proficiency in fundamental movement skills (FMS) and consistent with international literature, females and overweight children tend to be less skilled than males and non-overweight children. Interventions that are suitable for children of all abilities and which provide long-term improvements...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is an opportunity for sports medicine to progress research ideation using synthetic datasets, maintaining research momentum when data collection is not feasible. These processes maximise the potential for application of open science practice, while retaining the commitment to privacy and ethics. Synthetic data could lead to more sustainable u...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study aimed at comparing a prototype of a new Start Information System (SIS) with a World Athletics (WA) certified SIS which was used in competition. Twenty sprinters performed sprints under simulated race conditions. Response time (RT) was recorded by the WA certified SIS and the new SIS prototype based on a custom force plate and a new event...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Electromechanical delay (EMD) is an important determinant of explosive neuromuscular performance. Factors such as muscle contraction type and initial muscle-tendon unit (MTU) length influence this delay period. The aim of this study is to compare differences in EMD from plantar flexors across different contraction modes and MTU lengths. EMD of phys...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The hurdle jump is a commonly prescribed plyometric exercise for sprint athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the lower body kinematic differences between maximal velocity sprinting and hurdle jumps performed over a range hurdle heights. Six competitive male sprinters performed maximum effort sprints over 50 m and hurdle jumps over 0.60...
Article
Full-text available
Editorial - free online access at https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2020.1782555
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study compares sprint start response times (RT) derived from load cells in the blocks with a RT from rail mounted accelerometer using methods similar to World Athletics (WA) approved start information systems (SIS). Seven national and international sprinters completed sprint trials that replicated race competition start procedures. Load cells...
Article
Despite the importance of balance in Acrobatic Gymnastic Pyramid performance, there is limited biomechanical analysis of balance during this activity. The aims of this study were to analyse the effect of pyramid difficulty on the centre of pressure (COP) excursion and its inter-trial variability, and determine which parameters had strongest relatio...
Thesis
Full-text available
Swimming performance requires a whole body coordinated movement to elicit high propulsive forces with the majority of forces produced from the upper body musculature. The current academic literature highlights a range of dry-land resistance exercises that show moderate to strong correlations to swimming performance; however, association does not im...
Article
Objectives To ascertain the extent of injury surveillance and prevention practices currently in operation and the availability of medical personnel across Rugby playing schools in the Republic of Ireland. Design Cross-sectional survey design. Setting Rugby playing schools across Ireland. Participants The Rugby games master, head Rugby coach or t...
Article
Full-text available
Research examining the reliability of stiffness measures during hopping has shown strong consistency in leg-spring stiffness (kleg), but high variability in joint stiffness (kjoint) measures. Sled-based systems (SBS) reduce movement degrees-of-freedom and are used to examine stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function under controlled conditions. The a...
Article
Full-text available
Motor simulation (MS) interventions incorporating motor imagery (MI), and more recently action observation (AO), are readily accepted as effective interventions to enhance motor skill performance. Existing models in the MS literature fail to consider the entire spectrum of MS interventions, focusing on MI or AO alone. This paper examines the theore...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Dynamic movement-based screens, such as the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), are becoming more widely used in research and practical settings. Currently, 3 studies have examined the reliability of the LESS. These studies have reported good interrater and intrarater reliability. However, all 3 studies involved raters, who were founders...
Article
In the sprint start, a defined sequence of distinct response delays occurs before the athlete produces a movement response. Excitation of lower limb muscles occurs prior to force production against the blocks, culminating in a movement response. The time delay between muscle excitation and movement, electromechanical delay (EMD), is considered to i...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study aimed to determine the accuracy of a 4 split time modelling method to generate velocity-time and velocity-distance variables in elite male 100-m sprinters and subsequently to assess the roles of key sprint parameters with respect to 100-m sprint performance. Additionally, this study aimed to assess the differences between faster...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Irish Rugby Injury Surveillance (IRIS) project involves research stemming from ongoing sports performance, injury prevention and psychological preparation work by University of Limerick academics across a range of sports, as well as our specific expertise in Rugby Union. It has effectively brought together academics with expert practitioner exp...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Irish Rugby Injury Surveillance (IRIS) project involves research stemming from ongoing sports performance, injury prevention and psychological preparation work by University of Limerick academics across a range of sports, as well as our specific expertise in Rugby Union. It has effectively brought together academics with expert practitioner exp...
Article
Objectives: To investigate factors associated with injury in amateur male and female rugby union players. Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Amateur rugby clubs in Ireland. Participants: Male (n = 113) and female (n = 24) amateur rugby union players from 5 of the top 58 amateur clubs in Ireland. Main outcome measures: Pre-season...
Article
Everard, E, Lyons, M, and Harrison, AJ. An examination of the relationship between the functional movement screen, landing error scoring system and 3D kinematic data during a drop jump task. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Tests such as the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) have become an established...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The studies aim was to assess the specificity of dry-land resistance training exercises (RT) to front crawl swimming (FC) using electromyography (EMG) waveform analysis. Fourteen male international and national level swimmers were recruited. EMG data were collected during FC and bench press (BP) and pull up (PU) exercises. 3 x 35 m FC bouts and 3 x...
Poster
Full-text available
PURPOSE Specificity is an integral component in understanding the mechanism of transfer of dry-land resistance training exercises (RT) to front crawl swimming (FC). The specificity of intra and inter muscular coordination is deemed to be important, with neuromuscular adaptations at the forefront namely motor unit recruitment, synchronisation and co...
Article
Full-text available
There is an inherent risk of injury in Rugby, due to the physical demands and exposure to collisions. While injuries in the professional Rugby game are widely reported, little is known about the amateur game. Investigating relationships between physical and wellness screening measures may identify injury causal factors and aid the development of ta...
Article
PURPOSE: Despite recent growth in game popularity worldwide, Women’s Rugby Union is currently lacking rigorous, comprehensive injury surveillance programs (World Rugby). This long-term study aimed to monitor injury trends, that may emerge, which will aid future implementation of evidence-based injury prevention strategies to minimize injury risk an...
Article
Background: Rugby union is a physically demanding, full-contact team sport that has grown in popularity. In order to reduce injury risk a full understanding of the incidence and nature of injuries is required. Injury surveillance systems are lacking in the amateur rugby game worldwide. The use of consistent injury definitions and methods of data c...
Article
Rugby Union is one of the most played and watched team sports worldwide. Despite high injury incidence rates widely reported in the literature, no long-term injury surveillance system monitoring of the incidence of injury in both male and female amateur Rugby currently exists. Unlike the professional code, amateur cohorts often have limited resourc...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of speed on coordination and its variability in running gait using vector coding analysis. Lower extremity kinematic data were collected for thirteen recreational runners while running at three different speeds in random order: preferred speed, 15% faster and 15% lower than preferred speed. A dyna...
Article
Background: Rugby Union is one of the world’s most popular team sports and school Rugby in particular, has increased in popularity and professionalism in recent times. Due to the physical nature of the sport, evaluating injury risk in school players is paramount to player welfare and safety. Although comprehensive injury surveillance practices have...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This investigation examined the relationships between the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), isometric squat (ISqT) and sprint acceleration performance in track & field sprinters, and to determine whether there are differences between males and females. Methods Fifteen male and ten female sprinters performed 3 maximal effort IMTPs, ISqTs and...
Article
Full-text available
Furlong, L-AM, Harrison, AJ, and Jensen, RL. Measures of strength and jump performance can predict 30-m sprint time in Rugby Union players. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2579-2583, 2021-Performance and fitness monitoring in Rugby Union often include jumping, sprinting, and strength tests, but repeatability of and relationships between these measures a...
Article
This study examined the kinetic and temporal differences between countermovement jumps (CMJs) and eccentrically loaded CMJs. A survey of 109 coaches and athlete showed that 87% of respondents regularly used jumps with added mass within training. Sixteen male and thirteen female track and field athletes from sprinting, hurdling and jumping events pe...
Article
This study describes the results of a survey of resistance training practices of sprint coaches. This study investigated why sprint coaches prescribe resistance training to their athletes, what exercises they select, and what factors are involved with their selection. Forty-one of 73 (56%) sprint coaches with mean ± SD coaching experience of 8.4 ±...
Poster
Full-text available
Rugby-related injuries are widely reported in professional teams, however little is currently known about the amateur game, and even less so in women’s Rugby. Despite its growing popularity in Ireland, no long-term prospective injury surveillance system currently exists in Irish amateur Rugby. Aim To establish the incidence, nature and severity of...
Article
This study examined fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency among male (N = 216) and female (N = 198) Irish primary school pupils from Year 2 to Year 7 (9.0 ± 1.7 years). Following anthropometric measurements, participants were video-recorded performing 15 FMS and scored using the TGMD-3, Victorian Fundamental Movement skills Manual and the Ge...
Article
Objectives: To describe the development, implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive injury surveillance system. Design: The four phases; i) A survey of 58 medical professionals working in amateur rugby. ii) The design of a web-based injury surveillance system (IRISweb). iii) Recruitment of 21 of the top 58 amateur clubs to use IRISweb....
Article
Full-text available
Simulation studies show that jump performance can be improved by increasing the depth of countermovement. The purpose of this study was to determine how modifications to the depth of countermovement lead to changes in jump height and the biomechanical parameters related to center of mass displacement and force application. Twenty-nine competitive m...
Poster
Full-text available
Results of a pilot investigation highlighting the differences in FMS proficiency between males and females and between overweight and non-overweight Irish schoolchildren
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study examined the delay in sprint start performance related to electromechanical delay (EMD) in the triceps surae muscle and aimed to determine whether sprinters may gain an advantage in sprint start response time (SSRT). SSRT's of nineteen sprinters were measured using an International Association of Athletics Federations approved SSRT detec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study aimed to provide a method comparison of a rail mounted accelerometer for detection of block response-times (RT) with an International Association of Athletic Federation (IAAF) approved automatic start control system (IAAF RT). Twenty national and international sprinters completed sprint trials under simulated race conditions. An accelero...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Irish Rugby Injury Surveillance (IRIS) project involves research stemming from ongoing sports performance, injury prevention and psychological preparation work by University of Limerick academics across a range of sports, as well as our specific expertise in Rugby Union. It has effectively brought together academics with expert practitioner exp...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of training on the force-, velocity-, and displacement-time curves using principal component analysis (PCA) to examine the pre to post intervention changes. Thirty-four trained women basketball players were randomly divided into training and control groups. The training intervention consisted o...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The primary aim was to assess the relationships between reactive strength measures and associated kinematic and kinetic performance variables achieved during drop jumps. A secondary aim was to highlight issues with the use of reactive strength measures as performance indicators. Methods: Twenty eight national and international level spr...
Poster
Full-text available
Purpose: The aims of this study were to examine the prescription of dry-land resistance training (RT) modalities and exercises among elite swimming S&C coaches and explore coach’s rationale and justification for prescribing dry-land RT modalities and dry-land exercises. Methods: Coaches completed an online questionnaire consisting of seven sections...
Article
Full-text available
Healy, R, Smyth, C, Kenny, IC, and Harrison, AJ. Influence of reactive and maximum strength indicators on sprint performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The primary aim of this study was to assess the relationship between reactive and maximal strength measures with 40 m sprint performance and mechanical properties. Fourteen male and 1...
Article
Objectives: To ascertain current injury surveillance and player education practices in Irish amateur rugby union. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Amateur rugby clubs in Ireland. Participants: Medical professionals and rugby coaches of the top 58 amateur rugby clubs in Ireland. Main outcome measures: The survey investigated the cur...