Andreja Kutnar

Andreja Kutnar
InnoRenew CoE

About

106
Publications
107,051
Reads
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2,003
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2015 - present
University of Primorska
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2012 - present
University of Primorska - Univerza na Primorskem
January 2010 - present
Oregon State University

Publications

Publications (106)
Article
Full-text available
Thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM)-densified timber is rarely used in construction, although its mechanical properties are in many cases excellent. The main reason for its rare use is set-recovery, which reduces the degree of densification over time so that the mechanical properties deteriorate. Our knowledge of the long-term creep of densified timber i...
Article
Full-text available
Thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processing can improve the intrinsic properties of wood, produce new materials, and give desired form and function to new applications. THM treatments change the mechanical properties of wood and may change its viscoelastic properties as well. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the viscoelastic proper...
Article
Full-text available
Thermo-hydro mechanical (THM) treatments and thermo-treatments are used to improve the properties of wood species and enhance their uses without the application of chemicals. This work investigates and compares the effects of THM treatments on three timber species from Tasmania, Australia; plantation fibre-grown shining gum (Eucalyptus nitens H. De...
Article
Full-text available
Modification of wood improves certain properties of natural wood and presents competitive alternatives to synthetic materials that may have larger environmental impacts. One aspect of modified wood that is currently not fully understood is the dynamic performance and how it is affected by the modification process. In this study, low-molecular weigh...
Article
Full-text available
Since the early 1990s, the life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to quantify the environmental impacts. Due to substantial dissimilarities in results among different LCA waste models, the aim of this review is to analyse different LCA models. Technical assumptions in collection and transportation processes among the models in connection with li...
Article
Full-text available
Stress is a major public health concern and work stress is a contributor to both acute and chronic stress. Moreover, most people spend the majority of their time indoors. It follows that the design of office spaces and other interior environments should consider the health impacts of individuals in terms of psychophysiological responses to stress....
Article
Full-text available
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a diverse group of compounds that can have a strong impact on indoor air quality. Wood and thermally modified wood emit VOCs, which are referred to as wood VOCs, and can elicit various negative or positive effects in different organisms, including humans. Wood is a complex multicomponent biopolymer with inheren...
Chapter
Full-text available
Bio-based materials are considered a promising resource for buildings in the twenty-first century due to their sustainability and versatility. They can be produced locally, with minimum transportation costs and in an ecological manner. This chapter describes the potential of biomaterials for use in façades. It presents several examples of natural r...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents a selection of biomaterials identified by industry and academia as superior for building façades. Time series of photographs demonstrating changes of material appearance during use phase are provided for each case. In addition, selected technical characteristic, durability, recyclability potential as well as costing estimates...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents several successful examples of biomaterial façade design. It discusses façade function from aesthetical, functional, and safety perspectives. Special focus is directed on novel concepts for adaptation and special functionalities of façades. Analysis of the structure morphologies and aesthetic impressions related to the bio-bas...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter concludes the overall content of this book. The key challenges regarding possible innovations in the building sector are presented from the perspective of the development in materials science, design concepts, as well as tools and services for improved façade management.
Chapter
Full-text available
A special focus of this chapter is directed into assessing the performance of façades along the service life of the building. Influence of biotic and abiotic factors and their effect on materials physical and aesthetical properties are discussed. Principles of protection by design and their role in building performance during use phase are briefly...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents examples of innovative and sustainable use of bio-based products in building façades. Selected cases represent best practices implemented all over the world are presented from the perspective of art and innovation. Cases and examples incorporated in this chapter are indexed and summarized in a form of portfolio. Short descript...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents a portfolio of building materials suitable for façades. It describes the relationship between material type, building element, façade, and the entire building structure. Traditional façades based on static components, as well as adaptive concepts able to interact with changing environmental conditions, are briefly described an...
Book
This book provides a compendium of material properties, demonstrates several successful examples of bio-based materials’ application in building facades, and offers ideas for new designs and novel solutions. It features a state-of-the-art review, addresses the latest trends in material selection, assembling systems, and innovative functions of faca...
Conference Paper
New developments in the field of wood protection, coupled with the European political determination to lower the environmental impact of the building sector, designates wood and bio-based materials as an excellent option for building façades. Despite that, the share of wood in the European wood construction market is low, with the exception of some...
Article
Full-text available
Within the Slovenian region of Istria, the olive growing and oil production industry is strong. This industry has a long history and the olives grown here have high levels of biologically active compounds including a variety of phenolic compounds. Using residual materials generated by this industry in potential wood protection systems would not onl...
Article
Full-text available
Finding efficient ways to decrease wood decay caused by fungi is an important issue in the timber construction. A possible way to avoid wood decay by fungi is by reducing the water content of wood, since water is a primary condition for fungal growth. Bulking of the wood cell wall by chemical reagents occupies the space where water normally occurs....
Conference Paper
A major restraint in choosing bio-based materials (i.e. wood-based) for external use, is the lack of confidence that architects, designers and customers have toward these materials. In particular, the limit state of bio-based materials, which defines the frequency of maintenance operations, might be reached earlier for wood than for other materials...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the environmental assessment methods used to understand the environmental impact of bio-based materials. It highlights the current and future environmental requirement products need to meet in the built environment. Typically, this is based around life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques, and specifically of interest to bio-ba...
Article
Full-text available
The market for new durable products of modified wood has increased substantially during the last few years, especially in Europe. This increased interest depends partly on the restricted use of toxic preservatives due to increased environmental concern, as well as the need for reduced maintenance for wood products that are mainly for exterior use....
Article
Full-text available
The bondability/glueability of aged and sanded thermo-hydro-mechanically (THM) densified beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) was tested and compared with undensified sanded beech wood as a control. THM and control specimens were bonded with five different soy protein isolate (SPI) based adhesives. Commercial SPI powder was thermally modified in the vac...
Article
Nothofagus pumilio and N. antarctica forests of Southern Patagonia, Argentina are currently being managed for production of saw logs with fast growing conditions. The result of these management strategies is faster growing forests, but also an increase in the percentage of low-density wood. The motivation for this study was to find a way to valoris...
Article
Full-text available
Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) wood lamellae, thermally treated at 170, 190, 210 and 230 textdegreeC were surface densified by compression at a temperature of 150 textdegreeC to three degrees of compression. Immediate springback, set recovery, mechanical properties in 3-point flexure, Brinell hardness and density profiles measurements were used to d...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews the development of protein adhesives, specifically soy, blood, and casein adhesives. It addresses the formulations and bonding technologies of these protein adhesives from 1930 to 1960, and current commercial formulations. Between the 1930s and 1960s the consumption and technological refinements of protein adhesives were at their...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Executive Summary The objective of the W3B-project was to create and demonstrate innovative and cost-efficient ways for communicating towards stakeholders the relevance of the European forest-based sector and its products for a sustainable bio-economy. Therefore, the project mapped the state of communication analyzing the website content of 80 comp...
Article
Full-text available
Over recent years, the interest in bio-adhesives, including soy-based adhesives, has increased rapidly. Among natural renewable resources suitable for industrial use, soy is a reasonable choice due to its high production volume and the small use of soy meal-based products for human food consumption. Soy flour can be an ideal raw material for the ma...
Article
Full-text available
The flexural properties in the longitudinal direction for natural and thermo-hydro-mechanically densified Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel) culm wall material are measured. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) increase with densification, but at the same density, the natural material is stiffer and stronger than th...
Article
The extant literature concerned with enhancing competitiveness of forest sector companies has focused on phenomena rather than people who would drive those phenomena. Generally, human resource management research is sparse in the forest sector literature, despite well-documented knowledge that companies succeed more because of their people than bec...
Article
Full-text available
The adhesive bonding strength and water resistance of wood adhesive based on thermally modified soy protein isolate (SPI) were optimized by varying the SPI concentration, pressing temperature and pressing time. Commercial SPI was thermally modified in a vacuum chamber at 50 °C, and dispersions were prepared with SPI mass fractions of 9.09, 9.91, 10...
Book
This book provides a comprehensive description of traditional and innovative forest-based bioproducts, from pulp and paper, wood-based composites and wood fuels to chemicals and fiber-based composites. The descriptions of different types of forest-based bioproducts are supplemented by the environmental impacts involved in their processing, use, and...
Chapter
This chapters delivers discussion about bioeconomy, related European Policy and wood resources. The European Bioeconomy Strategy and the role of forests and forest-products in achieving its objectives are being discussed. Also other policies with direct impacts on the forest-based sector are being presented. Furthermore, various primary wood based...
Article
Full-text available
This state-of-the-art report presents the basic concepts in manufacture of thermally modified timber (TMT) to achieve increased dimensional stability and resistance to biological degradation. The reasons for the growing interest in thermo–hydro and thermo–hydro–mechanical techniques in Europe and the United States are discussed, and the physical an...
Chapter
This chapter considers the environmental impacts (both positive and negative) associated with the production, use and disposal of wood-based composites. The examples dealt with in this chapter largely discuss consider global warming potential, since this is the impact category which has the least uncertainty associated with it and it is the one ove...
Article
Communication is an important tool in maintaining legitimacy and acceptability of forest sector operations and activities and expectations by the general public on the forest sector conduct in Europe are in general very high. Despite this, there i scarce research in cross-national contexts on how forest sector sustainability is communicated to the...
Research
Full-text available
The book presents Slovenia’s contemporary timber architecture. Thanks to its abundant forests, Slovenia has preserved the tradition of wood construction. As much as 60% of its surface is covered by forests. Slovenia is also the third most forested country in Europe. The high share of forest-covered surface allows for a sustainable production of hig...
Article
Natural elements, life and life-like processes, as well as representations of them, can produce positive experiences within the built environment. Over the past decade, a number of empirical studies have found experiencing nature, both actively and passively, can reduce stress, increase human well-being, and produce positive emotional experiences....
Article
Individuals spend most of their time indoors, and therefore indoor environments are important aspects of one’s life. Creating healthful indoor environments should be a priority for building designers, and evidence-based design decisions should be used to ensure the built environment provides healthful benefits to occupants. This review was conducte...
Chapter
Full-text available
Consumer awareness, strengthened by legally imposed green constraints, has led to the need for the safe return of products from the field, as well as more environmentally friendly products. As a result, logistics planning must now consider both forward and return flows of products, parts, subassemblies, scrap, and packaging. Reverse logistics is th...
Article
The bondability/gluability of THM modified Moso bamboo specimens was tested and compared with unmodified Moso specimens as a reference. Five different SPI based adhesives were used for bonding. The SPI powder was thermally modified in a vacuum chamber at 50 or 100 °C and dispersions prepared at 24, 50, or 90 °C. Bond shear strengths of the adhesive...
Article
Effect of heat treatment on the mechanical properties of box and frame-type corner joints produced from modified and non-modified beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and spruce (Picea abies L.) wood was investigated. The wood lamellas were heat-treated at 190 and 210 °C for 3 h in a treatment process with initial vacuum. Samples of box- and frame-type corne...
Article
This paper presents the state of the art of different wood densification processes as one emerging process technology. The main principles for the processes are discussed, such as bulk and surface densification, bending, moulding of shells and tubes, as well as methods for reducing the shape memory effect of densified wood. The main challenges are...
Article
Full-text available
Liquefied wood-based polyurethane wood coatings of an aesthetically acceptable light colour were prepared and characterised. Liquefied black poplar wood was obtained by solvolysis in a polyethylene glycol/glycerol mixture, and it was bleached with hydrogen peroxide. The bleaching treatment converted liquefied wood from a dark brown to a yellowish p...
Article
This paper presents the European initiatives, strategies, and directives that must be considered in future development of thermally modified timber and when optimising the existing, commercialised processes and discusses the next steps in developing thermally modified timber needed to meet the requirements of the European low carbon economy. The st...
Book
Proceedings of the International Conference on Cloud-Assisted Services – CLASS 2015, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 5-6 November 2015 – Ljubljana: Fakulteta za gradbeništvo in geodezijo, Komisija za informatiko, knjižničarstvo in založništvo, 2015.
Book
The book presents Slovenia’s contemporary timber architecture. Thanks to its abundant forests, Slovenia has preserved the tradition of wood construction. As much as 60% of its surface is covered by forests. Slovenia is also the third most forested country in Europe. The high share of forest-covered surface allows for a sustainable production of hig...
Chapter
This chapter introduces built architectural structures from Slovenia, which represent many different types of buildings that all share a common constructional material—wood, a renewable material that stores carbon. It highlights the importance of architectural design in different building types: residential buildings, office buildings, commercial b...
Chapter
This chapter introduces current sustainable building practices in Slovenia. In Sect. 3.1, buildings in relation to sustainable development are discussed, followed by presentation of timber construction systems used in Slovenia (Sect. 3.2). The global building rating systems with the focus on rating systems used in Slovenia, passive house consortium...
Chapter
This chapter introduces wood and wood-based composites used in timber architecture (Sect. 2.1). Slovenian production, export, and import, as well as trade flows of primary wood products are presented and discussed. The primary wood-based products used in Slovenian timber architecture, together with current development in the field are described in...
Chapter
The management of natural resources is a subject that often arises when sustainable development is considered. Wood is a renewable, biological raw material used in numerous applications and is therefore growing in importance for sustainable development efforts. This chapter presents the applicability of carbon footprinting in the wood industry by c...
Article
The aim of this study was to develop polymers in a liquid solution, from renewable bio-resources, usable as intermediate materials in the preparation of plastics, adhesives or coatings. The liquefaction of cork with glycerol was investigated at 150 degrees C, 180 degrees C, and 200 degrees C under acidic (sulphuric acid) or alkaline conditions (sod...
Article
In this study, birch (Betula pendula L.) veneers were simultaneously densified and dried using a contact drying method at pressures of 1.5 and 3 MPa at 130 °C and compared with veneer dried in a laboratory-scale convective type dryer. Compression rate, thickness swelling, and the density profiles of the veneers were investigated. Furthermore, the m...
Article
Adhesives based on renewable resources have inferior efficiency compared to the synthetic ones. To improve the adhesive properties of soy protein isolate (SPI) adhesives, a new method of thermally modifying SPI was developed. The commercial SPI powder was thermally modified in a vacuum chamber at different temperatures (50, 100, 150, and 200 °C). T...
Article
Compression creep experiments of Douglas-fir wood (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were performed at high temperature (150°C, 160°C, and 170°C) and under various conditions of steam pressure. The results established that environment conditions had a significant effect on compressive deformation, with the largest deformation obtained under saturated steam co...
Article
The current practise of municipal wood products waste collection is to collect it along with other bulky items. However, recovery or disposal of post-consumer wood is possible in many different ways. Therefore there is a need to improve post-consumer wood treatment at the end of its life-cycle. The costs of fresh wood material is increasing and lac...
Article
The mechanical properties of wood surface are of particular interest in applications where mainly the surface is exposed to use, such as flooring boards. Wood surface densification aims to improve these properties by compressing only the first few millimeters beneath the surface. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood was surface densified to thr...
Article
Hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides × Populus trichocarpa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) wood specimens were densified with three variations of thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) treatment. The THM treatments differed in the steam environment, including transient steam (TS), saturated steam (SS), and saturated steam with 1-min post–heat treatment...
Article
Colour change and/or mass loss due to thermal treatment are in direct relation to the performance of thermally modified wood. The application of techniques commonly used to characterise polymers may be used to study this relationship. A standard testing procedure in the field of plastics for the characterisation of bulk properties that directly aff...
Article
Full-text available
The paper describes for the first time the analysis of the structure of compressed wood using computed tomography. The anatomical structures of Douglas-fir and hybrid poplar before and after densification with the viscoelastic thermal compression (VTC) process were described by pore size distributions and mean pore sizes and compared. The compressi...
Article
The transverse compression behavior of Douglas-fir wood (Pseudotsuga menziesii) at high temperature (170 °C) and saturated steam conditions was studied and compared with previously reported compression behavior of hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides × Populus trichocarpa). The effect of the compression on the stress–strain response, non-linear strain...