Andrew Carroll

Andrew Carroll
Google Inc. | Google · Google AI

PhD

About

75
Publications
35,672
Reads
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6,847
Citations
Citations since 2017
41 Research Items
5005 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
Additional affiliations
September 2018 - present
Google
Position
  • Product Lead
April 2012 - September 2018
DNAnexus
Position
  • VP, Science
June 2011 - March 2012
Joint BioEnergy Institute
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (75)
Preprint
Full-text available
Platform-dependent sequencing errors must be understood to develop accurate sequencing technologies. We propose a new tool, best (Bam Error Stats Tool), for efficiently quantifying and summarizing error types in sequenced reads. best ingests reads aligned to a high-quality reference assembly and produces per-read metrics, summary statistics, and st...
Article
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Background The cancer genome is commonly altered with thousands of structural rearrangements including insertions, deletions, translocation, inversions, duplications, and copy number variations. Thus, structural variant (SV) characterization plays a paramount role in cancer target identification, oncology diagnostics, and personalized medicine. As...
Preprint
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Accurate genome sequencing can improve our understanding of biology and the genetic basis of disease. The standard approach for generating DNA sequences from PacBio instruments relies on HMM-based models. Here, we introduce Distilled DeepConsensus - a distilled transformer-encoder model for sequence correction, which improves upon the HMM-based met...
Preprint
RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) can be applied to diverse tasks including quantifying gene expression, discovering quantitative trait loci, and identifying gene fusion events. Although RNA-seq can detect germline variants, the complexities of variable transcript abundance, target capture, and amplification introduce challenging sources of error. Here, we...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the third leading cause of death worldwide, is highly heritable. While COPD is clinically defined by applying thresholds to summary measures of lung function, a quantitative liability score has more power to identify new genetic signals. Here we train a deep convolutional neural network on noisy self-re...
Article
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Circular consensus sequencing with Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) technology generates long (10–25 kilobases), accurate ‘HiFi’ reads by combining serial observations of a DNA molecule into a consensus sequence. The standard approach to consensus generation, pbccs, uses a hidden Markov model. We introduce DeepConsensus, which uses an alignment-based l...
Article
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Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can identify variants that cause genetic disease, but the time required for sequencing and analysis has been a barrier to its use in acutely ill patients. In the present study, we develop an approach for ultra-rapid nanopore WGS that combines an optimized sample preparation protocol, distributing sequencing over 48 flo...
Article
Full-text available
The precisionFDA Truth Challenge V2 aimed to assess the state of the art of variant calling in challenging genomic regions. Starting with FASTQs, 20 challenge participants applied their variant-calling pipelines and submitted 64 variant call sets for one or more sequencing technologies (Illumina, PacBio HiFi, and Oxford Nanopore Technologies). Subm...
Article
Methods that use a linear genome reference for genome sequencing data analysis are reference-biased. In the field of clinical genetics for rare diseases, a resulting reduction in genotyping accuracy in some regions has likely prevented the resolution of some cases. Pangenome graphs embed population variation into a reference structure. Although pan...
Article
Full-text available
Genome in a Bottle benchmarks are widely used to help validate clinical sequencing pipelines and develop variant calling and sequencing methods. Here we use accurate linked and long reads to expand benchmarks in 7 samples to include difficult-to-map regions and segmental duplications that are challenging for short reads. These benchmarks add more t...
Article
Because a genetic diagnosis can guide clinical management and improve prognosis in critically ill patients, much effort has gone into developing methods that result in rapid, reliable results. The authors describe extremely rapid sequencing and analysis of the genomes of 12 patients, 5 of whom received a diagnosis.
Article
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) examine the association between genotype and phenotype while adjusting for a set of covariates. Although the covariates may have non-linear or interactive effects, due to the challenge of specifying the model, GWAS often neglect such terms. Here we introduce DeepNull, a method that identifies and adjusts for...
Article
Full-text available
Background Genomic structural variations (SV) are important determinants of genotypic and phenotypic changes in many organisms. However, the detection of SV from next-generation sequencing data remains challenging. Results In this study, DNA from a Chinese family quartet is sequenced at three different sequencing centers in triplicate. A total of...
Article
Giraffe pangenomes Genomes within a species often have a core, conserved component, as well as a variable set of genetic material among individuals or populations that is referred to as a “pangenome.” Inference of the relationships between pangenomes sequenced with short-read technology is often done computationally by mapping the sequences to a re...
Article
Full-text available
There is currently a dearth of accessible whole genome sequencing (WGS) data for individuals residing in the Americas with Sub-Saharan African ancestry. We generated whole genome sequencing data at intermediate (15×) coverage for 2,294 individuals with large amounts of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, predominantly Atlantic African admixed with varyin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Methods that use a linear genome reference for genome sequencing data analysis are reference biased. In the field of clinical genetics for rare diseases, a resulting reduction in genotyping accuracy in some regions has likely prevented the resolution of some cases. Pangenome graphs embed population variation into a reference structure. While pangen...
Article
Full-text available
Long-read sequencing has the potential to transform variant detection by reaching currently difficult-to-map regions and routinely linking together adjacent variations to enable read-based phasing. Third-generation nanopore sequence data have demonstrated a long read length, but current interpretation methods for their novel pore-based signal have...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pacific BioScience (PacBio) circular consensus sequencing (CCS) generates long (10-25 kb), accurate "HiFi" reads by combining serial observations of a DNA molecule into a consensus sequence. The standard approach to consensus generation uses a hidden Markov model (pbccs). Here, we introduce DeepConsensus, which uses a unique alignment-based loss to...
Article
Full-text available
Genomic medicine holds great promise for improving health care, but integrating searchable and actionable genetic data into electronic health records (EHRs) remains a challenge. Here we describe Neptune, a system for managing the interaction between a clinical laboratory and an EHR system during the clinical reporting process. We developed Neptune...
Article
Full-text available
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) require accurate cohort phenotyping, but expert labeling can be costly, time intensive, and variable. Here, we develop a machine learning (ML) model to predict glaucomatous optic nerve head features from color fundus photographs. We used the model to predict vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR), a diagnostic par...
Preprint
Full-text available
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are among the workhorses of statistical genetics, having detected thousands of variants associated with complex traits and diseases. A typical GWAS examines the association between genotypes and the phenotype of interest while adjusting for a set of covariates. While covariates potentially have non-linear effe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Every human inherits one copy of the genome from their mother and another from their father. Parental inheritance helps us understand the transmission of traits and genetic diseases, which often involve de novo variants and rare recessive alleles. Here we present DeepTrio, which learns to analyze child-mother-father trios from the joint sequence in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Long-read sequencing has the potential to transform variant detection by reaching currently difficult-to-map regions and routinely linking together adjacent variations to enable read based phasing. Third-generation nanopore sequence data has demonstrated a long read length, but current interpretation methods for its novel pore-based signal have uni...
Article
Full-text available
Haplotype-resolved or phased genome assembly provides a complete picture of genomes and their complex genetic variations. However, current algorithms for phased assembly either do not generate chromosome-scale phasing or require pedigree information, which limits their application. We present a method named diploid assembly (DipAsm) that uses long,...
Preprint
Large-scale population variant data is often used to filter and aid interpretation of variant calls in a single sample. These approaches do not incorporate population information directly into the process of variant calling, and are often limited to filtering which trades recall for precision. In this study, we modify DeepVariant to add a new chann...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation Population-scale sequenced cohorts are foundational resources for genetic analyses, but processing raw reads into analysis-ready cohort-level variants remains challenging. Results We introduce an open-source cohort-calling method that uses the highly-accurate caller DeepVariant and scalable merging tool GLnexus. Using callset quality me...
Article
Full-text available
Background Structural variants (SVs) are critical contributors to genetic diversity and genomic disease. To predict the phenotypic impact of SVs, there is a need for better estimates of both the occurrence and frequency of SVs, preferably from large, ethnically diverse cohorts. Thus, the current standard approach requires the use of short paired-en...
Preprint
Full-text available
Accurate standards and extensive development datasets are the foundation of technical progress. To facilitate benchmarking and development, we sequence 9 samples, covering the Genome in a Bottle truth sets on multiple instruments (NovaSeq, HiSeqX, HiSeq4000, PacBio Sequel II System) and sample preparations (PCR-Free, PCR-Positive) for both whole ge...
Preprint
Full-text available
We introduce Giraffe, a pangenome short read mapper that can efficiently map to a collection of haplotypes threaded through a sequence graph. Giraffe, part of the variation graph toolkit (vg) ¹ , maps reads to thousands of human genomes at around the same speed BWA-MEM ² maps reads to a single reference genome, while maintaining comparable accuracy...
Preprint
Full-text available
The precisionFDA Truth Challenge V2 aimed to assess the state-of-the-art of variant calling in difficult-to-map regions and the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Starting with FASTQ files, 20 challenge participants applied their variant calling pipelines and submitted 64 variant callsets for one or more sequencing technologies (~35X Illumina,...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
Most human genomes are characterized by aligning individual reads to the reference genome, but accurate long reads and linked reads now enable us to construct accurate, phased de novo assemblies. We focus on a medically important, highly variable, 5 million base-pair (bp) region where diploid assembly is particularly useful - the Major Histocompati...
Preprint
Full-text available
Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) benchmarks have been widely used to validate clinical sequencing pipelines and develop new variant calling and sequencing methods. Here we use accurate long and linked reads to expand the prior benchmark to include difficult-to-map regions and segmental duplications that are not readily accessible to short reads. Our new b...
Article
Full-text available
A high quality benchmark for small variants encompassing 88 to 90% of the reference genome has been developed for seven Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) reference samples. However a reliable benchmark for large indels and structural variants (SVs) is more challenging. In this study, we manually curated 1235 SVs, which can ultimately be used to evaluate SV...
Preprint
Full-text available
Haplotype-resolved or phased sequence assembly provides a complete picture of genomes and complex genetic variations. However, current phased assembly algorithms either fail to generate chromosome-scale phasing or require pedigree information, which limits their application. We present a method that leverages long accurate reads and long-range conf...
Article
Full-text available
The DNA sequencing technologies in use today produce either highly accurate short reads or less-accurate long reads. We report the optimization of circular consensus sequencing (CCS) to improve the accuracy of single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing (PacBio) and generate highly accurate (99.8%) long high-fidelity (HiFi) reads with an average le...
Preprint
Full-text available
New technologies and analysis methods are enabling genomic structural variants (SVs) to be detected with ever-increasing accuracy, resolution, and comprehensiveness. Translating these methods to routine research and clinical practice requires robust benchmark sets. We developed the first benchmark set for identification of both false negative and f...
Preprint
Full-text available
A high quality benchmark for small variants encompassing 88 to 90% of the reference genome has been developed for seven Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) reference samples. However a reliable benchmark for large indels and structural variants (SVs) is yet to be defined. In this study, we manually curated 1235 SVs which can ultimately be used to evaluate SV...
Preprint
Full-text available
The major DNA sequencing technologies in use today produce either highly-accurate short reads or noisy long reads. We developed a protocol based on single-molecule, circular consensus sequencing (CCS) to generate highly-accurate (99.8%) long reads averaging 13.5 kb and applied it to sequence the well-characterized human HG002/NA24385. We optimized...
Preprint
Full-text available
Here we present Parliament2: a structural variant caller which combines multiple best-in-class structural variant callers to create a highly accurate callset. This captures more events than the individual callers achieve independently. Parliament2 uses a call-overlap-genotype approach that is highly extensible to new methods and presents users the...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing volume of whole-genome sequence (WGS) and multi-omics data requires new approaches for analysis. As one solution, we have created the cloud-based Analysis Commons, which brings together genotype and phenotype data from multiple studies in a setting that is accessible by multiple investigators. This framework addresses many of the cha...
Article
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Background: The decreasing costs of sequencing are driving the need for cost effective and real time variant calling of whole genome sequencing data. The scale of these projects are far beyond the capacity of typical computing resources available with most research labs. Other infrastructures like the cloud AWS environment and supercomputers also...
Article
We report the sequence sof �244 human Y chromosomes randomly ascertained from 26 worldwide populations by the �1000 Genomes Project. We discovered more than 65,000 variants, including single-nucleotide variants, multiple-nucleotide variants, insertions and deletions, short tandem repeats, and copy number variants. Of these, copy number variants con...
Article
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The COBRA protein is found only in higher plants and algae, and has been implicated in cellulose synthesis, but its specific function remains unknown. To shed light on COBRA function we tested the ability of putative Arabidopsis COBRA orthologs to complement mutations in the COBRA gene. We expanded the previously published phylogenetic analysis and...
Article
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The COBRA protein is found only in higher plants and algae, and has been implicated in cellulose synthesis, but its specific function remains unknown. To shed light on COBRA function we tested the ability of putative Arabidopsis COBRA orthologs to complement mutations in the COBRA gene. We expanded the previously published phylogenetic analysis and...
Article
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The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-covera...
Article
DNA sequencing technologies continue to make progress in increased throughput and quality, and decreased cost. As we transition from whole exome capture sequencing to whole genome sequencing (WGS), our ability to convert machine-generated variant calls, including single nucleotide variant (SNV) and insertion-deletion variants (indels), into human-i...
Article
Full-text available
Population scale sequencing of whole human genomes is becoming economically feasible; however, data management and analysis remains a formidable challenge for many research groups. Large sequencing studies, like the 1000 Genomes Project, have improved our understanding of human demography and the effect of rare genetic variation in disease. Variant...
Article
Full-text available
Characterizing large genomic variants is essential to expanding the research and clinical applications of genome sequencing. While multiple data types and methods are available to detect these structural variants (SVs), they remain less characterized than smaller variants because of SV diversity, complexity, and size. These challenges are exacerbat...
Article
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Article
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Massively parallel DNA sequencing generates staggering amounts of data. Decreasing cost, increasing throughput, and improved annotation have expanded the diversity of genomics applications in research and clinical practice. This expanding scale creates analytical challenges: accommodating peak compute demand, coordinating secure access for multiple...
Article
Plant cell walls define cell shape during development and are composed of interlaced carbohydrate and protein networks. Fluorescent dyes have long been used to label plant cell walls, enabling optical microscopy-based interrogation of cell wall structure and composition. However, the specific cell wall components to which these dyes bind are often...
Article
The lotus genome (Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn.)) lacks the paleo-triplication found in other eudicots and has evolved remarkably slowly with fewer nucleotide mutations. It is thought to have greater retention of duplicated genes than other angiosperms. We evaluated the potential genes involved in cell wall synthesis and its modification, and ethylene...
Article
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Background: Sacred lotus is a basal eudicot with agricultural, medicinal, cultural and religious importance. It was domesticated in Asia about 7,000 years ago, and cultivated for its rhizomes and seeds as a food crop. It is particularly noted for its 1,300-year seed longevity and exceptional water repellency, known as the lotus effect. The latter...
Article
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Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide on Earth and represents an immense quantity of stored energy for biofuel production. Despite its importance, most of the enzymes that synthesize xylan have yet to be identified. Xylans have a backbone of β-1,4-linked xylose residues with substitutions that include α-(1→2)-linked glucuronosyl, 4-O-met...
Article
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In higher plants, cellulose is synthesized by so-called rosette protein complexes with cellulose synthases (CESAs) as catalytic subunits of the complex. The CESAs are divided into two distinct families, three of which are thought to be specialized for the primary cell wall and three for the secondary cell wall. In this article, the potential of pri...