# Andrei KlimovUniversity of Guadalajara | UDG · Departamento de Física (CUCEI)

Andrei Klimov

PhD

## About

269

Publications

20,644

Reads

**How we measure 'reads'**

A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more

4,408

Citations

Citations since 2017

Introduction

Continuos and discrete phase-space methods. Discrete quantum systems. Quantum optical models.

**Skills and Expertise**

## Publications

Publications (269)

Despite the indisputable merits of the Wigner phase-space formulation, it has not been widely explored for systems with SU(1,1) symmetry, as a simple operational definition of the Wigner function has proved elusive in this case. We capitalize on the unique properties of the parity operator, to derive in a consistent way a \emph{bona fide} SU(1,1) W...

We analyze the dynamics of N-qubit systems in the measurement space under the action of symmetric Hamiltonians. We show that the evolution of the discrete distribution function, representing the global properties of multipartite states, becomes quasicontinuous in the macroscopic limit N ≫ 1. The shorttime dynamics can be approximately described as...

We demonstrate that the multipoles associated with the density matrix are truly observable quantities that can be unambiguously determined from intensity moments. Given their correct transformation properties, these multipoles are the natural variables to deal with a number of problems in the quantum domain. In the case of polarization, the moments...

Even the most classical states are still governed by quantum theory. A fantastic array of physical systems can be described by their Majorana constellations of points on the surface of a sphere, where concentrated constellations and highly symmetric distributions correspond to the least and most quantum states, respectively. If these points are cho...

In quantum optics, nonclassicality of quantum states is commonly associated with negativities of phase-space quasiprobability distributions.We argue that the impossibility of any classical simulations with phase-space functions is a necessary and sufficient condition of nonclassicality. The problem of such phase-space classical simulations for part...

We demonstrate that the multipoles associated with the density matrix are truly observable quantities that can be unambiguously determined from intensity moments. Given their correct transformation properties, these multipoles are the natural variables to deal with a number of problems in the quantum domain. In the case of polarization, the moments...

We apply the semi-classical limit of the generalized $SO(3)$ map for representation of variable-spin systems in a four-dimensional symplectic manifold and approximate their evolution terms of effective classical dynamics on $T^{\ast }\mathcal{S}_{2}$. Using the asymptotic form of the star-product, we manage to "quantize" one of the classical dynami...

We construct an informationally complete set of mutually unbiased - like bases for N ququarts. These bases are used in an explicit tomographic protocol which performance is analyzed by estimating quadratic errors and compared to other reconstruction schemes.

We show that the Truncated Wigner Approximation developed in the flat phase-space is mapped into a Lindblad-type evolution with an indefinite metric in the space of linear operators. As a result, the classically evolved Wigner function corresponds to a non-positive operator $\hat{R}(t)$, which does not describe a physical state. The rate of appeara...

We analyse periodically modulated quantum systems with $SU(2)$ and $SU(1,1)$ symmetries. Transforming the Hamiltonian into the Floquet representation we apply the Lie transformation method, which allows us to classify all effective resonant transitions emerging in time-dependent systems. In the case of a single periodically perturbed system, we pro...

We introduce a discrete Q-function of N qubit system projected into the space of symmetric measurements as a tool for analyzing general properties of quantum systems in the macroscopic limit. For known states the projected Q-function helps to visualize the results of collective measurements, and for unknown states it can be approximately reconstruc...

We apply the semi-classical limit of the generalized SO(3) map for representation of variable-spin systems in a four-dimensional symplectic manifold and approximate their evolution terms of effective classical dynamics on T*S2. Using the asymptotic form of the star-product, we manage to “quantize” one of the classical dynamic variables and introduc...

We prove that all macroscopic properties of the N -qubit cluster state are asymptotically invariant under local transformations in the limit N ≫ 1, and can be described by a distribution function similar to that of the completely mixed state.

Conventional classical sensors are approaching their maximum sensitivity levels in many areas. Yet these levels are still far from the ultimate limits dictated by quantum mechanics. Quantum sensors promise a substantial step ahead by taking advantage of the salient sensitivity of quantum states to the environment. Here, we focus on sensing rotation...

We analyze periodically modulated quantum systems with SU(2) and SU(1,1) symmetries. Transforming the Hamiltonian into the Floquet representation we apply the Lie transformation method, which allows us to classify all effective resonant transitions emerging in time-dependent systems. In the case of a single periodically perturbed system, we propose...

We show that a polynomial Hˆ(N) of degree N of a harmonic oscillator hamiltonian allows us to devise a fully solvable continuous quantum system for which the first N discrete energy eigenvalues can be chosen at will. In general such a choice leads to a re-ordering of the associated energy eigenfunctions of Hˆ such that the number of their nodes doe...

We propose a practical recipe to compute the s -parametrized maps for systems with SU(1, 1) symmetry using a connection between the Q- and P- symbols through the action of an operator invariant under the group. This establishes equivalence relations between s -parametrized SU(1, 1)-covariant maps. The particular case of the self-dual (Wigner) phase...

We propose an approach to the analysis of the semiclassical evolution of spinlike systems. We show that an appropriate discretization of distributions in classical phase space (in this case the two-dimensional sphere S2) allows us to describe long-time dynamics (including the Schrödinger cat times) in terms of classical trajectories, both in stable...

We propose a practical recipe to compute the ${s}$-parametrized maps for systems with $SU(1,1)$ symmetry using a connection between the ${Q}$ and ${P} $ symbols through the action of an operator invariant under the group. The particular case of the self-dual (Wigner) phase-space functions, defined on the upper sheet of the two-sheet hyperboloid (or...

Conventional classical sensors are approaching their maximum sensitivity levels in many areas. Yet these levels still are far from the ultimate limits dictated by quantum mechanics. Quantum sensors promise a substantial step ahead by taking advantage of the salient sensitivity of quantum states to the environment. Here, we focus on sensing rotation...

The striking differences between quantum and classical systems predicate disruptive quantum technologies. We peruse quantumness from a variety of viewpoints, concentrating on phase-space formulations because they can be applied beyond particular symmetry groups. The symmetry-transcending properties of the Husimi Q function make it our basic tool. I...

We comprehensively review the quantum theory of the polarization properties of light. In classical optics, these traits are characterized by the Stokes parameters, which can be geometrically interpreted using the Poincaré sphere. Remarkably, these Stokes parameters can also be applied to the quantum world, but then important differences emerge: now...

We comprehensively review the quantum theory of the polarization properties of light. In classical optics, these traits are characterized by the Stokes parameters, which can be geometrically interpreted using the Poincar\'e sphere. Remarkably, these Stokes parameters can also be applied to the quantum world, but then important differences emerge: n...

The striking differences between quantum and classical systems predicate disruptive quantum technologies. We peruse quantumness from a variety of viewpoints, concentrating on phase-space formulations because they can be applied beyond particular symmetry groups. The symmetry-transcending properties of the Husimi $Q$ function make it our basic tool....

We show that nonclassicality of phase-space quasi-probability distributions is tied to violations of principles of physical reality in device-dependent scenarios. In this context, the nonclassicality problem has its dual form expressed as a device-dependent analog of Bell inequalities. This approach is applicable even to systems with only one spati...

In spite of their potential usefulness, Wigner functions for systems with SU(1,1) symmetry have not been explored thus far. We address this problem from a physically-motivated perspective, with an eye towards applications in modern metrology. Starting from two independent modes, and after getting rid of the irrelevant degrees of freedom, we derive...

We show that the Truncated Wigner Approximation developed in the flat phase-space is mapped into a Lindblad-type evolution with an indefinite metric in the space of linear operators. As a result, the classically evolved Wigner function corresponds to a non-positive operator $\hat{R}(t)$ , which does not describe a physical state. The rate of appear...

We present analytic expressions for the s-parametrized currents on the sphere for both unitary and dissipative evolutions. We examine the spatial distribution of the flow generated by these currents for quadratic Hamiltonians. The results are applied for the study of the quantum dissipative dynamics of the time-honored Kerr and Lipkin models, explo...

We develop a general scheme for an analysis of macroscopic qudit systems: a) introduce a set of collective observables, which characterizes the macroscopic properties of qudits in an optimal way; b) construct projected $\tilde{Q}$-functions for $N$ qudit systems, containing full macroscopic information; c) propose a collective tomographic protocol...

We present analytic expressions for the $s$-parametrized currents on the sphere for both unitary and dissipative evolutions. We examine the spatial distribution of the flow generated by these currents for quadratic Hamiltonians. The results are applied for the study of the quantum dissipative dynamics of the time-honored Kerr and Lipkin models, exp...

In spite of their potential usefulness, Wigner functions for systems with SU(1,1) dynamical symmetry have not been explored thus far. We address this problem from a physically-motivated perspective, with an eye towards applications in modern metrology. Starting from two independent modes, and after getting rid of the irrelevant degrees of freedom,...

We propose a scheme for a deterministic extraction of entanglement by means of a reduction process involving local von Neumann measurements. In an example of a tripartite system, we show that by choosing appropriate measurement bases for a given qubit, one can map an initial three-qubit state into outcome pure bipartite states with the same amount...

We present results on the * product for SU(3) Wigner functions over SU(3)/U(2). In particular, we present a form of the so-called correspondence rules, which provide a differential form of the * product A*B and A*B when A is an su(3) generator. For the su(3) Wigner map, these rules must contain second order derivatives and thus substantially differ...

We derive a continuity equation for the evolution of the SU(2) Wigner function under nonlinear Kerr evolution. We give explicit expressions for the resulting quantum Wigner current, and discuss the appearance of the classical limit. We show that the global structure of the quantum current significantly differs from the classical one, which is clear...

We derive a continuity equation for the evolution of the SU(2) Wigner function under nonlinear Kerr evolution. We give explicit expressions for the resulting quantum Wigner current, and discuss the appearance of the classical limit. We show that the global structure of the quantum current significantly differs from the classical one, which is clear...

We discuss the quantum phase transitions (QPT) in N-spin chains from the point of view of collective observables. We show that the measurement space representation is a convenient tool for the analysis of phase transitions, allowing the determination of an appropriate set of macroscopic order parameters (for a given Hamiltonian). Quantum correlatio...

We discuss the tomography of N-qubit states using collective measurements. The method is exact for symmetric states, whereas for not completely symmetric states the information accessible can be arranged as a mixture of irreducible SU(2) blocks. For the fully symmetric sector, the reconstruction protocol can be reduced to projections onto a canonic...

We discuss the tomography of $N$-qubit states using collective measurements. The method is exact for symmetric states, whereas for not completely symmetric states the information accessible can be arranged as a mixture of irreducible SU(2) blocks. For the fully symmetric sector, the reconstruction protocol can be reduced to projections onto a canon...

We discuss equilibration and thermalization processes in N-spin systems from the point of view of collective observables. We show that the measurement space approach is a convenient tool for the analysis of these effects, allowing one to observe the emergence of irreversibility even for a relatively small numbers of particles. Equilibrating dynamic...

We propose a method for accounting the simplest type of systematic errors in the mutually unbiased bases (MUB) tomography, emerging due to an imperfect (non-orthogonal) preparation of measurement bases. The present approach allows to analyze analytically the performance of MUB tomography in finite systems of an arbitrary (prime) dimension. We compa...

We survey some applications of SU(2) covariant maps to the phase space quantum mechanics of systems with fixed or variable spin. A generalization to SU(3) symmetry is also briefly discussed in framework of the axiomatic Stratonovich–Weyl formulation.

We analyse the phase space representation of the optimal measurement of a phase shift in an interferometer with equal photon loss in both its arms. In the local phase estimation scenario with a fixed number of photons, we identify features of the spin Wigner function that warrant sub-shot noise precision, and discuss their sensitivity to losses. We...

We analyze the stable and unstable evolution of spin-like systems in the framework of the Truncated Wigner and Unitary Approximations, and test the dependence of the time scale where the classical evolution determines the dynamics of a quantum system on the semiclassical parameter.

We further elaborate on a phase-space picture for a system of N qubits and explore the structures compatible with the notion of unbiasedness. These consist of bundles of discrete curves satisfying certain additional properties and different entanglement properties. We discuss the construction of discrete covariant Wigner functions for these bundles...

We formulate the construction of cyclic and non-cyclic complete sets of mutually unbiased bases, corresponding to the underlyining field and semifield structures, in the framework of the symplectic approach.

We have developed a general method for constructing a set of non-orthogonal bases with equal separations between all different basis' states for N-qubit systems. Using these bases we derive an explicit expression for the optimal tomography in non-orthogonal bases and discuss the amount of non-classical resources required for the bases preparation a...

Quantum metrology allows for a tremendous boost in the accuracy of measurement of diverse physical parameters. The estimation of a rotation constitutes a remarkable example of this quantum-enhanced precision, and it has been demonstrated in, e.g., magnetometry and polarimetry. When the rotation axis is known, NOON states are optimal for this task,...

We show that reformulating the Direct State Tomography (DST) protocol in terms of projections into a set of non-orthogonal bases one can perform an accuracy analysis of DST in a similar way as in the standard projection-based reconstruction schemes. i.e. in terms of the Hilbert-Schmidt distance between estimated and true states. This allows us to d...

We analyze collective properties of N-qubit states. In particular, we exhaustively discuss the localization aspect of distributions in the measurement space and introduce the concept of Gaussian states in the macroscopic limit. The effect of local shifts on the localization and Gaussianity is analyzed.

It is shown that transient spin-spin correlations in one-dimensional spin S>>1 chain can be enhanced for initially factorized and individually squeezed spin states. Such correlation transfer form "internal" to "external" degrees of freedom can be well described by using a semiclassical phase-space approach.

We investigate polarization squeezing in squeezed coherent states with varying coherent amplitudes. In contrast to the traditional characterization based on the full Stokes parameters, we experimentally determine the Stokes vector of each excitation subspace separately. Only for states with a fixed photon number do the methods coincide; when the ph...

We analyze different families of discrete maps\ in the N-qubit systems in the context of the permutation invariance. We prove that the tomographic condition imposed on the self-dual (Wigner) map is incompatible with the requirement of the invariance under particle permutations, which makes it impossible to project the Wootters-like Wigner function...

We investigate polarization squeezing in squeezed coherent states with
varying coherent amplitudes. In contrast to the traditional characterization
based on the full Stokes parameters, we experimentally determine the Stokes
vector of each excitation manifold separately. Only for states with a fixed
photon number do the methods coincide; when the ph...

The characterization of quantum polarization of light requires knowledge of all the moments of the Stokes variables, which are appropriately encoded in the multipole expansion of the density matrix. We look into the cumulative distribution of those multipoles and work out the corresponding extremal pure states. We find that SU(2) coherent states ar...

Using a relation between a biorthogonal set of equiseparable bases and the weak values of the density matrix we derive an explicit formula for its tomographic reconstruction completely analogous to the standard mutually unbiased bases expansion.

We study semiclassical dynamics of the resonant Dicke model under the rotation wave approximation (RWA) for initial vacuum field state and all excited atoms in the asymptotic limit of a large number of atoms. We develop a new approach for description of the evolution of such unstable states by combining semiclassical and quantum approaches.

We discuss the polarization of paraxial and nonparaxial classical light fields by resorting to a multipole expansion of the corresponding polarization matrix. It turns out that only a dipolar term contributes when one considers SU(2) (paraxial) or SU(3) (nonparaxial) as fundamental symmetries. In this latter case, one can alternatively expand in SU...

The semiclassical evolution of the generalized SU(2) Wigner function for quantum systems with a variable number of excitations is discussed in detail. It is shown that in the framework of the Liouvillian approach quantum dynamics can be approximately described in terms of classical trajectories on an appropriate four-dimensional symplectic manifold...

A semi-classical analysis of the quantum rigid-rotor motion based on a phase-space description of the rotation in terms of a SO(3) covariant Wigner-like distribution is presented. The results are applied to the description of the intense-field alignment of an anisotropically polarizable molecule with high rotational excitation.

The full characterization of quantum polarization of light requires the
knowledge of all the moments of the Stokes variables, which are appropriately
encoded in the multipole expansion of the density matrix. We look into the
cumulative distribution of those multipoles and work out the corresponding
extremal states. We find that SU(2) coherent state...

Original article: EPL, 109 (2015) 40001.

We propose a measure to quantify correlations in a bipartite quantum system of two quibits by assessing the minimum difference between outcome states of a subsystem by performing a local measurement on the other subsystem. This maximum similarity measure is a monotone function of the concurrence for pure states of two qubits; for mixed states it ac...

The standard construction of complete sets of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in prime power dimensions is based on the quadratic Gauss sums. We introduce complete MUB sets for three, four, and five qubits that are unitarily inequivalent to all existing MUB sets. These sets are constructed by using certain exponential sums, where the degree of the p...

Systems of four nonbinary particles, each having three or more internal
states, exhibit maximally entangled states that are inaccessible to four
qubits. This breaks the pattern of two- and three-particle systems, in which
the existing graph states are equally accessible to binary and nonbinary
systems alike. We compare the entanglement properties o...

We capitalize on a multipolar expansion of the polarisation density matrix,
in which multipoles appear as successive moments of the Stokes variables. When
all the multipoles up to a given order $K$ vanish, we can properly say that the
state is $K$th-order unpolarized, as it lacks of polarization information to
that order. First-order unpolarized st...

We show there is a natural connection between Latin squares and commutative
sets of monomials defining geometric structures in finite phase-space of prime
power dimensions. A complete set of such monomials defines a mutually unbiased
basis (MUB) and may be associated with a complete set of mutually orthogonal
Latin squares (MOLS). We translate some...

We put forward an operational degree of polarization that can be extended in
a natural way to fields whose wave fronts are not necessarily planar. This
measure appears as a distance from a state to the set of all its
polarization-transformed counterparts. By using the Hilbert-Schmidt metric, the
resulting degree is a sum of two terms: one is the pu...

We introduce a discrete $Q$ function of an $N$-qubit system projected into the space of symmetric measurements as a tool for analyzing general properties of quantum systems in the macroscopic limit. For known states the projected $Q$ function helps to visualize the results of collective measurements, and for unknown states it can be approximately r...

An explicit construction of all the possible sets of n commuting monomials for an n-qudit system as well as an algorithm for the determination of their factorization are given here. The results are applied for the generation of locally non-isomorphic mutually unbiased complete sets and their classification according to the separability properties....

We analyze the creation of quantum correlations in a two-qubit system, initially prepared in a classical state, when only one qubit is locally coupled to a bath through a Hamiltonian interaction. We argue that a substantial part of the generated correlations is related to the presence of virtual excitations in the qubit-bath subsystem. The appearan...

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.89.039906

The probabilistic scheme for making two copies of two nonorthogonal pure states requires two auxiliary systems, one for copying and one for attempting to project onto the suitable subspace. The process is performed by means of a unitary-reduction scheme which allows having a success probability of cloning different from zero. The scheme becomes opt...

We present a new parametrization of families of complex Hadamard matrices stemming from the Fourier matrices in every prime power dimension. We connect continuous Abelian groups with families of complex Hadamard matrices and conjecture that the constructed families are maximal. Also, we derive new relations for complex Hadamard matrices in every pr...

A scheme for quantum-state tomography is presented that can be performed for polarized light with an arbitrary photon-number distribution. The proposed method fills the gap between existing polarization-tomography schemes for single-photon states and for optical fields with very large photon numbers. It consists of an optical homodyne setup trigger...

We advocate a simple multipole expansion of the polarisation density matrix.
The resulting multipoles appear as successive moments of the Stokes variables
and can be obtained from feasible measurements. In terms of these multipoles,
we construct a whole hierarchy of measures that accurately assess higher-order
polarization fluctuations.

We analyze the appearance of quantum correlations of two qubits prepared in a classical state. One qubit is locally coupled to a bath through a Hamiltonian interaction. We find that the generated correlations is related to the presence of virtual excitations of qubit-bath interaction.

The concepts of macroscopicity and localization for large quantum systems is discussed and analyzed in relation with the asymptotic evolution in the measurement space under action of random and chaotic Hamiltonians.

We set forth a method to analyze the orbital angular momentum of a light
field. Instead of using the canonical formalism for the conjugate pair
angle-angular momentum, we model this latter variable by the superposition of
two independent harmonic oscillators along two orthogonal axes. By describing
each oscillator by a standard Wigner function, we...

An efficient method for assessing the quality of quantum state tomography is
developed. Special attention is paid to the tomography of multipartite systems
in terms of unbiased measurements. Although the overall reconstruction errors
of different sets of mutually unbiased bases are the same, differences appear
when particular aspects of the measure...

We propose a scheme for preparing a set of bases constituted by equidistant states of a quantum system in prime dimension starting with a single entangled system-ancilla state. The required quantum correlations between the involved systems as a function of the separability constant are analyzed. A comparative analysis of errors in tomographic recon...