Andrew Brownlow

Andrew Brownlow
University of Glasgow | UofG · Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine

BVM&S, PhD

About

162
Publications
30,192
Reads
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1,755
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2007 - December 2020
Scotland's Rural College
Position
  • Medical Professional
Description
  • www.strandings.org

Publications

Publications (162)
Article
Full-text available
With global increases in anthropogenic pressures on wildlife populations comes a responsibility to manage them effectively. The assessment of marine ecosystem health is challenging and often relies on monitoring indicator species, such as cetaceans. Most cetaceans are however highly mobile and spend the majority of their time hidden from direct vie...
Article
Full-text available
• Measuring the energy stores, or body condition, of cetaceans is vital for monitoring population health. Cetaceans are exposed to a range of anthropogenic stressors, including, for example, noise, contaminants, habitat degradation, reduced prey availability, ship strike, and entanglement. Tools to assess body condition in these inaccessible and vu...
Article
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are among the most highly polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated mammals in the world, raising concern about the health consequences of current PCB exposures. Using an individual-based model framework and globally available data on PCB concentrations in killer whale tissues, we show that PCB-mediated effects on rep...
Article
Full-text available
Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PC...
Article
Full-text available
Large numbers of dead seals with characteristic spiral lesions have been washing ashore around the North Atlantic over the past two decades. Interactions with ship propellers and shark predation have been suggested as the likely causal mechanisms. However, new evidence points towards a more likely candidate: grey seal predation. An adult male grey...
Article
Contracting Parties to the OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Maine Environment of the North-East Atlantic are required to undertake monitoring and assessment of both inorganic and organic contaminants. There is a requirement to assess contaminants across different trophic levels on an ecosystem-specific basis. However, this is currently co...
Article
Ecosystem services associated with cetacean strandings have been altered by humans through exploitation of wild populations during the whaling era and more recently by regulations on carcass management and disposal to abide by environmental health requirements. Here, we systematically review the scientific literature and gather data on cetacean str...
Article
Full-text available
Long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) mitochondrial (mtDNA) genetic diversity is considered low, especially in the North Atlantic, where only seven haplotypes have been recorded in previous studies using a 345 bp control region fragment. Such studies have not included samples from Ireland or the Netherlands. In this study we analyzed a longe...
Technical Report
This EMFF funded, two-year duration project sought to assess the extent, scale and impact of marine animal entanglements in creel fishing gear from an animal welfare, conservation and industry perspective. The findings of this research have demonstrated that, throughout all Scottish waters, marine animal entanglement is more prevalent, and impacts...
Article
Full-text available
Studying repeated adaptation can provide insights into the mechanisms allowing species to adapt to novel environments. Here, we investigate repeated evolution driven by habitat specialization in the common bottlenose dolphin. Parapatric pelagic and coastal ecotypes of common bottlenose dolphins have repeatedly formed across the oceans. Analyzing wh...
Article
Runs of homozygosity (ROH) occur when offspring inherit haplotypes that are identical by descent from each parent. Length distributions of ROH are informative about population history; specifically, the probability of inbreeding mediated by mating system and/or population demography. Here, we investigate whether variation in killer whale (Orcinus o...
Article
Brucella ceti has been recovered from a number species of cetaceans worldwide over the last 25 yr. Here we report, for the first time, the recovery of B. ceti from a Risso’s dolphin Grampus griseus and a killer whale Orcinus orca . Recovery from an abdominal mass in the dolphin provides further evidence of the systemic pathogenic potential for B. c...
Preprint
Runs of homozygosity (ROH) occur when offspring inherit haplotypes that are identical by descent from each parent. Length distributions of ROH are informative about population history; specifically the probability of inbreeding mediated by mating system and/or population demography. Here, we investigate whether variation in killer whale (Orcinus or...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is predicted to have profound consequences for marine ecosystems. Due to the growing political and social drive to address its impacts, monitoring and mitigating climate change is a priority in marine policy in the UK. Cetaceans have been proposed as informative sentinel species for monitoring ocean health. Here, strandings data from...
Article
Fatal marine Brucella infections with histologic lesions specific to the central nervous system (CNS), known as neurobrucellosis, have been described in 5 species of odontocete cetaceans in the UK: striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba , Atlantic white-sided dolphins Lagenorhynchus acutus , short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis , long-fin...
Article
Full-text available
Elusive wildlife are challenging to study, manage, or conserve, as the difficulty of obtaining specimens or conducting direct observations leads to major data deficiencies. Specimens of opportunity, such as salvaged carcasses or museum specimens, are a valuable source of fundamental biological and ecological information on data deficient, elusive s...
Article
Full-text available
Elusive wildlife are challenging to study, manage, or conserve, as the difficulty of obtaining specimens or conducting direct observations leads to major data deficiencies. Specimens of opportunity, such as salvaged carcasses or museum specimens, are a valuable source of fundamental biological and ecological information on data deficient, elusive s...
Article
Cetacean morbilliviruses (CeMVs) are significant causes of mortality in many cetacean species in epizootics and smaller outbreaks. Despite the prominence of skin lesions in seals and terrestrial animals, including humans, affected by other morbilliviruses, they have not been reported in CeMV-infected cetaceans. Here we report CeMV-associated skin l...
Article
Full-text available
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are highly toxic and persistent aquatic pollutants that are known to bioaccumulate in a variety of marine mammals. They have been associated with reduced recruitment rates and population declines in multiple species. Evidence to date documents effects of PCB exposures on female reproduction, but few studies have inv...
Article
Fatal meningoencephalitis due to Brucella ceti infection has been described in striped dolphins (Stenella coeru-leoalba), Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus), short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus del-phis) and long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas), which are all within the family Delphinidae. We report B. ceti-associate...
Article
Campylobacter pinnipediorum was described recently for isolates recovered from pinnipeds. The novel species was further split into 2 subspecies based on host and geography, with C. pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum recovered from otariid seals in California (USA) and C. pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus recovered from phocid seals in Scotland. We r...
Article
Polysaccharide storage myopathies have been described in several animal species and are characterized by periodic acideSchiff (PAS)-positive, diastase-resistant intrasarcoplasmic inclusions in myocytes. Skeletal and cardiac muscle samples from a subset of a single pod of stranded long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) were evaluated by light...
Preprint
Full-text available
Annual reports covering the marine animal strandings monitoring and investigation programme for Scotland
Preprint
Full-text available
What are the mechanisms that allow species to extend their ranges and adapt to the novel environmental conditions they find in the newly available habitat? The study of parallel adaptation of pairs of populations to similar environments can provide great insights into this question. Here, we test for parallel evolution driven by niche specializatio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper proposes Ir-Man (Information Retrieval for Marine Animal Necropsies), a framework for retrieving discrete information from marine mammal post-mortem reports for statistical analysis. When a marine mammal is reported dead after stranding in Scotland, the carcass is examined by the Scottish Marine Animal Strandings Scheme (SMASS) to establ...
Preprint
Proceedings report for the 2020 SMASS/WDC Marine Forum. On the 29th of February, the Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme (SMASS) and Whale and Dolphin Conservation (WDC) held the third Marine Forum at the Centre for Health Science in Inverness. A total of 150 people attended the one-day knowledge exchange event, which was packed with fascinatin...
Preprint
On the 29th of February, the Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme (SMASS) and Whale and Dolphin Conservation (WDC) held the third Marine Forum at the Centre for Health Science in Inverness. A total of 150 people attended the one-day knowledge exchange event, which was packed with fascinating talks, workshops, discussions, and opportunities to ne...
Preprint
Full-text available
Annual report 2017 covering the marine animal strandings monitoring and investigation programme for Scotland
Preprint
Full-text available
2018 annual reports covering the marine animal strandings monitoring and investigation programme for Scotland
Article
Full-text available
Multiple stressors caused by human-induced disturbances can affect the foraging opportunities of cetaceans, potentially depleting their energy stores, and ultimately impact survival and reproductive success. Currently, blubber thickness and lipid composition is used as measure of health and nutritional status in cetaceans. This assumes that blubber...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Entanglement in static fishing gear has been identified as the largest anthropogenic cause of mortality in minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Scottish waters, and is of increasing concern from both a welfare and conservation perspective. However a thorough understanding of the scale and impacts of the...
Article
Full-text available
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic, persistent, and lipophilic chemical compounds that accumulate to high levels in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and other cetaceans. It is important to monitor PCBs in wildlife, particularly in highly exposed populations to understand if concentrations are declining and how levels relate to toxicolog...
Conference Paper
Brucella ceti was first reported in the early 1990's and has since become an important pathogen in cetaceans worldwide. Possibly the most important disease manifestation is B.ceti-associated meningoencephalitis or neurobrucellosis in cetaceans. In Scotland, Brucella sp. have been isolated from eleven species of cetacean and B.ceti-associated mening...
Article
Full-text available
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of 209 persistent and bio-accumulative toxic pollutants present as complex mixtures in human and animal tissues. Harbor porpoises accumulate some of the highest levels of PCBs because they are long-lived mammals that feed at a high trophic level. Studies typically use the sum of a suite of individual chl...
Article
Full-text available
Neisseria animaloris is considered to be a commensal of the canine and feline oral cavities. It is able to cause systemic infections in animals as well as humans, usually after a biting trauma has occurred. We recovered N. animaloris from chronically inflamed bite wounds on pectoral fins and tailstocks, from lungs and other internal organs of eight...
Article
Oscillations in the Earth's temperature and the subsequent retreating and advancing of ice-sheets around the polar regions are thought to have played an important role in shaping the distribution and genetic structuring of contemporary high-latitude populations. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), retreating of the ice-sheets would have enabled e...
Article
Reconstruction of the demographic and evolutionary history of populations assuming a consensus tree‐like relationship can mask more complex scenarios, which are prevalent in nature. An emerging genomic toolset, which has been most comprehensively harnessed in the reconstruction of human evolutionary history, enables molecular ecologists to elucidat...
Article
Full-text available
1.Tidal energy converters (turbines) are being developed in many countries as part of attempts to reduce reliance on hydrocarbon fuels. However, the moving blades of tidal turbines pose potential collision risks for marine animals. Accurate assessment of mortality risk as a result of collisions is essential for risk management during planning and c...
Article
Full-text available
Plastic pollution represents a pervasive and increasing threat to marine ecosystems worldwide and there is a need to better understand the extent to which microplastics (<5 mm) are ingested by high trophic-level taxa, such as marine mammals. Here, we perform a comprehensive assessment by examining whole digestive tracts of 50 individuals from 10 sp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Reconstruction of the demographic and evolutionary history of populations assuming a consensus tree-like relationship can mask more complex scenarios, which are prevalent in nature. An emerging genomic toolset, which has been most comprehensively harnessed in the reconstruction of human evolutionary history, enables molecular ecologists to elucidat...
Chapter
Full-text available
Organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), are persistent organic pollutants that both bioaccumulate and biomagnify within marine food webs. These legacy pollutants are known endocrine disruptors and have been reported to have adverse effects on endocrine, reproductive, and immune functions...
Article
Full-text available
The white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) is an endemic species in the North Sea with an estimated population of around 36,000 individuals. Recently, concerns have been raised among conservationists regarding increasing water temperatures as a result of climate change, which could result in a decline in population numbers in certain are...
Article
Full-text available
Between the 8th January and the 25th February 2016, the largest sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus mortality event ever recorded in the North Sea occurred with 30 sperm whales stranding in five countries within six weeks. All sperm whales were immature males. Groups were stratified by size, with the smaller animals stranding in the Netherlands, and...
Data
Potential drivers of the stranding events, with conclusions on the likelihood of causality for each factor. Colours reflect whether factors could be excluded (green), were unlikely (light green), or remain uncertain/could not be excluded (orange). In blue the most likely explanation for the stranding events, although the bathymetry of the region do...
Data
Overview of ancillary diagnostic tests. Virological, bacteriological and parasitology results of cases investigated. NE = Not Examined. NF = Not Found. (XLSX)
Data
Sperm whale strandings North Sea region. Overview of all stranded sperm whales along the North Sea coastline (n = 80) from 1997–2016. (XLSX)
Data
Overview of pathological findings. NE = Not Examined. NAD = No Abnormalities Detected. NF = Not Found. (XLSX)
Data
Sea surface temperature (SST) and sperm whale strandings. Averaged SST (green line) for the winters with high sperm whales stranding numbers in the North Sea region: 29th of November of the years 1994/95, 1995/96, 1996/97, 1997/98, 2013/14, 2014/15, 2015/16, 2016/17. The dotted line represents the respective confidence interval and the red coloured...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological and physiological factors lead to different contamination patterns in individual marine mammals. The objective of the present study was to assess whether variations in contamination profiles are indicative of social structures of young male sperm whales as they might reflect a variation in feeding preferences and/or in utilized feeding g...
Article
Brucella species infecting marine mammals was first reported in 1994 and in the years since has been documented in various species of pinnipeds and cetaceans. While these reports have included species that inhabit Arctic waters, the few available studies on bearded seals Erignathus barbatus have failed to detect Brucella infection to date. We repor...
Article
Mammalian adipose tissue is increasingly being recognized as an endocrine organ involved in the regulation of a number of metabolic processes and pathways. It responds to signals from different hormone systems and the central nervous system , and expresses a variety of protein factors with important paracrine and endocrine functions. This study pre...
Article
Full-text available
Since 2000 there has been a major decline in the abundance of Scottish harbour seals Phoca vitulina. The causes of the decline remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to establish the extent to which the seals in the regions of greatest decline have been exposed to Brucella, a bacterial pathogen that causes reproductive failure in terrestrial m...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate the transfer of Sellafield-derived radiocarbon (¹⁴C) to top predators in the UK marine environment, ¹⁴C activities were examined in stranded marine mammals. All samples of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) obtained from the Irish Sea showed ¹⁴C enrichment above background. Mammal samples obtained from the West of Scotland, including...
Article
The ecological value of the stranding record is often challenged due to the complexity in quantifying the biases associated with multiple components of the stranding process. There are biological, physical and social aspects that complicate the interpretation of stranding data particularly at a population level. We show how examination of baseline...
Article
Mammalian body condition is an important individual fitness metric as it affects both survival and reproductive success. The ability to accurately measure condition has key implications for predicting individual and population health, and therefore monitoring the population-level effects of changing environments. No consensus currently exists on th...