Andrew Blackmore

Andrew Blackmore
Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife - Scientific Services · Environmental Law Research

PhD
Conservation law research and policy development

About

92
Publications
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Introduction
Dr Andy Blackmore is a conservation planner and an environmental law and conservation scientist in the Scientific Services Division of Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife - the conservation agency in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). He heads the Conservation Planning Division, which includes Integrated Environmental Management and Protected Area Planning, Environmental Law and Protected Area Expansion Sections. His interests and specialties are conservation law, policy and defensible decision-making.

Publications

Publications (92)
Article
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The teleology of concurrent national and provincial legislative competence in South Africa's Constitution has not been adequately investigated, particularly from the perspective of nature conservation and the establishment of protected areas. It is, therefore, questioned whether the concurrent nature conservation competence awarded to the national...
Preprint
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The Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife Board, Declares the following Policy Statement: Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife does not, as a general policy, permit the erection of memorials or plaques but may grant permission in certain circumstances and where the conditions are met.
Preprint
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It is the Policy of Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife to, where reasonably possible, (1) restore, maintain, and protect the natural soundscapes, viewscapes and naturally dark skies within its protected areas, and (2) promote the scientific understanding and inspire the appreciation of the public of the value and the character of undiminished soundscapes and st...
Article
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Background: On 15 January 2021, a South African Member of the Executive Committee (MEC) for the Environment amended the Mabola Protected Environment’s (MPE) boundaries to remove legal impediments preventing coal mining in this protected area. This decision came in the wake of the MPE being declared a protected area and a series of court cases endin...
Preprint
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Policy on gender equity within a conservation agency
Preprint
Background: On 15 January 202, the Member of the Executive Committee (MEC) for the Environment arbitrarily amended the Mabola Protected Environment’s (MPE) boundaries to remove legal impediments preventing coal mining in this protected area. This decision came in the wake of the MPE being declared a protected area and a series of denied appeals end...
Article
Elephant culling is included in National Norms and Standards for the Management of Elephants in the Republic of South Africa, as a last-resort option to reduce elephant population size when required to meet reserve objectives. Recent judgments in South African courts have emphasised the importance of considering animal welfare in conservation. We a...
Article
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The Hibiscus Coast Municipality assumed it had the authority to issue or amend by-laws to formalise an existing nudist friendly beach within the Mpenjati Nature Reserve. Following a complaint, the Public Protector concluded the same when she investigated the legality of the Municipality's actions. Two immediate questions arise. The first, whether t...
Article
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The world's largest predators, like their prey species and biodiversity at large, face increasing impacts from climate change, in addition to various other threats. Such climate impacts include the shrinking and disruption of habitat (e.g., polar bear, wolverine); range shifts, especially upslope (e.g., snow leopard, Ethiopian wolf) and poleward (e...
Article
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Climate change will increasingly impact species and habitat composition of protected reas, even if precise impacts are difficult to predict, especially in smaller areas. This raises questions for management authorities, not only regarding the ecological integrity of protected areas but also regarding wildlife that ‘escape’ and cause damage. The pro...
Article
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The character of tourism in protected areas has remained predominantly unchanged over time. Should a new approach to tourism and recreational zonation in protected areas accommodate a broader spectrum of nature-based tourism activities? Using naturism as a novel example, this form of tourism could be accommodated by applying spatial and temporal re...
Article
Vulture numbers are globally in a decline and many species are considered as either endangered or critically endangered. The same applies to vultures in South Africa, raising concerns about the long-term persistence of these ecologically important birds in this country. The government is obliged to exercise its fiducial duties to bring into force l...
Article
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The use of biodiversity offsets to compensate for residual impacts on biodiversity resulting from a development or land-use change, is becoming more prevalent. While much has been published on this topic, there has been little published on the theoretical foundation on which biodiversity offsets are based. This paper seeks to unpack the theoretical...
Article
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Background: Although formal protected areas in South Africa date back to the turn of the 19th century, requirements for protected area management plans only became mandatory a century later. Prior to the promulgation of the World Heritage Convention Act 49 in 1999, and subsequently the National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act 57 in 20...
Article
Wetlands are generally considered to be habitats that are sensitive to development and land transformation, as well as pollution. Furthermore, as South Africa continues within the domain of climate change, and, with that, becomes increasingly water stressed, greater decision-making and societal emphasis needs to be placed on safeguarding wetlands f...
Technical Report
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The last decade has seen the emergence and unprecedented growth of a sub-sector of the wildlife ranching industry focusing on the intensive and selective breeding of wildlife for commercial purposes. Key elements of this sector involve intensive breeding of high-value rare species and active selective for rare and unusual traits. What started as a...
Article
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Since the incorporation of the public trust doctrine into the Bill of Rights in South Africa's Constitution, the country's courts have had good cause to evaluate government's decisions regarding the use and protection of the environment and its biodiversity. Likewise, the doctrine has been subject to academic evaluation and debate within a South Af...
Research
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The Ophathe Game Reserve (OGR), is an 8825.54 Hectare (Ha) protected area located south west from the town of Ulundi in KwaZulu-Natal. The game reserve is bordered by the P52 – Provincial road on the northern side, while the White Mfolozi borders on the eastern boundary. The game reserve extends over the UThungulu and Zululand District Municipality...
Research
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The Queen Elizabeth Park Nature Reserve (QEP), is a 93 Hectare (Ha) protected area located on the outskirts of Pietermaritzburg in KwaZulu-Natal. The reserve is bordered by the National Road (N3) on the western side, while the Victoria Country Club Golf Course borders on the eastern boundary. The reserve is situated within the UMgungundlovu Distric...
Article
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In 2008, South Africa adopted its ‘National Norms and Standards for the Management of Elephants in South Africa’. Concern has subsequently been raised as to whether these norms and standards apply to free-ranging elephant on land, which had not been enclosed with a fence with the express purpose of containing these animals and other game on the pro...
Article
The public trust doctrine was deliberately included in South African environmental legislation; in the best interests of citizens and future generations, it empowers citizens to ensure that the government safeguards the country's natural and cultural environment. This article examines South Africa's environmental law in order to derive an understan...
Research
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The 742.3684 ha [GIS area 742 hectare] Blinkwater Nature Reserve (NR) is situated in the Umzinyathi and UMgungundlovu District Municipality. The reserve is situated south west of Greytown with two other protected areas located in the general area, i.e. Umvoti Vlei to the north east and Karkloof Nature Reserve to the south west. The Blinkwater NR c...
Research
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The 1213 hectare Hlathikhulu Forest Reserve lies approximately 25 km north-west of the town of Jozini, south east of the South African and Swaziland border. The reserve abounds the eastern shores of the Phongolo Nature Reserve in two places with a thin sliver of land in between, where some homesteads have been built. The reserve falls within the UM...
Book
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LAYMAN’S SUMMARY The conservation of biodiversity, as experienced globally, faces many challenges. The efforts of South African conservation agencies mandated with this duty are questioned against the backdrop of accelerated land transformation and the extinction of natural habitats and species. South Africa’s transition to democracy in 1994 usher...
Research
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The Nkandla Forest Complex is situated 50km north-west from the town of Eshowe and 20km south of the town of Nkandla. The Forest Complex falls within the Nkandla Local Municipality and the uThungulu District Municipality. The Forest Complex covers 3791 Ha of land and was initially proclaimed between 1918 and 1948. In 1992, the NFC was re-proclaimed...
Research
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Tembe Elephant Park (TEP) was originally declared in 1983 on communal lands under the leadership of the Tembe Traditional Authority, to protect the lives and property of the Tembe people from injury or damage by elephants. The Park largely encapsulates the area roamed by the last free ranging elephant in KwaZulu-Natal. Although the reasons behind...
Research
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KwaZulu-Natal. The reserve falls within the Nquthu Local Municipality and the uMzinyathi District Municipality, situated approximately 22 km from the town of Nquthu on the R68 and approximately 74 km from Dundee. The reserve was first proclaimed as a National Monument in 1969, several further proclamations led to the latest proclamation as a nature...
Article
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The Usuthu River forms part of the international boundary between South Africa and Mozambique. In 2002, this River breached its south bank within the Ndumo Game Reserve and established a new channel within the protected area. In response to the breach, Mozambique proposed the excavation of the floodplain and the establishment of berms to force the...
Article
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The explicit incorporation of the public trust doctrine into South Africa's Bill of Rights in South Africa's Constitution, and its subsequent codification into the country's environmental, biodiversity, protected area, water, minerals and heritage legislation, occurred to a large extent without applause or fanfare. It is apparent that in the 20 odd...
Article
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The Republic of Namibia recently lost a High Court case preventing the sale of antelope that were selectively bred and intensively managed to produce traits that are uncommon in the wild. This paper looks at the foundations that the Namibian government may draw on to develop a policy context which would enable the country to redraft and amend exist...
Article
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The role of international legal instruments in biodiversity conservation has until now received relatively little attention in the conservation literature. Nevertheless, with their long-term, legally binding commitments on a transboundary scale, such instruments can be important, sometimes indispensable, implements in the conservation toolbox. Afte...
Article
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Many conservation professionals are familiar with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Ramsar Convention, and the World Heritage Convention. Regional instruments, such as those focusing on Africa, Antarctica, or Europe, are a...
Data
A significant proportion of South African biodiversity occurs in extensive private wildlife areas. As such, the continuance of these private reserves is paramount to conservation of the country’s biodiversity. The areas are, however, vulnerable to being divided into smaller camps as landowners enter into the new and rapidly growing industry of sele...
Article
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The potential negative impact of intensive breeding and genetic manipulation – for commercial gain – of biodiversity over the medium to long term, is unknown. While such circumstance leads to consternation and ultimately debate and much needed academic or applied research, little substance is afforded to legal provisions that promote responsible wi...
Research
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Midmar Dam is located on the uMngeni River and the main entrance to the recreation area is approximately 35 km from Pietermaritzburg along the N2 National Highway, seven kilometres from Howick and two kilometres from the Tweedie offramp on the N2 National Highway. The Midmar Nature Reserve extends from -29º29’02”S to -29º32’50”S and from -30º07’51”...
Research
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The Nature Reserve is situated five kilometers from the centre of the residential suburb of Kloof and 24 kilometers from Durban. The Nature Reserve covers an area of 532.7258ha and comprises the well-forested Molweni River Gorge and its tributaries, the largest of which is the Nkutu River (Refer to Map 2). The Nature Reserve extends from -29d44m09s...
Research
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The Ubombo Mountain Nature Reserve is situated in the north east of the province of KwaZulu-Natal on the western flanks of the Lebombo Mountains in the vicinity of the town of Mkhuze. The Nature Reserve falls within the Umkhanyakude District Municipality. The protected area is bounded by commercial land to the west and south and by the Kwantsinde /...
Research
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Weenen Nature Reserve is situated on the Draycott Plain in the centre of KwaZulu-Natal Province of the Republic of South Africa. The protected area lies south of the R74 provincial road, approximately eight km west of Weenen and 28 km from the town of Estcourt (Map A – Location of Weenen Nature Reserve); within the Uthukela District Municipality an...
Research
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Kenneth Stainbank Nature Reserve (KSNR) is a 210 ha protected area situated in the suburb of Yellowwood Park, 10km south west of Durban Central. KSNR lies 6.5km north of the old Durban International Airport and the nature reserve falls within the jurisdiction of the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality. The nature reserve is situated within a reside...
Research
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North Park Nature Reserve (NPNR) is a 42 ha protected area situated in between the suburbs of Northdene and Shallcross. The nature reserve is 14km west of Durban Central and falls within the jurisdiction of the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality. The nature reserve is situated within a mixed industrial and residential area, with the Clover Dairies...
Research
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Ncandu Nature Reserve is situated in north-western KwaZulu-Natal Province, Republic of South Africa, approximately 32km south west of Newcastle on the Mullers Pass Road (Appendix 1, Map 1). The protected area falls within the EKZNW East sub-region of the uKhahlamba Region and the Newcastle Magisterial District, 80km from Ladysmith on the north side...
Research
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longitude 31° 42’ East. The Mzimela Traditional Authority neighbours the Reserve on all sides (Map 1). Ongoye Forest Nature Reserve is situated due west of Mtunzini, approximately 11 kilometres from the coast. Of particular significance for Ongoye Forest Nature Reserve is its proximity to the growing urban areas of Richards Bay and Empangeni (50km)...
Research
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CNR is situated off the National Road N11, 80kms north of Ladysmith, 19kms south of Newcastle onto District Road D210 towards Normandien, KwaZulu-Natal (Appendix 2, Map 1). Chelmsford Nature Reserve extends from 27°57’00”S to 28°02’24” S and from 29°48’36” E to 29°57’00”E. CNR consists of the state owned Ntshingwayo Dam, situated at its centre, and...
Research
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Bluff Nature Reserve (BNR) is a 46.2 ha protected area situated in the suburb of Bluff which is 9.2km south of the centre of Durban. BNR lies 7.1km north of the old Durban International Airport and the nature reserve falls within the jurisdiction of the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality. The nature reserve is situated within a residential area al...
Research
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The Vernon Crookes Nature Reserve is situated in southern KwaZulu-Natal between -30°15’20.387”S to - 30°18’34.686”S and 30°32’49.776”E to 30°37’37.711”E. The GIS flat surface area of VCNR amounts to 2201ha. The altitude at the highest point in VCNR is 540 metres asl with the lowest point being 160 metres asl. Access to the nature reserve is via the...
Research
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The 3 257 ha Umtamvuna Nature Reserve is located on the road to Izingolweni, off the R61 to Port Edward, and is the best example of the eastern coastal sandstone region in South Africa, and the only example of Pondoland coastal highland sour veld under coastal management. The fortress-like koppies and sandstone cliffs, grasslands scattered with wil...
Research
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The reserve is situated 21km west of Port Shepstone, between -30˚40’35.832”S to -30˚45’00.904”S and 30˚10’00.505”E to 30˚18”40.424”E. The GIS flat surface area of OGNR amounts to 1881ha. The altitude at the highest point in OGNR is 680 metres above sea level with the lowest point being 120 metres above sea level. The proclaimed road No. 345 gives a...
Research
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The Mbumbazi Nature Reserve is situated in southern KwaZulu-Natal between -30˚47’35.146’’S to - 30˚50’38.724’’S and 30˚14’59.744’’E to 30˚19’25.072’’E. The GIS flat surface area of MNR amounts to 2081ha. The altitude at the highest point in MNR is 550 metres asl (above sea level) with the lowest point being 110 metres asl. The Nature Reserve falls...
Research
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Spioenkop Nature Reserve is situated 17 km northwest of Winterton, approximately 15 km northeast of Bergville and 35 km from Ladysmith in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of the Republic of South Africa. The reserve falls within the Uthukela District Municipality and the Okhahlamba Local Municipality. The reserve is a key component of the protected area...
Research
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The Siyaya Coastal Park is the collective name for the Umlalazi Nature Reserve, the Amatikulu Nature Reserve and the Redhill Nature Reserve (the Talmage Pan Nature Reserve was included until its de-proclamation in 2003) and extends from the northern boundary of the Umlalazi Nature Reserve to the southern boundary of the Redhill Nature Reserve (appr...
Research
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The Beachwood Mangroves Nature Reserve is a 76 ha protected area, situated in the eThekweni Metropolitan Municipality, some 5 km north of the centre of Durban. It lies between the Ruth First Highway (M4) and the sea, stretching from the Mgeni Estuary in the south, to the Beachwood Golf Course in the north. Beachwood Mangroves Nature Reserve was pro...
Research
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The Bulwer complex is a group of five forest reserves and three erfs in the immediate surrounds of the town of Bulwer with Ingelabantwana being the furthest away at approximately 8 km from Bulwer. The complex includes:  Indhloveni Nature Reserve;  Ingelabantwana Nature Reserve;  Marutswa Nature Reserve;  Marwaqa Nature Reserve;  Xotsheyake Nat...
Research
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The Amatikulu Nature Reserve was established to conserve and maintain a small remnant of southern Zululand vegetation and associated faunal components. It is part of the Siyaya Coastal Park, which includes Umlalazi Nature Reserve, Amatikulu Nature Reserve and Red Hill, and which is currently recognised as a part of the southern-most protected porti...
Research
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Impendle Nature Reserve is situated in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, south of the town Impendle and in close proximity to the towns of Boston (south west) and north of Polela en route to the Southern Drakensberg Mountains. The 8759 ha reserve is divided by the Underberg road (R617) into a larger western and a smaller eastern section. To the south...
Research
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The uMngeni Vlei Nature Reserve (UVNR) and privately owned expansion area is situated en route to the Drakensberg approximately 22 km South-West from Nottingham Road in Kwa-Zulu Natal (KZN) with the Nottingham Road-Sani Pass road (P 27) passing adjacent to the reserve. The reserve falls within the uMgungundlovu District municipal area under the loc...
Research
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The Mount Currie Nature Reserve (MCNR) consists of 1750 hectares located 5km north of the town of Kokstad in the KwaZulu‐Natal province of South Africa. The Mount Currie peak within the reserve is seen as an iconic landmark in the Greater Kokstad Area. The reserve is situated within the municipal boundaries of the Greater Kokstad Local Municipality...
Research
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The Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve (Location: 19⁰ 42’S; 31⁰ 06’E) is a 26 ha protected area on the northern edge of the holiday town of Umhlanga Rocks. The nature reserve falls within the eThekweni Metropolitan Municipality. Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve includes the Mhlanga Lagoon, at the mouth of the Ohlanga River, and surrounding land. The lago...
Research
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Sileza Nature Reserve (SNR) is situated north of the town of Mbazwana and approximately 18 km south west of Manguzi town with the R22 road passing adjacent to the nature reserve. The nature reserve falls within the Umkhanyakude District Municipality under the Local Municipality of Umhlabuyalingana. The nature reserve lies to the south east of Tembe...
Research
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Karkloof Nature Reserve is located in the midlands of KwaZulu-Natal, approximately 30km north of Howick, straddling the Mpofana and uMngeni local municipalities, within the uMgungundlovu district. The nature reserve is 3 274.7 ha, which combines land parcels that are owned, assigned to, or leased by Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife, or by private individuals...
Research
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Ntsikeni Nature Reserve is located in southern KwaZulu-Natal, between Underberg and Kokstad (Figure 1.2), within the Sisonke District Municipality and the Umzimkhulu Local Municipality. The proclaimed area of the nature reserve is 9 200ha but the computer based geographic information system (GIS) indicates a flat area of 9 228.7ha with an actual su...
Research
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Enseleni Nature Reserve is located in KwaZulu-Natal on the north coast, north east of Empangeni and north west of Richard’s Bay (Figure 1.1). The reserve lies within the Uthungulu District Municipality and the uMhlathuze (KZ 282) Local Municipality. The proclaimed area of the Enseleni Nature Reserve is 292ha and the reserve was first proclaimed in...
Research
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Coleford Nature Reserve is located in southern KwaZulu-Natal, 18km south of Underberg (Figure 1.2), within the Sisonke District Municipality and the KwaSani Local Municipality. The nature reserve, which is 1 272ha in size, was established in 1948 and proclaimed in 1959. Coleford Nature Reserve is a key component of the protected area system in the...
Research
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Draft Internal Policy on the publication of research in the public domain
Research
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The Mpenjati Nature Reserve is an 86 ha protected area, located in the Hibiscus Coast Local Municipality, within the Ugu District Municipality, on the south coast of the province of KwaZulu-Natal. It is situated 165 km south-west of Durban, between the small holiday towns of Trafalgar and Palm Beach. The Mpenjati Estuary (30⁰ 58’ 15” S; 30⁰ 17’ E)...
Article
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More than 80% of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) range in Africa still exists outside of formal protected areas, and sits across many administrative and political boundaries. These ranges comprise a matrix of multi-use landscapes of potentially divergent administrative, legal and political systems. It is further recognised that the evolut...
Article
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The Usuthu River forms part of the international boundary between South Africa and Mozambique. In 2002, this River breached its south bank within the Ndumo Game Reserve and established a new channel within the protected area. In response to the breach, Mozambique proposed the excavation of the floodplain and the establishment of berms to force the...