Andrew B. Bernard

Andrew B. Bernard
Dartmouth College · Tuck School of Business

About

128
Publications
33,949
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
23,782
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - present
Centre for Economic Policy Research - CEPR-
Centre for Economic Policy Research - CEPR-
July 1997 - July 1999
Yale University
Education
September 1987 - June 1991
Stanford University
Field of study
  • Economics

Publications

Publications (128)
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the importance of buyer-supplier relationships for firm performance. We develop a model in which firms outsource tasks and search for suppliers. Lower search and outsourcing costs lead firms to search more and find better suppliers, which in turn drives down marginal costs. We test the theory by exploiting the opening of a high-...
Article
Research in international trade has changed dramatically over the last twenty years, as attention has shifted from countries and industries towards the firms actually engaged in international trade. The now-standard heterogeneous firm model posits measure-zero firms that compete under monopolistic competition and decide whether to export to foreign...
Article
Large multi-product firms dominate international trade flows. Using novel linked production and export data at the firm-product level, we find that the overwhelming majority of manufacturing firms export products that they do not produce. Three quarters of the exported products and 30% of export value from Belgian manufacturers are in goods that ar...
Article
This paper documents the existence and characteristics of US firms that do not manufacture themselves, but nonetheless are heavily involved in the production of goods. These factoryless goods producing firms (FGPFs) are formally in the wholesale sector but, unlike traditional wholesale firms, FGPFs design the goods they sell and coordinate producti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper examines the importance of buyer-supplier relationships, geography and the structure of the production network in firm performance. We develop a simple model where firms can outsource tasks and search for suppliers in different locations. Low search and outsourcing costs lead firms to search more and find better suppliers. This in turn d...
Article
This paper examines the factors that give rise to intermediaries in exporting and explores the implications for trade volumes. Export intermediaries such as wholesalers serve different markets and export different products than manufacturing exporters do. Wholesalers are more prevalent in markets with higher destination-specific fixed costs and foc...
Article
The present paper examines multi-product exporters in Belgium, considering their importance and the relationship between the margins of trade and firm productivity. We use proxies for trade costs to quantify the extensive and intensive margin adjustments of trade. Relatively few exporting firms account for the majority of Belgian exports and these...
Article
Two otherwise identical firms that enter the same market in different months, one in January and one in December, will report dramatically different annual sales for the first calendar year of operations. This partial year effect in annual data leads to downward biased observations of the level of activity upon entry and upward biased growth rates...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical studies of firms within industries consistently report substantial heterogeneity in measures of performance such as size and productivity. This paper explores the consequences of joint heterogeneity on the supply side (sellers) and the demand side (buyers) in international trade using a novel transaction-level dataset from Norway. Domesti...
Article
This paper documents the extent and characteristics of plants and firms in the US that are outside the manufacturing sector according to official government statistics but nonetheless are heavily involved in activities related to the production of manufactured goods. Using new data on establishment activities in the Census of Wholesale Trade conduc...
Article
This paper explores role of multi-product plants and product switching in the Japanese manufacturing sector. While a substantial body of work has explored the importance of the extensive margins of plant entry and exit in employment and output flows, only recently has research begun to examine the adjustment across products within establishments an...
Article
This paper documents the extent and characteristics of plants and firms in the US that are outside the manufacturing sector according to official government statistics but nonetheless are heavily involved in activities related to the production of manufactured goods. Using new data on establishment activities in the Census of Wholesale Trade conduc...
Article
This paper provides concordance procedures for product-level trade and production data in the EU and examines the implications of changing product classifications on measured product adding and dropping at Belgian firms. Using the algorithms developed by Pierce and Schott (2012a,b), the paper develops concordance procedures that allow researchers t...
Article
Full-text available
New empirical and theoretical work has highlighted the importance of multi-product firms in international trade flows. We examine multi-product exporters in the small open economy of Belgium. Linking production and export data at the firm-product level, we discover new and, heretofore, unknown facts about multi-product manufacturing exporters. The...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews the empirical evidence on firm heterogeneity in international trade. A first wave of empirical findings from microdata on plants and firms proposed challenges for existing models of international trade and inspired the development of new theories emphasizing firm heterogeneity. Subsequent empirical research has examined additio...
Article
International trade models typically assume that producers in one country trade directly with final consumers in another. In reality, of course, trade can involve long chains of potentially independent actors who move goods through wholesale and retail distribution networks. These networks likely affect the magnitude and nature of trade frictions a...
Article
We develop a method for identifying departures from relative factor price equality that is robust to unobserved variation in factor productivity. We implement this method using data on the relative wage bills of non-production and production workers across 170 local labor markets comprising the continental United States for 1972, 1992 and 2007. We...
Article
Full-text available
Large multi-product firms dominate international trade flows. This paper documents new facts about multi-product manufacturing exporters that are not easily reconciled with existing multi-product models. Using novel linked production and export data at the firm-product level, we find that the overwhelming majority of manufacturing firms export prod...
Article
This paper reviews the empirical evidence on firm heterogeneity in international trade. A first wave of empirical findings from micro data on plants and firms proposed challenges for existing models of international trade and inspired the development of new theories emphasizing firm heterogeneity. Subsequent empirical research has examined addition...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the shutdown of manufacturing plants. Industry and plant-specific factors contributing to plant shut-down are developed in a variety of models. Predictions of market structure models of endogenous plant heterogeneity such as Hopen-hayn (1992) are tested on industry and plant level data. In addition, the implications of endowment...
Article
This article develops a general equilibrium model of multiple-product, multiple-destination firms, which allows for heterogeneity in ability across firms and in product attributes within firms. Firms make endogenous entry and exit decisions and each surviving firm chooses optimally the range of products to supply to each market. We show that the re...
Article
This paper examines the factors that give rise to intermediaries in exporting and explores the implications for trade volumes. Export intermediaries such as wholesalers serve different markets and export different products than manufacturing exporters. In particular, high market-specific fixed costs of exporting, the (lack of) quality of the genera...
Article
Full-text available
New empirical and theoretical work has highlighted the importance of multi-product firms in international trade flows. We examine multi-product exporters in the small open economy of Belgium, considering their importance and the relationship between the margins of trade and firm productivity, both across firms and within firms over time. In additio...
Article
International trade models typically assume that producers in one country trade directly with final consumers in another. In reality, of course, trade can involve long chains of potentially independent actors who move goods through wholesale and retail distribution networks. These networks likely affect the magnitude and nature of trade frictions a...
Article
International trade models typically assume that producers in one country trade directly with final consumers in another. In reality, of course, trade can involve long chains of potentially independent actors who move goods through wholesale and retail distribution networks. These networks likely affect the magnitude and nature of trade frictions a...
Article
This paper examines the determinants of intra-firm trade in US imports using detailed country-product data. We create a new measure of product contractibility based on the degree of intermediation in international trade for the product. We find important roles for the interaction of country and product characteristics in determining intra-firm trad...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the frequency, pervasiveness, and determinants of product switching by US manufacturing firms. We find that one-half of firms alter their mix of five-digit SIC products every five years, that product switching is correlated with both firm- and firm-product attributes, and that product adding and dropping induce large changes in...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the determinants of intra-firm trade in U.S. imports using detailed countryproductdata. We create a new measure of product contractibility based on the degree ofintermediation in international trade for the product. We find important roles for the interaction ofcountry and product characteristics in determining intra-firm trade...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the hypothesis that hazardous waste facilities are disproportionately located in minority neighborhoods. We also ask whether such facilities provide observable economic benefits to the surrounding community. the results are disturbing. as found by other researchers, neighborhoods with large minority populations are more likely to have on...
Article
When firms make decisions about which product to manufacture at a more disaggregated level than observed in the data, measured firm productivity reflects both characteristics of the firm and attributes of the products that are non-randomly chosen by the firm. This paper develops a model of industry equilibrium in which firms endogenously sort acros...
Article
We develop a method for identifying departures from relative factor price equality across regions that is valid under general assumptions about production, markets and factors. Application of this method to the United States reveals substantial and increasing deviations in relative skilled wages across labor markets in both 1972 and 1992. These dev...
Article
Recent research in international trade emphasizes the importance of firms' extensive margins for understanding overall patterns of trade as well as how firms respond to specific events such as trade liberalization. In this paper, we use detailed US trade statistics to provide a broad overview of how the margins of trade contribute to variation in U...
Article
Recent research in international trade emphasizes the importance of firms' extensive margins forunderstanding overall patterns of trade as well as how firms respond to specific events such as tradeliberalization. In this paper, we use detailed U.S. trade statistics to provide a broad overview of howthe margins of trade contribute to variation in U....
Article
This paper: outlines an algorithm for concording U.S. ten-digit Harmonized System export and import codes over time; describes the concordances we construct for 1989 to 2004; and provides Stata code that can be used to construct similar concordances for arbitrary beginning and ending years from 1989 to 2007.
Article
This paper examines how prices set by multinational firms vary across arm’s-length and related party customers. Comparing prices within firms, products, destination countries, modes of transport and month, we find that the prices U.S. exporters set for their arm’s-length customers are substantially larger than the prices recorded for related-partie...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the frequency, pervasiveness and determinants of product switching by U.S. manufacturing firms. We find that one-half of firms alter their mix of five-digit SIC products every five years, that product switching is correlated with both firm- and firm-product attributes, and that product adding and dropping induce large changes in...
Article
When firms make decisions about which product to manufacture at a more disaggregated level than observed in the data, measured firm productivity will reflect both true differences in productivity and non-random decisions about which products to manufacture. This paper examines a model of industry equilibrium where firms endogenously sort across pro...
Article
This paper shows that both relative wages and industry structure vary considerably across regions of the United Kingdom. In accordance with the neoclassical model of trade, regions abundant in a factor (i) exhibit lower relative prices of that factor than regions scarce in the factor, and (ii) tend to specialize in a mix of industries intensive in...
Article
This paper examines the currency exposure and exchange rate risk management at Chinese textile and apparel exporters. Chinese exporting firms have large net exposure to the US dollar. On average a 10 percent increase in the value of the renminbi against the dollar would reduce net revenues by 5.4 percent if the firms left prices unchanged. This lar...
Article
Full-text available
One of CEP's core research themes is the impact of trade openness on countries, firms, regions, communities and sectors.Two recent studies confirm the gains from opening up trade - but recognise that addressing the uneven outcomes of globalisation is as big a challenge as pursuing liberalisation in the face of entrenched interests.
Article
Despite the fact that importing and exporting are extremely rare firm activities, economists generally devote little attention to the role of firms when discussing international trade. This paper summarizes key differences between trading and non-trading firms, demonstrates how these differences present a challenge to standard trade models and show...
Article
This paper presents theoretical and empirical analyses of strategic responses to competition from low-cost countries (LCCs). Surveying 423 firms in the U.S. and Germany, we consider the nature of low-cost competition and strategic responses by advanced market incumbents. The theoretical framework develops multiple dimensions of foreign competition,...
Article
Full-text available
Plant shutdowns shape industry productivity, the dynamics of employment, and industrial restructuring. Plant closures account for more than half of gross job destruction in U.S. manufacturing. This paper examines the effects of firm structure on U.S. manufacturing plant closures. Plants belonging to multiplant firms and those owned by U.S. multinat...
Article
This paper examines how country, industry, and firm characteristics interact in general equilibrium to determine nations' responses to trade liberalization. When firms possess heterogeneous productivity, countries differ in relative factor abundance, and industries vary in factor intensity, falling trade costs induce reallocations of resources both...
Article
Full-text available
Since the mid-1990s, researchers have used micro datasets to study countries' production and trade at the firm level and have found that exporting firms differ substantially from firms that solely serve the domestic market. Across a wide range of countries and industries, exporting firms have been shown to be larger, more productive, more skill- an...
Article
This paper examines how country, industry, and firm characteristics interact in general equilibrium to determine nations' responses to trade liberalization. When firms possess heterogeneous productivity, countries differ in relative factor abundance, and industries vary in factor intensity, falling trade costs induce reallocations of resources both...
Article
This paper develops a general equilibrium model of multi-product firms and analyzes their behavior during tradeliberalization. Firm productivity in a given product is modeled as a combination of firm-level "ability" and firmproduct-level "expertise", both of which are stochastic and unknown prior to the firm's payment of a sunk costof entry. Higher...
Article
This paper examines the response of U.S. manufacturing industries and plants to changes in trade costs using a unique new dataset on industry-level tariff and transportation rates. Our results lend support to recent heterogeneous-firm models of international trade that predict a reallocation of economic activity towards high-productivity firms as t...
Article
This paper examines the role of international trade in the reallocation of U.S. manufacturing within and across industries from 1977 to 1997. Motivated by the factor proportions framework, we introduce a new measure of industry exposure to international trade that focuses on where imports originate rather than on their overall level. We find that p...
Article
This note tries to apply two versions of Sah and Stiglitz's "The Architecture of Economic Systems: Hierarchies and Polyarchies" model (SandS) to highlight some important differences between the development paths of India, the largest democracy, and China, the largest of the few remaining communist ruled economies. It argues that the original SandS...
Article
This working paper deals with the question how international trade can lead to economic growth. Since only technical progress can lead to sustained economic growth international trade has to accelerate the rate of technical progress to promote economic growth. Technical progress is mainly generated by the production and the use of ideas. It can be...
Article
This paper develops a model of endogenous product selection within industries by firms. The model is motivated by new evidence we present on the prevalence and importance of product changing activity by U.S. manufacturers. Three-fifths of continuing firms alter their product mix within an industry every five years, and added and dropped products ac...
Article
The paper examines consolidation episodes in the EU since 1970 with a view to shedding light on the factors that determine the success or failure of fiscal adjustment. Compared to the existing literature on successful fiscal consolidations we add a number of new dimensions. Two deserve particular attention. Firstly, we explore a broader set of pote...
Article
Plant shutdowns shape industry and aggregate productivity paths and play a major role in the dynamics of employment and industrial restructuring. Plant closures in the U.S. manufacturing sector account for more than half of gross job destruction. While multi-plant firms and multinationals dominate U.S. manufacturing, theoretical and empirical work...
Article
This paper provides an integrated view of globally engaged US firms by exploring a newly developed dataset that links US international trade transactions to longitudinal data on US enterprises. These data permit examination of a number of new dimensions of firm activity, including how many products firms trade, how many countries firms trade with,...
Article
Full-text available
We take an alternate approach to investigating the boundaries of the firm by analyzing product choice. We examine the number and types of products that firms co-produce, how patterns of co-production evolve over time, and the implications of these patterns for micro-and macroeconomic outcomes. Empirically, we find that product-switching by U.S. man...
Article
Full-text available
Deardorff [Journal of International Economics 36 (1994) 167-175] offers an intuitively appealing test for factor price equality (FPE). He demonstrates that FPE is impossible if the set (i.e., lens) of points defined by regional factor abundance vectors does not lie within the set of points defined by goods' input intensities. This note demonstrates...
Article
Mexico's experience before and after trade liberalization presents a challenge to neoclassical trade theory. Though labor abundant, it nevertheless exported skill-intensive goods and protected labor-intensive sectors prior to liberalization. Post-liberalization, the relative wage of skilled workers rose. Courant and Deardorff (1992) have shown theo...
Article
How Offshore Work Affects Your Industry. Economics professors Andrew B. Bernard and Peter K. Schott, and J. Bradford Jensen of the Institute for International Economics, dispel the myth that all U.S. manufacturing is headed offshore.
Article
Full-text available
This Paper presents a model of international trade that features heterogeneous firms, relative endowment differences across countries, and consumer taste for variety. The Paper demonstrates that firm reactions to trade liberalization generate endogenous Ricardian productivity responses at the industry level that magnify countries’ comparative advan...
Article
AbstractUS exports grew at 10.3% per year from 1987 to 1992, far faster than the economy as a whole. This paper examines sources of the manufacturing export boom, including entry, firm expansion, and export intensity. Most of the increase in exports came from increasing export intensity at existing exporters rather than from new entry into exportin...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the factors that increase the probability of entry into exporting. Using a panel of U.S. manufacturing plants, we test for the role of plant characteristics, spillovers from neighboring exporters, entry costs, and government export promotion expenditures. Entry and exit in the export market by U.S. plants is substantial, past ex...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines determinants of Olympic success at the country level. Does the United States win its fair share of Olympic medals? Why does China win only 6% of the medals even though it has one-fifth of the world's population? We consider the role of population and economic resources in determining medal totals from 1960 to 1996. At the margin...
Article
Full-text available
US exports grew at 10.3% per year from 1987 to 1992, far faster than the economy as a whole. This paper examines sources of the manufacturing export boom, including entry, firm expansion, and export intensity. Most of the increase in exports came from increasing export intensity at existing exporters rather than from new entry into exporting. The s...
Article
Exporting is often touted as a way to increase economic growth. This paper examines the interaction between exporting and productivity growth in US manufacturing. While exporting plants have substantially higher productivity levels, there is no evidence that exporting increases plant productivity growth rates. The higher productivity of exporters l...
Article
In recent years, international capital flows of all types have increased dramatically and most governments have been actively encouraging inflows of direct investment. However, concerns remain that reliance on foreign multinationals may be a risky development strategy as foreign firms are likely to be less rooted in the local economy and may be qui...
Article
Full-text available
Relative wages vary considerably across regions of the United Kingdom, with skill-abundant regions exhibiting lower skill premia than skill-scarce regions. This paper shows that the location of economic activity is correlated with the variation in relative wages. U.K. regions with low skill premia produce different sets of manufacturing industries...
Article
We reconcile trade theory with plant-level export behavior, extending the Ricardian model to accommodate many countries, geographic barriers, and imperfect competition. Our model captures qualitatively basic facts about U.S. plants: (i) productivity dispersion, (ii) higher productivity among exporters, (iii) the small fraction who export, (iv) the...
Article
This paper derives consistent standard errors for a panel Tobit model in the presence of correlated errors. The problem is framed in the context of Newey and West (1987), considering the Tobit model as a special case of a GMM estimator.
Article
This paper examines the response of industries and firms to changes in trade costs. Several new firm-level models of international trade with heterogeneous firms predict that industry productivity will rise as trade costs fall due to the reallocation of activity across plants within an industry. Using disaggregated U.S. import data, we create a new...
Article
Full-text available
Theory suggests that market forces should bring the relative pay of skilled workers into line in different regions within a country. Andrew Bernard, Stephen Redding, Peter Schott and Helen Simpson show that this is not the case for the UK and argue that regional industrial policy needs to take this into account.