Andrew C. Butler

Andrew C. Butler
Washington University in St. Louis | WUSTL , Wash U · Department of Education, Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences

PhD

About

41
Publications
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5,547
Citations

Publications

Publications (41)
Article
Cultural life scripts are composed of the events people expect to occur in the life of a “typical” person in their society. Building on this psychological construct from the field of autobiographical memory, we investigated the cultural career script, referring to the shared expectations individuals have about the typical career in their culture. T...
Article
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Learning strategies that create “desirable difficulties” by slowing or hindering improvement during learning often produce superior long-term retention and transfer (Bjork, 1994, Bjork, 1999). Despite the desirability of difficulties for learning, many learners choose not to use the learning strategies and/or disengage when they are implemented by...
Article
Recent memories are generally recalled from a first-person perspective whereas older memories are often recalled from a third-person perspective. We investigated how repeated retrieval affects the availability of visual information, and whether it could explain the observed shift in perspective with time. In Experiment 1, participants performed min...
Article
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The field of education contains a diversity of practices that are intended to facilitate learning (e.g., learning activities and pedagogical methods). Practitioners, administrators, and students also hold many beliefs about learning that guide their approach to education. Although some of thesepractices andbeliefsare supportedbyempirical findingsfr...
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We investigated the effect of Team-Based Learning (TBL) on long-term retention of knowledge in comparison to a traditional curriculum. As TBL was incorporated into our curriculum in the 2008-2009 academic year, students were compared with those who received the traditional curriculum the year prior. Students in both the groups completed multiple-ch...
Article
We measured the long-term retention of knowledge gained through selected American Academy of Neurology annual meeting courses and compared the effects of repeated quizzing (known as test-enhanced learning) and repeated studying on that retention. Participants were recruited from 4 annual meeting courses. All participants took a pretest. This random...
Article
Educators and researchers who study human learning often assume that feedback is most effective when given immediately. However, a growing body of research has challenged this assumption by demonstrating that delaying feedback can facilitate learning. Advocates for immediate feedback have questioned the generalizability of this finding, suggesting...
Article
The most effective educational interventions often face significant barriers to widespread implementation because they are highly specific, resource intense, and/or comprehensive. We argue for an alternative approach to improving education: leveraging technology and cognitive science to develop interventions that generalize, scale, and can be easil...
Article
The University of Texas at El Paso teamed with the "Signal Processing Education Network," (SPEN), which consists of academic, industry and professional community. SPEN, an NSFsponsored effort, is based on four technologies: Connexions, interactive simulation tools, Quadbase question/answer system and OpenStax Tutor. It seeks to develop materials th...
Conference Paper
Two open, online educational platforms, OpenStax Exercises and OpenStax Tutor, are working to revolutionize the way in which students learn concepts in diverse subject areas. Born and tested in the area of signal processing education, these tools bring to bear cutting-edge ideas in cognitive science and machine learning to automatically build perso...
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A collective memory is a representation of the past that is shared by members of a group. We investigated similarities and differences in the collective memories of younger and older adults for three major wars in U.S. history (the Civil War, World War II, and the Iraq War). Both groups were alive during the recent Iraq War, but only the older subj...
Article
Educators often encourage students to engage in active learning by generating explanations for the material being learned, a method called self-explanation. Studies have also demonstrated that repeated testing improves retention. However, no studies have directly compared the two learning methods. Forty-seven Year 1 medical students completed the s...
Article
Among the many factors that influence the efficacy of feedback on learning, the information contained in the feedback message is arguably the most important. One common assumption is that there is a benefit to increasing the complexity of the feedback message beyond providing the correct answer. Surprisingly, studies that have manipulated the conte...
Article
Fictional materials are commonly used in the classroom to teach course content. Both laboratory experiments and classroom demonstrations illustrate the benefits of using fiction to help students learn accurate information about the world. However, fictional sources often contain factually inaccurate content, making them a potent vehicle for learnin...
Article
History educators often use popular films in the classroom to teach critical thinking through an exercise that involves identifying historical inaccuracies in the films. We investigated how this exercise affects the acquisition of true and false historical knowledge. In two experiments, subjects studied texts about historical topics and watched cli...
Article
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People can acquire both true and false knowledge about the world from fictional stories. The present study explored whether the benefits and costs of learning about the world from fictional stories extend beyond memory for directly stated pieces of information. Of interest was whether readers would use correct and incorrect story references to make...
Article
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Previous research has shown that repeated retrieval with written tests produces superior long-term retention compared to repeated study. However, the degree to which this increased retention transfers to clinical application has not been investigated. In addition, increased retention obtained through written testing has not been compared to other f...
Article
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People's knowledge about the world often contains misconceptions that are well-learned and firmly believed. Although such misconceptions seem hard to correct, recent research has demonstrated that errors made with higher confidence are more likely to be corrected with feedback, a finding called the hypercorrection effect. We investigated whether th...
Article
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We explore 12 paradoxes of learning, memory and knowing in our chapter. These are mysteries in which subjective experience-what we think we know or remember-does not correspond to objective facts. In some cases, we hold false memories: we are utterly confident in our memories that events happened one way, but they did not. Another example is hindsi...
Article
Learning is usually thought to occur during episodes of studying, whereas retrieval of information on testing simply serves to assess what was learned. We review research that contradicts this traditional view by demonstrating that retrieval practice is actually a powerful mnemonic enhancer, often producing large gains in long-term retention relati...
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The present research investigated whether test-enhanced learning can be used to promote transfer. More specifically, 4 experiments examined how repeated testing and repeated studying affected retention and transfer of facts and concepts. Subjects studied prose passages and then either repeatedly restudied or took tests on the material. One week lat...
Article
Laboratory studies in cognitive psychology with relatively brief final recall intervals suggest that repeated retrieval in the form of tests may result in better retention of information compared with repeated study. Our study evaluates if repeated testing of material taught in a real-life educational setting (a didactic conference for paediatric a...
Article
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Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada (2007) reported a series of experiments in which processing unrelated words in terms of their relevance to a grasslands survival scenario led to better retention relative to other semantic processing tasks. The impetus for their study was the premise that human memory systems evolved under the selection pressures of...
Article
Popular history films sometimes contain major historical inaccuracies. Two experiments investigated how watching such films influences people's ability to remember associated texts. Subjects watched film clips and studied texts about various historical topics. Whereas the texts contained only correct information, the film clips contained both corre...
Article
Full-text available
Basic research on human learning and memory has shown that practising retrieval of information (by testing the information) has powerful effects on learning and long-term retention. Repeated testing enhances learning more than repeated reading, which often confers limited benefit beyond that gained from the initial reading of the material. Laborato...
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This book is about culture and memory, about how the society and culture in which people grow up helps to determine their individual memories, collective memories, and identity. We will emphasize how the process of repeated retrieval helps to shape our memories. Before we get to our main story, we need to provide some background. Many different cul...
Article
Context In education, tests are primarily used for assessment, thus permitting teachers to assess the efficacy of their curriculum and to assign grades. However, research in cognitive psychology has shown that tests can also directly affect learning by promoting better retention of information, a phenomenon known as the testing effect. Cognitive ps...
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Full-text available
Previous studies investigating posttest feedback have generally conceptualized feedback as a method for correcting erroneous responses, giving virtually no consideration to how feedback might promote learning of correct responses. Here, the authors show that when correct responses are made with low confidence, feedback serves to correct this initia...
Article
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Multiple-choice tests are used frequently in higher education without much consideration of the impact this form of assessment has on learning. Multiple-choice testing enhances retention of the material tested (the testing effect); however, unlike other tests, multiple-choice can also be detrimental because it exposes students to misinformation in...
Article
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Two experiments investigated how the type and timing of feedback influence learning from a multiple-choice test. First, participants read 12 prose passages, which covered various general knowledge topics (e.g., The Sun) and ranged between 280 and 300 words in length. Next, they took an initial six-alternative, multiple-choice test on information co...
Article
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The benefits of testing on long-term retention of lecture material were examined in a simulated classroom setting. Participants viewed a series of three lectures on consecutive days and engaged in a different type of postlecture activity on each day: studying a lecture summary, taking a multiple choice test, or taking a short answer test. Feedback...
Article
The processing of words and pictures representing actions and objects was tested in 21 aphasic patients and 20 healthy controls across three word production tasks: picture-naming (PN), single word reading (WR) and word repetition (WRP). Analysis 1 targeted task and lexical category (noun-verb), revealing worse performance on PN and verb items for b...
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Anderson and Green (2001) had subjects learn paired associates and then selectively suppress responses to some of them. They reported a decrease in final cued recall for responses that subjectshad been instructed not to think of and explained their data as resulting from cognitive suppression, a laboratory analog of repression. We report three expe...
Article
Three experiments were conducted to investigate whether increasing the number of lures on a multiple-choice test helps, hinders or has no effect on later memory. All three patterns have been reported in the literature. In Experiment 1, the stimuli were unrelated word lists, and increasing the number of lures on an initial multiple-choice test led t...
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Picture naming is a widely used technique in psycholinguistic studies. Here, we describe new on-line resources that our project has compiled and made available to researchers on the world wide web at http://crl.ucsd.edu/~aszekely/ipnp/. The website provides access to a wide range of picture stimuli and related norms in seven languages. Picture nami...
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Motivated by recent data involving the mirror neuron system in the monkey (e.g., Rizzolatti et al., 2002, 1996), researchers have become increasingly interested in theories of embodiment (e.g., Buccino et al., 2001; MacWhinney, 1999). These theories suggest that the involvement of certain body parts in the processing of action and (action-related)

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Projects (2)
Project
https://crl.ucsd.edu/experiments/ipnp/