Andrej Boncina

Andrej Boncina
University of Ljubljana · Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Forestry

PhD

About

76
Publications
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2,229
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Publications

Publications (76)
Article
Forest composed of Picea abies L., Abies alba Mill. and Fagus sylvatica L. cover a large area in the European mountain regions and have a high ecological and socio-economic importance as they supply many ecosystems services. Because of climate change, these forests are exposed to warming, and this effect increases with elevation, which may impact t...
Chapter
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Understanding tree and stand growth dynamics in the frame of climate change calls for large-scale analyses. For analysing growth patterns in mountain forests across Europe, the CLIMO consortium compiled a network of observational plots across European mountain regions. Here, we describe the design and efficacy of this network of plots in monospecif...
Chapter
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This chapter addresses the concepts and methods to assess quantitative indicators of Climate-Smart Forestry (CSF) at stand and management unit levels. First, the basic concepts for developing a framework for assessing CSF were reviewed. The suitable properties of indicators and methods for normalization, weighting, and aggregation were summarized....
Chapter
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Mountain forests in Europe have to face recently speeding-up phenomena related to climate change, reflected not only by the increases in the mean global temperature but also by frequent extreme events, that can cause a lot of various damages threatening forest stability. The crucial task of management is to adapt forests to environmental uncertaint...
Article
Modeling the height and diameter growth of trees is an important part of forest management. Growth models provide the basis for determining the thinning regime, target tree dimensions and optimal proportions of developmental phases of forest stands. We developed individual height growth models for dominant Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and...
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Recent studies show that several tree species are spreading to higher latitudes and elevations due to climate change. European beech, presently dominating from the colline to the subalpine vegetation belt, is already present in upper montane subalpine forests and has a high potential to further advance to higher elevations in European mountain fore...
Article
In northern temperate forests, ice storms are a common disturbance agent, though climate change may alter their occurrence patterns. Their impact on forest ecosystems is complex, as they influence both structure and processes. In 2014, an ice storm of high intensity and large spatial extent occurred in Slovenia, Central Europe, which enabled a deta...
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In Europe, mixed mountain forests, primarily comprised of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), cover about 10×10<sup>6</sup> ha at elevations between ~600–1,600 m a.s.l. They provide invaluable ecosystem services. However, the growth of these forests and the competition bet...
Article
There is concern in the scientific community and among forest managers about potential reductions in the provisioning of forest ecosystem services due to the loss of tree species diversity. Many studies have shown how species diversity influences forest functioning, especially productivity, but the influence of structural diversity, such as tree si...
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Mixed mountain forests of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst), and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) cover a total area of more than 10 million hectares in Europe. Due to altitudinal zoning, these forests are particularly vulnerable to climate change. However, as little is known about the long-term development of...
Article
Forest functions (FF) are a constituent part of the concept of sustainable and multifunctional forestry in Central Europe (CE). We describe the origins and development of the current concept of FF in CE forestry and assess FF as a spatially-based tool for multi-objective forest management and policy based on a framework of six dimensions (purpose,...
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This paper presents the Environmental Concern Kuznets Curve (ECKC) theory about decreasing environmental concern in the most developed and protected area-rich countries. We analyzed the relationship between the protected area (PA) coverage, environmental concern and GDP per capita in the 42 most developed countries in the 1990s, 2000s and 2010s. Ou...
Article
The research aims at assessing the Slovenian public opinion on the importance of forests and forest management. 1014 surveys were completed by randomly selected adult citizens of the RS proportionally in regard to the country%s statistical regions. The survey included 10 sections and 74 Likert-type statements. Slovenian public believes that the mos...
Article
Questions What is the long‐term impact of deer browsing on the diversity of the herbaceous layer and tree species regeneration? Which parameters of the tree species regeneration and herbaceous layer best indicate browsing impact? Location Dinaric Mountains, Slovenia. Methods We studied the long‐term impact of red deer on mixed temperate forests b...
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An increase in ungulate abundance in Europe in recent decades has raised concerns for the survival of browse-sensitive tree species in its early life history stages. A possible strategy for mitigating the browsing-induced mortality of natural regeneration is to optimize silviculture. We used matrix population models parameterized for three types of...
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Silvicultural practices are generally developed to meet societal objectives given the constraints of the site. This simple premise is a foundation of modern silviculture. However, silviculture may vary for other reasons related to cultural factors. This paper reviews the differences in silviculture in the twelve countries that comprise southeastern...
Article
We analyzed the characteristics of timber harvesting in private forests of Slovenia during the 1995-2014 period. The survey included forest sub-compartments that had been completely privately owned in the studied period (n = 16,234). With the multiple linear regression models we analyzed the influence of 9 natural, 4 forest-management and 3 socioec...
Article
We created determination procedure for forests with direct protection function according to the type of natural hazards and damage potential. The model was tested in two forest management units (Jezersko and Tržič) for two natural hazards % rockfall and avalanches. We determined areas with direct protection function on the basis of: 1) modelling ri...
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Zusammenfassung Bergmischwälder aus Fichte (Picea abies (L.) Karst), Weißtanne (Abies alba Mill.) und Europäischer Rot-buche (Fagus sylvatica) bedecken in Europa eine Gesamtfläche von mehreren Millionen Hektar. Sie verbinden die Buchenwaldgesellschaften im Tiefland mit den fichtendominierten, alpinen Waldtypen. Aufgrund ihrer Höhenzonierung sind di...
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In the Dinaric Mountains, the future of silver fir and Norway spruce appears to be uncertain, especially given the threat of climate change to both species and browsing pressure on fir. Stand development of mixed Dinaric mountain forest in Slovenia was simulated for the period 2010–2110 using the ForClim model to explore the prospects of both targe...
Article
Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) is one of the most valuable conifer trees in Europe for historical and economic reasons. Growing interest in the species, along with the recognition that silver fir was subjected to inappropriate silvicultural measures during the 20th century due a lack of understanding of its ecology, have spurred recent studies from...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for clustering multi-dimensional time series (MDTS). It is based on the predictive clustering paradigm, which combines elements of predictive modelling and clustering. It builds upon the algorithm for predictive clustering trees for modelling time series, and extends it to model MDTS. We also propose adequa...
Article
The alteration of natural tree species composition is defined as the deviation of the current tree species composition from that of the natural state. It can be used as a measure of human influence on forest vegetation, and thus as an indicator of the naturalness of forest vegetation. The aim of the study was to develop a standard procedure for est...
Article
Quantitative descriptions of natural disturbance regimes are lacking for temperate forest regions in Europe, primarily because a long history of intensive land-use has been the overriding driver of forest structure and composition across the region. The following contribution is the first attempt to comprehensively describe the natural disturbance...
Article
Chronic browsing and inappropriate stand management are often discussed as causes for recruitment failure of tree species in temperate mixed uneven-aged forests. Continuous cover forestry is thought to produce conditions that are conducive to the recruitment of native shade-tolerant and browse-sensitive tree species such as silver fir (Abies alba M...
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Fully publicly funded forest planning systems with no individual forest property planning are facing budget cuts and are of limited effectiveness in private forests. A cost-sharing planning instrument that might improve private forest management while providing public budget relief is the forest property plan (FPP). We explored the market for the F...
Article
Fully publicly funded forest planning systems with no individual forest property planning are facing budget cuts and are of limited effectiveness in private forests. A cost-sharing planning instrument that might improve private forest management while providing public budget relief is the forest property plan (FPP). We explored the market for the F...
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The concept of forest functions evolved in Central Europe as an important tool in the practice of multi-objective forest management. It is based on designating forest function areas that are relatively more important for the selected services. Recent practice has raised a number of concerns regarding the suitability and effectiveness of the concept...
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The causes of the decline of silver fir across Europe in the 1960s and 1970s and its subsequent recovery remain open to debate. We studied the radial growth of silver fir and possible influential factors on growth decline in uneven-aged silver fir–Norway spruce–European beech forests in the Dinaric Mountains of Croatia (180 000 ha) since 1900 using...
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Research on the early stages of stand dynamics in uneven-aged forests often favours regeneration over recruitment of trees into forest stands. We contrasted both regeneration (i.e. seedlings and saplings existing in a stand) and recruitment (i.e. the number of trees annually crossing the threshold of 10 cm dbh) in two main stand types of uneven-age...
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In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher imp...
Article
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Underuse of nonindustrial private forests in developed countries has been interpreted mostly as a consequence of the prevailing noncommodity objectives of their owners. Recent empirical studies have indicated a correlation between the harvesting behavior of forest owners and the specific conceptualization of appropriate forest management described...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of forest functions evolved in Central Europe as an important tool in the practice of multi-objective forest management. It is based on designating forest function areas that are relatively more important for the selected services. Recent practice has raised a number of concerns regarding the suitability and effectiveness of the concept...
Article
Full-text available
In many parts of Europe, close-to-nature silviculture (CNS) has been widely advocated as being the best approach for managing forests to cope with future climate change. In this review, we identify and evaluate six principles for enhancing the adaptive capacity of European temperate forests in a changing climate: (1) increase tree species richness,...
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New approaches to forest planning are needed to support the transition of European forests to sustainable management. The aim of this study is to review forest planning systems already in place throughout Europe by exploring a set of case-study countries reflecting the main silvicultural schools of Western Europe, including Belgium, Finland, France...
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Long-term dynamics of selection (plenter) forests and corresponding virgin forests in NW Balkan countries (Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro) were examined by assessing changes in diameter structure, stand volume and tree species composition. The parameters were aggregated at the landscape spatial scale, and the inten...
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New approaches to forest planning are needed to support the transition of European forests to sustainable management. The aim of this study is to review forest planning systems already in place throughout Europe by exploring a set of case-study countries reflecting the main silvicultural schools of Western Europe, including Belgium, Finland, France...
Article
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In the framework of multi-objective forest management, 'priority areas' which are relatively more important for the selected management objectives are commonly designated. Using a comparative analysis of guided interviews, we examined the use and importance of priority areas in forest planning in nine Central European countries. In all countries, p...
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In survey-based segmentation of forest owners, two threats to the validity of results have largely been ignored: (1) response style bias and (2) the robustness of the statistical methods. This study demonstrates response style bias detection, presents an approach for correcting for acquiescence � the systematic tendency to agree with survey items,...
Article
We conducted a quantitative study of private forest owner management behavior based on face-to-face interviews with 380 randomly selected private forest owners in Slovenia. Forest owners were asked to rate the relevance of nineteen factors representing information related to the social, ecological, and economic aspects of decision making based on a...
Article
In the study, data from a Slovenian forest inventory (67,563 plots, 200 m2 each) were used to develop a two-stage beech recruitment model. In the first stage a probability model of beech recruitment was estimated with binary logistic regression, while in the second stage a conditional model for beech recruitment rate was derived. A tree was classif...
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Context Recruitment is an important process in forest stand dynamics, especially in uneven-aged stands. Continuous recruitment is a prerequisite for diverse, uneven-aged silvicultural systems, but patterns may vary significantly. Aims The main goals of the study were to examine the recruitment of the main tree species in selection and irregular she...
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The development of uneven-aged forest management in the Dinaric region (north-west Balkans) is reviewed. Uneven-aged silviculture has been the major silvicultural system in the region since regular forest management began in the second half of the nineteenth century. Regular forest management in former virgin forest areas began as selection forest...
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Uneven-aged silver fir-European beech forests in Slovenia were studied to investigate the dynamics of their structure and composition in three different study areas over the last century, with a particular focus on silver fir dynamics. The study used current and archival data from forest inventories and historic forest management maps for a period...
Article
There are two main approaches to nature conservation in forest management. In the segregation approach, nature conservation is one of the management objectives which is limited to protected forest areas, while the integration approach considers the economic, social, and ecological components of sustainable forest management at the same time and pla...
Article
Silver fir decline was investigated based on changes in spatial distribution of fir, fir abundance in forest stands, dbh (age) structure of fir, and abundance of fir regeneration. The authors used a large-scale approach to study the dynamics of silver fir over nearly 40 years. Based on Silva-SI, a spatial information system, the majority of total f...
Article
In this study, silver fir – European beech forest types were examined in their structure and tree species composition. Two study areas, one in the Molise Region in Italy (Abeti Soprani) and one in the Dinaric Mountains in Slovenia (Leskova dolina), were compared in their dynamics and present structure. The aim of the study was to assess if a standa...
Conference Paper
Beech, silver fir and Norway spruce mountain forests represent one of major forest types in east and southeast Europe. They are well preserved since they were less influenced by humans compared to lowland or high mountain forests. The majority of European old-growth forests lie in this region, while productive forests are often managed by unevenage...
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Uneven-aged silver fir-European beech forest stands were studied to (1) analyse the dynamics of diameter structure and tree species composition in the past two centuries and (2) determine the impact of red deer on the regeneration and recruitment of silver fir. The study used current data on forest stands, archival data from old forest management p...
Article
Based on data acquired from the spatial information system Silva-SI, the majority of the entire forest area in Slovenia (22,220 forest compartments with a total area of 7446km2, classified into eight forest categories) was analysed for changes in the distribution of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in the period 1975–2005 using a binary logistic...
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Understanding forest stand structural change is crucial for forest ecosystem research and management. The aim of our research was to identify structural and compositional changes and possible natural and anthropogenic causes of these changes in an old‐growth silver fir‐beech forest in the Dinaric mountains of Slovenia. Data on stand structure of th...
Article
The basal area and height growth of trees and saplings in silver fir–European beech single stem selection forest were studied with regard to their social status and crown parameters of size, coverage, shading and vitality. On 24 permanent research plots (20m×20m each) all trees [diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥10cm] and saplings (≥1.3m tall and db...
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Drawing upon the historical framework of origin and development, and a long tradition in forest management planning in Slovenia and Croatia, and based on a survey of literature and research to date, this paper addresses problems and perspectives of forest management planning. Comparison is made of forest management planning concepts, which generall...
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Une analyse des perturbations naturelles dans les Alpes Juliennes a été effectuée dans la région de Jelovica-Pokljuka (9627 ha) pour la période 1979–2006. Les données de coupes de récupération ont été utilisées pour examiner la fréquence des perturbations liées aux chablis, aux ruptures causées par la neige et aux épidémies d'insectes en fonction d...
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Successive inventories of individual old-growth beech–fir forests from Dinaric mountains show structural changes during the last half a century. To be aware of these trends is important for general understanding of regeneration processes in old-growth forests, as well as for stating appropriate silvicultural aims. However, no study comparatively in...
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We studied the effects of two types of selective thinning on beech stands formed by a shelterwood cut in 1910-with lower number of crop trees and higher thinning intensity (T1) and higher number of crop trees with lower thinning intensity (T2). The stands were thinned in 1980, 1991 and 2001. Despite a lower stand density after thinning, the annual...
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This study focuses on the problem of irregular diameter structure in a silver fir–beech selection (plenter) forest with a “surplus” of large diameter trees and a lack of natural regeneration and small diameter trees. We sampled 274 plots (900m2 each) in the Belevine research site (266.24ha) in the mountain region Gorski Kotar (Croatia), where diame...
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In 1998, we analysed regeneration success in four 20year old medium-sized (600–800m2) and four small experimental gaps (100–200m2) in subalpine Norway spruce forest in Triglav National Park, Slovenia. We assessed the influence of site (depressions, slopes), gap size, and position within gap (centre, gap south, and north edge) on regeneration succes...
Article
Comparisons are made between a virgin forest remnant (primeval forest) and a lightly managed (near-to-nature) forest with regard to horizontal forest structures, the structure of forest stands, and the diversity of plant and bird species. In the virgin forest remnant the proportion of canopy gaps is smaller, there are no stands in the developmental...
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This study utilizes data from long-term research sites in managed fir-beech forests (Hrusica, Leskova dolina and Rog) and a virgin forest remnant (Rajhenav), used as a reference site. Data obtained from old forest management plans and forest inventories were analysed. The results of the study support the hypothesis that two main tree species - silv...
Article
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Selection forests cover 4 per cent of the total forest area in Slovenia. There are two main types - European silver fir-beech forests on calcareous substrates (FB type), and Norway spruce-silver fir forests on acidic substrates (SF type). Using data from forest inventory and research plots, the history, distribution, stand structure, tree species c...
Article
Data of the total forest area in Slovenia deriving from a forestry information system were analysed according to 200-metre elevation belts. This article shows how forest cover, site conditions, stand structure, tree species composition,and importance of forest functions change along the altitude gradient.
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Izvleček V prispevku analiziramo strukturo in razvojne značilnosti sestojev z jelko, gospodarjenje in posek jelke po štirih rastiščnih skupinah (A-D) glede na gojitveno ekološke značilnosti jelke na podlagi podatkovnih zbirk Zavoda za gozdove Slovenije. V lesni zalogi jelke prevladuje srednje debelo (d=30-49 cm) in debelo drevje (d=50 cm in več) (8...
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The Granata research site was established for the study of structure, growth and regeneration of silver fir-European beech single stem selection forest. Three phytocoenological relevés were carried out, all trees ≥5 cm diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) were measured by full callipering, tree growth was analysed for sample trees, regeneration of tr...
Article
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The regeneration of virgin Dinaric silver-fir beech forests is driven by small-scale disturbance. For a century, forests in this area were managed with a selection system. Due to complex reasons, the silver-fir was declining in both managed and virgin forests. Because of the more social character of beech, we tested the influence of an irregular sh...

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
We studied conceptual and financial options for implementing a forest property plan (FPP) into the forest planning system. By employing multiple quantitative surveys of Slovenian non-industrial private forest owners, we 1) examined how owners (n = 754) conceptualize forest management and resource-efficiency using structural equation modeling; 2) studied owners’ (n = 374) decision-making styles using a probabilistic approach while controlling for model-reality consistency and acquiescence bias to account for uncertainties in owner classification; 3) explored owner’ (n = 510) willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the FPP using the Heckit econometric model and estimated financial implications for publicly funded forest planning; and 4) analyzed satisfaction with the FPP using semi-structured interviews with the owners (n=11) for which the FPP prototypes have been prepared in the past two decades. We found that 1) owners underuse forest resources not because they object to harvesting, but mostly because of biophysical constraints in the environment; 2) multiobjective owners who consider mainly the extractive value of forests are prime candidates for the FPP; 3) owners are willing to pay for the FPP, and the cost-sharing could significantly reduce public budget expenditures for forest planning; and 4) owners were mostly unsatisfied with the FPP prototypes because of insufficient consideration of their demands. We conclude that owners support the FPP conceptually and financially. Further steps in the implementation of the FPP into practice should take into account the diversity of costumer segments and uncertainty associated with the survey-based research.