Andrew Stuart Brierley

Andrew Stuart Brierley
University of St Andrews · School of Biology

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197
Publications
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8,258
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Publications

Publications (197)
Article
Full-text available
Seamounts are important marine habitats that are hotspots of species diversity. Relatively shallow peaks, increased productivity and offshore locations make seamounts vulnerable to human impact and difficult to protect. Present estimates of seamount numbers vary from anywhere between 10,000 to more than 60,000. Seamount locations can be estimated b...
Article
Full-text available
Krill and salps are important for carbon flux in the Southern Ocean, but the extent of their contribution and the consequences of shifts in dominance from krill to salps remain unclear. We present a direct comparison of the contribution of krill and salp faecal pellets (FP) to vertical carbon flux at the Antarctic Peninsula using a combination of s...
Article
Full-text available
The gill of teleost fish is a multifunctional organ involved in many physiological processes, including protection of the mucosal gill surface against pathogens and other environmental antigens by the gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT). Climate change associated phenomena, such as increasing frequency and magnitude of harmful algal blooms (HAB...
Article
Full-text available
King penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ) are an iconic Southern Ocean species, but the prey distributions that underpin their at-sea foraging tracks and diving behaviour remain unclear. We conducted simultaneous acoustic surveys off South Georgia and tracking of king penguins breeding ashore there in Austral summer 2017 to gain insight into habita...
Article
Full-text available
Background Understanding the influence of methodology on results is an essential consideration in experimental design. In the expanding field of fish microbiology, many best practices and targeted techniques remain to be refined. This study aimed to compare microbial assemblages obtained from Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) gills by swabbing versus...
Preprint
Seamounts are important marine habitats that are hotspots of species diversity. Relatively shallow peaks, increased productivity and offshore locations make seamounts vulnerable to human impact and difficult to protect. Present estimates of seamount numbers vary from anywhere between 10,000 to more than 60,000. Seamount locations can be estimated b...
Article
Full-text available
We provide the raw acoustic data collected from the R/V Hesperides during the global Malaspina 2010 Spanish Circumnavigation Expedition (14th December 2010, Cádiz-14th July 2011, Cartagena) using a Simrad EK60 scientific echosounder operating at 38 and 120 kHz. The cruise was divided into seven legs: leg 1 (14th December 2010, Cádiz-13th January 20...
Article
Full-text available
Projecting the consequences of warming and sea-ice loss for Arctic marine food web and fisheries is challenging due to the intricate relationships between biology and ice. We used StrathE2EPolar, an end-to-end (microbes-to-megafauna) food web model incorporating ice-dependencies to simulate climate-fisheries interactions in the Barents Sea. The mod...
Article
Indicators of oxidative stress and metabolic capacity are key factors in understanding the fitness of wild populations. In the present study, these factors were evaluated in the pelagic Southern Ocean taxa Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and myctophid fish (Electrona antarctica, Gymnoscopelus braueri and G. nicholsi) to establish a baseline rec...
Article
Gelatinous plankton present a challenge to marine fish aquaculture that remains to be addressed. Shifting plankton distributions, suggested by some to be a result of factors such as climate change and overfishing, appear to be exacerbated by anthropogenic factors linked directly to aquaculture. Fish health can be negatively influenced by exposure t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Seamounts are important marine habitats that are hotpots of species diversity. Relatively shallow peaks, increased productivity and offshore locations make seamounts vulnerable to human impact and difficult to protect. Present estimates of seamount numbers vary from anywhere between 10000 to more than 60000. Seamount locations can be estimated by e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Diel vertical migration of fish and other metazoans actively transports organic carbon from the ocean surface to depth, contributing to the biological carbon pump. Here, we use a global vertical migration model to estimate global carbon fluxes and sequestration by fish and metazoans due to respiration, fecal pellets, and deadfalls. We estimate that...
Article
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Robust time-series of direct observations of jellyfish abundance are not available for many ecosystems, leaving it difficult to determine changes in jellyfish abundance, the possible causes (e.g. climate change) or the consequences (e.g. trophic cascades). We sought an indirect ecological route to reconstruct jellyfish abundance in the Irish Sea: s...
Article
Biomagnification of mercury (Hg) in the Scotia Sea food web of the Southern Ocean was examined using the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ¹⁵N) and carbon (δ¹³C) as proxies for trophic level and feeding habitat, respectively. Total Hg and stable isotopes were measured in samples of particulate organic matter (POM), zooplankton, squid, myctophid f...
Article
Full-text available
Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, supports a valuable commercial fishery in the Southwest Atlantic, which holds the highest krill densities and is warming rapidly. The krill catch is increasing, is concentrated in a small area, and has shifted seasonally from summer to autumn/winter. The fishery is managed by the Commission for the Conservation o...
Article
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Rising temperatures are melting the ice that covers the Arctic Ocean, allowing sunlight into waters that have been dark for thousands of years. Previously barren ice-covered regions are being transformed into productive seas. In this article, we explain how computer modeling can be used to predict how this transformation will affect the food web th...
Article
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Biomass of the schooling fish Rastrineobola argentea (dagaa) is presently estimated in Lake Victoria by acoustic survey following the simple “rule” that dagaa is the source of most echo energy returned from the top third of the water column. Dagaa have, however, been caught in the bottom two-thirds, and other species occur towards the surface: a mo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Seamounts are important marine habitats that are hotpots of species diversity. Relatively shallow peaks, increasedproductivity and offshore locations make seamounts vulnerable to human impact and difficult to protect. Present estimates ofseamount numbers vary from barely 10000 to more than 60000), because locating and identifying them remotely can...
Article
Full-text available
Biomass of the schooling fish Rastrineobola argentea (dagaa) is presently estimated in Lake Victoria by acoustic survey following the simple “rule” that dagaa is the source of most echo energy returned from the top third of the water column. Dagaa have, however, been caught in the bottom two-thirds, and other species occur towards the surface: a mo...
Article
Myctophids are the most abundant fish group in the Southern Ocean pelagic ecosystem and are an important link in the Antarctic marine food web. Due to their major ecological role, evaluating the level of mercury (Hg) contamination in myctophids is important as a step towards understanding the trophic pathway of this contaminant. The concentrations...
Article
Cnidarian jellyfish are pest species of marine aquaculture, with their acute impacts well documented in farmed fish, particularly affecting the delicate gill tissue. Less is known about subsequent consequences of exposure, including their association with secondary bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to identify whether potentially path...
Article
Full-text available
Marine ecosystems are experiencing substantial disturbances due to climate change and overfishing, and plastic pollution is an additional growing threat. Microfibres are among the most pervasive pollutants in the marine environment, including in the Southern Ocean. However, evidence for microfibre contamination in the diet of top predators in the S...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Mesopelagic (200–1000 m depth zone) biomass largely comprises zooplankton, jellyfish, squid and fish. Part of this biomass actively migrates between the surface and the mesopelagic zone on a daily basis, playing an important role in global biogeochemical cycling. When observed using echosounders, aggregated components of t...
Article
he concentrations of total and proportions of organic mercury were measured in tissues of 355 in- dividuals of 8 species of Southern Ocean squid (Alluroteuthis antarcticus, Bathyteuthis abyssicola, Filippovia knipovitchi, Galiteuthis glacialis, Gonatus antarcticus, Kondakovia longimana, Psychroteuthis glacialis and Slosarczykovia circumantarctica)....
Article
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Oceanographic observations were made with a subsurface oceanographic mooring over the summit and flanks of two neighbouring seamounts in the tropical Indian Ocean to identify processes that may be responsible for the aggregation of silvertip sharks (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) in the deep water drop-off surrounding the summits. The seamounts, whic...
Article
Total and organic mercury concentrations were determined for males, females and juveniles of Euphausia superba collected at three discrete locations in the Scotia Sea (South Orkney Islands, South Georgia and Antarctic Polar Front) to assess spatial mercury variability in Antarctic krill. There was clear geographic differentiation in mercury concent...
Article
Krill (class Malacostraca, order Euphausiacea) play important ecological roles in all of the world’s oceans, and some species (e.g., Euphausia pacificaHansen, 1911 and E. superbaDana, 1850) are fished commercially. The Third International Symposium on Krill was convened in June 2017 to provide an opportunity for face-to-face discussions of the late...
Article
Most multicellular biomass in the mesopelagic zone (200-1000 m) comprises zooplankton and fish aggregated in layers known as sound scattering layers (SSLs), which scatter sound and are detectable using echosounders. Some of these animals migrate vertically to and from the near surface on a daily cycle (diel vertical migration, DVM), transporting ca...
Article
Sampling at four salmon aquaculture sites along the west coast of Scotland has identified short-lived aggregations of planktonic hydrozoans (>280 individuals m ⁻³ ), here termed blooms. Several such blooms were linked with increases in gill pathology and mortality in caged fish. Two types, Obelia sp. and Lizzia blondina , were found to cause blooms...
Article
Full-text available
Approaches to measuring marine biological parameters remain almost as diverse as the researchers who measure them. However, understanding the patterns of diversity in ocean life over different temporal and geographic scales requires consistent data and information on the potential environmental drivers. As a group of marine scientists from differen...
Article
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Article
Full-text available
The mesopelagic community is important for downward oceanic carbon transportation and is a potential food source for humans. Estimates of global mesopelagic fish biomass vary substantially (between 1 and 20 Gt). Here, we develop a global mesopelagic fish biomass model using daytime 38 kHz acoustic backscatter from deep scattering layers. Model back...
Presentation
Full-text available
The distribution of large pelagic predators can be highly heterogeneous. Investigating pelagic predator-prey interactions around localised geo-physical features (reefs, seamounts) helps elucidate and predict potential foraging mechanisms that support relatively persistent levels of elevated biomass. The Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Terr...
Article
Plankton comprises unicellular plants — phytoplankton — and generally small (millimetres or less) animals — zooplankton — that are adrift on the currents. Phytoplankton are responsible for about 45% of global annual primary production and are grazed by zooplankton, which in turn are suitably sized food items for predators including commercially imp...
Article
The global ocean's near surface can be partitioned into distinct provinces on the basis of regional primary productivity and oceanography [1]. This ecological geography provides a valuable framework for understanding spatial variability in ecosystem function but has relevance only partway into the epipelagic zone (the top 200 m). The mesopelagic (2...
Article
Laboratory incubation experiments were conducted to examine the effects of differen temperatures (4, 9, 14, 19, 23°C) and salinities (21, 27, 34) on survival and asexual reproductio of scyphistomae of Cyanea capillata, C. lamarckii, Chrysaora hysoscella, and Aurelia aurita i order to better understand how climate variability may affect the timing a...
Article
Understanding the processes driving the distribution of mid-water prey such as euphausiids and lanternfish is important for effective management and conservation. In the vicinity of abrupt topographic features such as banks, seamounts and shelf-breaks, mid-water faunal biomass is often elevated, making these sites candidates for special protection....
Article
Japanese whalers are back in the Southern Ocean, aiming to kill 333 minke whales — ostensibly for the purposes of scientific research — under special permits issued by their government. In our view, the science behind Japan’s whaling activity has not passed a reasonable standard of peer review. We are members of the International Whaling Commission...
Article
Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published inhttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v529/n7586/extref/529283a-s1.pdf
Article
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In extreme high-latitude marine environments that are without solar illumination in winter, light-mediated patterns of biological migration have historically been considered non-existent [1]. However, diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton has been shown to occur even during the darkest part of the polar night, when illumination levels are ex...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents the findings of a European Marine Board working group that was convened to make recommendations on future deep-sea research priorities, taking account of the European economic and policy context. The working group reviewed the current deep-sea research landscape and the knowledge gaps and needs to underpin future management and...
Article
Krill (Euphausia superba) are fundamentally important in the Southern Ocean ecosystem, forming a critical food web link between primary producers and top predators. Krill abundance fluctuates with oceanographic conditions, most notably variation in winter sea ice, and is susceptible to environmental change. Although links between local krill availa...
Article
Full-text available
Zooplankton often migrate vertically to deeper dark water during the day to avoid visual predators such as fish, a process which can strengthen benthic-pelagic coupling. In the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, a pronounced hypoxic layer develops when there is an inflow of anoxic bottom water from the Central Baltic Sea, which could be a barrier for ver...
Article
Shallow and deep scattering layers (SLs) were surveyed with split-beam echosounders across the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) to investigate their vertical and geographical distribution. Cluster analysis was employed to objectively classify vertical backscatter profiles. Correlations between backscatter and environmental covariates were modelled usi...
Article
Full-text available
Mid-trophic level water-column (pelagic) marine communities comprise millions of tonnes of zooplankton and micronekton that form dense and geographically-extensive layers, known as Sound Scattering Layers (SSLs) when observed acoustically. SSLs are ubiquitous in the global ocean and individual layers can span entire ocean basins. Many SSLs exhibit...
Article
Full-text available
Under high light intensity, phytoplankton pro-tect their photosystems from bleaching through non-photochemical quenching processes. The consequence of this is suppression of fluorescence emission, which must be corrected when measuring in situ yield with fluorome-ters. We present data from the Southern Ocean, collected over five austral summers by...
Article
Full-text available
Macrozooplankton (e.g. krill, amphipods and jellyfish) and nekton (e.g. decapod shrimp, squid and fish) are integral parts of pelagic ecosystems, but knowledge of their vertical distributions and migrations during winter at high latitudes is lacking. This study provides the quantification of macrozooplankton and nekton distributions during the pola...
Article
Many pelagic species (species that live in the water column), including herring and krill, aggregate to form schools, shoals, or swarms (hereafter simply "schools," although the words are not synonyms). Schools provide benefits to individual members, including locomotory economy [1] and protection from predators that prey on individuals [2], but pa...
Article
In this Quick Guide, Brierley provides a brief overview of a pervasive aspect of aquatic ecosystems, the daily movement of organisms up and down the water column. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Under high light intensity, phytoplankton protect their photosystems from bleaching through non-photochemical quenching processes. The consequence of this is suppression of fluorescence emission, which must be corrected when measuring in situ yield with fluorometers. Previously, this has been done using the limit of the mixed layer, assuming that p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Reaching over 12m in length, basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) are the largest fish in the Northeast Atlantic and seasonally aggregate in UK coastal waters. Little is known about their behaviour during aggregations and as the rate of marine renewable energy development increases, there is an urgent need to develop resource-efficient platforms for...
Article
Full-text available
Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety...
Article
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The ECOMAR project investigated photosynthetically-supported life on the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) between the Azores and Iceland focussing on the Charlie–Gibbs Fracture Zone area in the vicinity of the sub-polar front where the North Atlantic Current crosses the MAR. Repeat visits were made to four stations at 2500 m depth on the flanks of th...
Article
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Marine mammals are very seldom detected and tracked acoustically at different depths. The air contained in body cavities, such as lungs or swimbladders, has a significant effect on the acoustic energy backscattered from whale and fish species. Target strength data were obtained while a humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) swam at the surface and...
Article
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Euphausiids are an important component of the northern North Atlantic ecosystem and several species are found in the Irminger Sea. However, data on euphausiids in this region are few, particularly for Thysanopoda acutifrons, Thysanoessa inermis and Nematobranchion boöpis. In this paper, we present the first data since the 1930s on the seasonal dist...