Andreas SchuckEuropean Forest Institute (EFI) · EFI Bonn
- EFI Bonn Office
- Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
- Senior Researcher
- Main activities are 'integrating nature protection and biodiversity to forest management and investigating the establishment of an exchange platform for forest related disturbances under changing climate, forest management and societal perceptions
Sep 1997 - Jan 2009
- Forest Resources and Information
- Progamme Manager
- Coordination of Research Programme , research and financial planning, recruitment and supervision of personnel, preparation of research proposals, project coordination and management, research in numerous projects
Research Items (118)
The smart phone application originates from the published report: Kraus, D., Bütler, R., Krumm, F., Lachat, T., Larrieu, L., Mergner, U., Paillet, Y., Rydkvist, T., Schuck, A., and Winter, S., 2016. Catalogue of tree microhabitats - field reference list. Integrate+ Technical Paper No. 13. 16 p. European Forest Institute (2016). Further credits go to Lisa Apfelbacher (illustrations), Daniel Kraus (photos), Sebastian Walker, Andreas Schuck (design) and Sebastian Walker - walkermedia systems (development). It is available for Andriod and iOS based smart phones. It can be accessed via: http://integrateplus.org/m-learning-tools.html or directly at Google Play and Apple App stores. It is currently available in two languages (English and German)
- Mar 2018
Das Tiefland der Lombardei (Italien) wäre ohne menschliches Zutun mit Eichen-Hainbuchenwäldern (Lebensraumtyp 9160 gemäss Fauna-Flora-Habitat-Richtlinie der Europäischen Union) bedeckt. Heute sind davon nur noch kleine Reste vorhanden. Ein solcher befindet sich im 236 ha grossen Schutzgebiet «BoscoFontana» nördlich von Mantua. Allerdings sind im Schutzgebiet zahlreiche fremdländische Baumarten anzutreffen, die im Rahmen der Wiederherstellung des in den beiden Weltkriegen stark übernutzten Waldes angepflanzt worden sind. Es handelt sich dabei hauptsächlich um Roteiche (Quercus rubra L.) und Hybridplatane (Platanus hybrida Brot.). Im Jahr 1999 wurde im Rahmen des Life-Projekts NAT/IT99/006245 ein Managementplan zur Beseitigung der fremden Baumarten ausgearbeitet, da diese das wertvolle Ökosystem mit seiner ursprünglichen Artenvielfalt beeinträchtigen.
Marteloscopes are multifunctional training tools that can create a better understanding of forest management and have been developed as didactic tools for virtual tree selections. With this paper the authors provide explanatory information on the more than 40 Marteloscopes that were established in the course of the project Integrate+. It presents the Marteloscope plot design, gives insight on their set up and the type of data that is recorded for each site. Methods are described on how to calculate e.g. habitat and economic values. The paper elaborates on the use of Marteloscopes as silvicultural training tools and their value in forest education. With the help of the tablet software “I+” virtual management interventions can be performed and the results immediately retrieved. We exemplary present a few options on how the Marteloscope dataset of more than 15,000 recorded trees may serve as stimulus for scientific investigations. Examples are stand development projections, future evolution of tree microhabitats and the calculating of structural complexity and competition indices. An annex separate to this paper contains the bulk of the Integrate + Marteloscopes in the form of information fact sheets. Keywords: Silviculture, Marteloscopes, Tree related Microhabitats (TreMs), habitat value, I+ software, training, structural complexity, competition index
Vorgestellt wird das Lehr-/Lernkonzept sog. „Marteloskope“. Zwei der bisher europaweit 40 Marteloskope befi nden sich im Stadtwald Freiburg. Diese werden im Rahmen der waldbaulichen Ausbildung an der Universität Freiburg eingesetzt. Veranschaulicht wird, was Marteloskope sind, wie sie funktionieren, welche Möglichkeiten sie in der forstlichen Aus- und Weiterbildung bieten und mit welchem Lernerfolg sie eingesetzt werden können.
Assessing the trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and timber production within a Natura 2000 forest under 4 silvicutural scenarios.
‘Tree – tree’ interactions are important structuring mechanisms for forest community dynamics. Forest management takes advantage of competition effects on tree growth by removing or retaining trees to achieve management goals. Both competition and silviculture have thus a strong effect on density and distribution of Tree related Microhabitats (TreMs) which are key features for forest taxa at the stand scale (e.g. Bouget et al. 2013, 2014). In particular, spatially explicit data to understand patterns and mechanisms of TreM formation in forest stands are rare. To train and eventually improve decision making capacities related to the integration of biodiversity aspects into forest management 39 usually 1 ha (100 m x 100m) permanent plots were established in dominant forest communities of Europe. Due to their demonstration character the selection of plots was non-systematic. They do, however, cover a broad range of forest types (e.g. beech-oak, beech-fir (-spruce), oak-hornbeam, pine-spruce, etc.), altitudinal gradient (from 25 m – 1850 m) and site conditions (e.g. oligotrophic Luzulo-Fagetum or Vaccinio-Pinetum to mesotrophic Galio-Fagetum or Milio-Fagetum). For each plot the following data is collected: (1) tree location as polar coordinates (stem base map), (2) tree species, (3) forest mensuration data (dbh in [cm], tree height in [m]), (4) tree related microhabitats (TreMs) and (5) tree status (living or standing dead). In addition to the spatial dendrometric data we provide information on plot establishment, management history (year of last intervention), forest type, plot location (state, region, country), elevation, means for annual precipitation and temperature, and the natural forest community. Initially the permanent plots established within the Integrate+ project had the focus on showing good practice examples of integrative forest management concepts. The plots were designed following the Marteloscope approach to allow practitioners to perform virtual tree selection exercises in the demonstration sites based on different scenarios and forest management strategies. Immediate feedback on their decisions is given in terms of ecological and economic impacts. Particular attention was given to tree related microhabitats as these structures are home to many, also endangered species. Retaining and restoring such habitats in managed forests can be well integrated into the work portfolio of forest managers and thus be a direct contribution to biodiversity conservation in managed forests. The TreM recording and the development of the field catalogue was primarily aimed at providing individual habitat values for each tree to make harvesting impacts visible to practitioners in Marteloscope exercises. In the course of the project the plots themselves proved valuable as exploratory forests for other research questions as well. In particular, the database with the spatially explicit information on trees and TreMs looked promising to increase understanding of TreM formation and development, and also spatial distribution. The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 15,191 records. 1 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below. Occurrence (core) 15,191; MeasurementOrFact 1,032,988; Link to dataset: http://www.gbif.org/dataset/2e102194-f384-4712-89a4-5db7a3fc409a
Project - Integrate+
Note: The film produced in the course of the Integrate+ project entitled "Wise use of our forest: the integrative approach" (executive editors: Daniel Kraus and Andreas Schuck) can be found at the following web location (for those who may not have found the link in the film script document):
Abstract This Outlook for the Development of European Forest Resources provides the methodologies, data, scenarios, and results of the outlook on the European forest resources from 2000 to 2040. The aim of this forest resource study was to analyse the impacts on the European forest resources under the level of fellings needed to fulfil the derived roundwood demand according to two scenarios as provided by the market modelling project within the EFSOS framework. Thus fellings and removals presented in this study cannot be identified with a wood supply forecast in economic terms. The study includes the forest available for wood supply (FAWS) in geographical Europe, i.e. from Ireland to the Ural mountains and from the northern tip of Lapland to the southern border of Turkey. The model outcomes are based on assumptions about the increase in FAWS as well as unchanged forest management regimes (e.g. rotation period, thinning intensity, afforestation), and growth of stands ratios between felling and removals over the analysed period. Although removals are assumed to rise significantly, the results as presented sketch large and increasing forest resources in Europe. The growing stock increases under the baseline scenario from 51 billion m3 o.b. to 63 billion m3 o.b. in 2040, whereas the net annual increment declines only slightly from the current 1.2 billion m3 o.b o.b to 1.15 billion m3 o.b. in 2040. The FAWS area is assumed to decrease from 335 million ha to 329 million ha by the year 2040, in the base scenario. In the alternative scenario the forest area is expected to increase to 343 million ha. The market model outcomes projected a fast increase in required fellings in the current outlook study. This demand for fellings on FAWS is foreseen to increase from 643 million m3 o.b. per year in 2000 to 847 million m3 o.b. per year in 2020 in the baseline scenario (1014 million m3 o.b. per year in the alternative). This, together with an approach that dynamically simulates age class development, shows that annual availability of roundwood may be hampered after 2020. In the baseline scenario the actual fellings in 2036-2040 were about 2% lower than the required fellings, whereas in the alternative scenario the difference was about 11% per year. In reality market mechanisms will take care of this difference, by adjusting prices, forestry management and especially trade, considering the legal restriction, which assure sustainable forestry management. These adjustments cannot be simulated with the current modelling system.
Project - Towards a European Forest Risk Facility - a feasibility project (FRISK-GO)
This Integrate+ Technical Paper (in Persian) is one of several translations of the original published in English language (Catalogue of tree microhabitats – Reference field list).
This so called "Policy Brief" summarizes the outcomes of the project "In-Tree (http://www.in-tree.org/)". In particular it compiles in a condensed format the key messages of the project's main output, the publication: "Introduced tree species in European forests - opportunities and challenges". Krumm F. and Vitková L. (Eds.). Series: "In Focus Managing forests in Europe". European Forest Institute. 462 p.
This Integrate+ Technical Paper (in Danish) is one of several translations of the original published in English language (Catalogue of tree microhabitats – Reference field list).
This Integrate+ Technical Paper (in Slovenian) is one of several translations of the original published in English language (Catalogue of tree microhabitats – Reference field list).
This Integrate+ Technical Paper (in Spanish) is one of several translations of the original published in English language (Catalogue of tree microhabitats – Reference field list).
This Integrate+ Technical Paper (in Italian) is one of several translations of the original published in English language (Catalogue of tree microhabitats – Reference field list).
This Integrate+ Technical Paper (in French) is one of several translations of the original published in English language (Catalogue of tree microhabitats – Reference field list).
The capacity to identify and mitigate threats from invasive alien species (IAS) relies on accurate, updated and easily accessible information. This would help to synthesize risks and impacts of the most common and/or threatening IAS and to prevent and control of biological invasions into European forests. This paper presents insight to currently existing databases on IAS at regional, European and international level. It also briefly introduces the EU Regulation on "the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species, Invasive Alien Species" which entered into force in 2014.
Project - Integrate+
For those familiar using smart phone Apps we have now made our 'Catalogue of tree microhabitats - reference field guide' available via Google Play (Andriod operating system) and Apple store (iOS operating system) . If you go directly to the store use the following abbreviation to find the App:
I+ TreMs App
You can also go directly to:
Besondere Aufmerksamkeit sollte vorhandenen Habitatstrukturen am Einzelbaum gegeben werden, wenn es darum geht, ökonomische Zielsetzungen mit denen des Naturschutzes im Wirtschaftswald zu vereinbaren. Hierfür wurde in Zusammenarbeit mit Spezialisten aus verschiedenen europäischen Ländern ein detaillierter Katalog der Baummikrohabitate erstellt. In Demonstrationsflächen können Anwender Habitatwerte ökonomischen Werten an Einzelbäumen gegenüberstellen und die sich daraus ergebenden Auswirkungen ihres Handelns erproben.
Forests are rich in biodiversity and valuable for recreation, water regulation and soil protection. As well as for providing timber and other non-wood forest products, forests are important for mitigating climate change and for the renewable energy sector. Forest ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental, economic and social pressures that challenge their sustainability. The forest sector is influenced by the unprecedented pressures arising from climate change and the growing demands of society on natural resources. The aim of this report is to assess the current state of forest ecosystems in Europe on the pathway to healthy, diverse, resilient and productive forests for the benefit of present and future generations.
This Integrate+ Technical Paper (in Czech) is one of several translations of the original published in English language (Catalogue of tree microhabitats – Reference field list). Velké množství mrtvého dřeva a vysoký počet starých stromů, na kterých se vyskytují mikrobiotopy, jsou charakteristickými prvky přirozených lesů a především pralesů. V hospodářských a dokonce i v přírodě blízkých lesích tyto prvky často chybí, nebo se vyskytují jen řídce. Přesto je na těchto prvcích přímo či převážně závislé přežití významného podílu lesní biodiverzity, a to zejména ‘saproxylických’ druhů, které jsou vázané na mrtvé dřevo. Mikrobiotopy související se stromy jsou proto uznávány jako důležité podklady a struktury lesní biodiverzity. Zachování stávajících a budoucích mikrostanovišť je důležitým aspektem, který by lesní hospodářství mělo vzít v úvahu. Zvýšená pozornost na mikrostanoviště pomůže udržet přirozené prostředí biologické rozmanitosti i v hospodářských lesích. Tento materiál byl vyvinut pro podporu tréninkových školení prováděných na marteloscopických plochách projektu Integrate+. Jejím cílem je pomoci zainteresované pracovníkům v identifikaci a popisu stromových mikrostanovišť v průběhu těchto školení. Může být také použit jako názorný materiál lesnického vzdělávání a jako podklad pro další vzdělávací akce a terénní exkurze.
This Integrate+ Technical Paper (in German) is one of several translations of the original published in English language (Catalogue of tree microhabitats – Reference field list). Naturwälder zeichnen sich unter anderem durch große Mengen an Totholz aus. Ebenso typisch ist eine hohe Diche von Altbäumen, die häufig sogenannte Mikrohabitate aufweisen. Diese Eigenschaften sind besonders in alten Entwicklungsphasen von Naturwäldern charakteristisch. Selbst in naturnah bewirtschafteten Wäldern fehlen diese Phasen in der Regel. Ein überragender Anteil der Biodiversität im Wald ist jedoch vorrangig, zum Teil sogar ausschließlich, an genau jene Elemente gebunden und angewiesen. Dies gilt vor allem für xylobionte Arten, also Arten, die an Totholz gebunden sind. Baummikrohabitate stellen daher wichtige Substrate und Strukturen für die biologische Artenvielfalt bereit. Der Erhaltung und Förderung bestehender und sich in Entwicklung befindlicher Mikrohabitate sollte daher besonderes Augenmerk in der Waldbewirtschaftung gegeben werden. Beim Schutz der Biodiversität in unseren Wirtschaftswäldern geht es daher vorrangig um den Erhalt solcher Mikrohabitatstrukturen. Ein solcher Ansatz wird somit sichtbar zu einer Verbesserung der Habitatqualität im Wirtschaftwald beitragen und der Waldbiodiversität förderlich sein. Die vorliegende Referenzliste wurde als Begleitmaterial für Marteloskopübungen im Rahmen des Integrate+ Projektes erstellt. Ziel ist es, der forstlichen Praxis, Inventurteams und anderen Interessierten die Erkennung und Beschreibung von Baummikrohabitaten während virtueller Auszeichnungsübugen in Marteloskopen zu erleichtern. Die Liste kann auch als Anschauungsmaterial in der Forstausbildung, als Begleitinformation anderer Schulungen und bei Waldexkursionen Verwendung finden.
Large quantities of deadwood and a high density of old microhabitat-bearing trees are characteristic elements of natural forests, especially of the old-growth phases. These are often absent or rare in managed forests, even in forests under close-to-nature management. Yet, an important share of forest biodiversity is strictly or primarily dependent on such elements for their survival, especially ‘saproxylic’ species, those are species depending on deadwood. Tree related microhabitats are therefore recognised as important substrates and structures for biodiversity in forests. The retention of both existing and future tree microhabitats is thus one important aspect to take in to consideration in forest management. Giving tree microhabitats increased attention will help sustain and increase the habitat value for biodiversity also in managed forests . This reference field list is developed to support training exercises conducted in Integrate+ Marteloscope sites. It aims at supporting forest managers, inventory personnel and other groups in identifying and describing tree microhabitats in the course of such exercises. It can also find use as illustrative material in forest education and as background documentation for other training events and field excursions.
This file contains the full report text of "State of Europe's Forest 2015". Due to size limitations, the annexes are presented in a separate file upload. Together the two files make up the entire 314 pages report.
The report provides an overview of the research activities of the overall COOL project. The research project was divided into three work packages. The goals and methodologies of the particular work packages are described in chapter 2. Chapter 3 summarises European policies for forest-based bioenergy and is based on a Technical Report (Ferranti, 2014) that is one of the outputs of the COOL project. Chapter 4 is based on one of the scientific COOL publications (Lindstad et al., 2015) and focuses on policies relating to forest-based bioenergy in the five partner countries. Chapter 5 is based on a manuscript submitted for the COOL project (Kärkkäinen et al., submitted) that investigates current management practices for bioenergy in the five partner countries. Chapter 5 is based on a COOL publication about stakeholder perceptions on the issues (Peters et al., 2015). A synthesis of the overall results of the COOL project is presented in chapter 6. Chapter 7 presents the results of a SMART-SWOT analysis. The report finally concludes by outlining major future challenges relating to forest biomass in chapter 8.
Indicator 4.1 Tree species composition Around 70% of the forests in Europe are dominated by 2 or more tree species. The remaining 30% are dominated by 1 tree species alone, mainly conifers. The area of forest covered by a single tree species decreased over the last 15 years at a rate of around 0.6% annually. This may be related to changes in forest management practices or non-management aimed at the establishment of more mixed forest stands. Indicator 4.2 Regeneration Annual natural expansion and regeneration is increasing slightly in the Central-West, SouthEast and SouthWest European regions, while in other European regions planting and afforestation are the most widely used annual regeneration types. Nearly 68% of the total forest area in Europe is regenerated naturally or through natural expansion. In some European countries coppicing with rotation poplar and willow coppices is becoming more common as a renewable energy source. Indicator 4.3 Naturalness The area of semi-natural forest and plantations increased in Europe over the 20-year period 1995-2015. Around 87% of European forests are classified as semi-natural. Undisturbed forests cover 4% and plantations 9% of forest area in Europe. The highest share of undisturbed forests within the forest area can be found in countries of Central-East and SouthEast Europe, while the share of plantations is the highest in the Central-West, SouthWest and SouthEast European regions.
The Summary for Policy Makers is a brief document based on information included in the “State of Europe’s Forests 2015”report. This document offers a comprehensive overview of European forests, their current status, trends and policy responses related to them, as well as an insight into sustainable forest management (SFM) in Europe. The State of Europe’s Forests 2015 report will, along with other publications, serve as background information for political discussions on future opportunities and challenges, and the associated political responses. This report is focused on the current status and trends (10-year trends and 25-year trends) of European forests and sustainable forest management in the period 1990-2015 and has been prepared for the 7th Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe, held in Madrid on 20-21 October 2015. The State of Europe’s Forests 2015 report is organised in two parts.The first part (Overall Policies, Institutions and Instruments for Sustainable Forest Management) provides general information about the way forests are governed in a country through the policies, institutions and instruments for SFM. These aspects are covered by five Qualitative1 Indicators, and changes reported in these indicators over time reflect the responses of policy makers to challenges and opportunities related to forests and SFM. The second part (European Forests: Status, Trends and Policy Responses) has been prepared following the Advisory Group recommendations and on the basis of data gleaned from the 35 Quantitative Indicators, which provide information on the current status and changes in European forests and progress on SFM, and from the 12 Qualitative Indicators, which shed light on the policies, institutions and instruments used to address specific policy areas related to the afore mentioned Quantitative Indicators. This second part is structured according to the Six Criteria for SFM and includes the respective Quantitative Indicators and Qualitative Indicators directly related to them. The Output Tables included in the Annexes display the information on Quantitative Indicators reported by 34 signatory countries, the information included in the 11 desk studies carried out by UNECE/FAO Forestry and Timber Section, and the information reported by the Russian Federation for the previous edition of the State of Europe’s Forests report. Given the lack of comparable current data from the Russian Federation and in order to maintain the internal consistency of the report, the information provided by the Russian Federation in 2011 is not included in the analysis or the graphs. The State of Europe’s Forests 2015 report is available online at http://www.foresteurope.org/fullsoef2015, but also at Research Gate as "State of Europe's Forests 2015 - full report without Annexes" and "State of Europe's Forests 2015 - Annexes".
A main task in forest management is to decide where, when and what kind of forest interventions are applied. Key factors influencing silvicultural decisions that practitioners make are their understanding of forest dynamics and their level of experience. Further, the presence of a wide range of theoretical strategies and concepts in forestry results in differences when implementing certain silvicultural practices. This may apply even when clear forest management guidelines are in place. Therefore it is of importance to ask how substantial are the consequences of different silvicultural approaches and to what extent do they affect forest biodiversity?
Marteloskope sind 1 Hektar große, rechteckige Waldflächen, innerhalb derer alle Bäume inventarisiert und auf einer Karte abgebildet werden. Im Zusammenspiel mit einer Auswertungs -und Simulationssoftware werden sie für waldbauliches Training genutzt.
Forest disturbance regimes have intensified during the last decades. So has the forest and societal vulnerability to such events. Policy and science have recognized the need to act towards mainstreaming forest disturbance risks as an integral part of sustainable forest management. Even though there is extensive knowledge and expertise available to address natural disturbances at European, national and local levels, it often stays dispersed or is short-lived, and thereby difficult to access and apply due to political, institutional, language and technological barriers. Effective interaction and cooperation between research, policy and practice is crucial for addressing forest disturbance risks. Such collaboration needs to be based on mutual understanding and trust while allowing for a continuous and open exchange on corresponding needs and expertise.A European Forest Risk Facility facilitates cooperation and exchange as an unbiased and neutral platform between existing communities that address or are affected by disturbances and risks to European forests.
All types of forest disturbances are on the rise in Europe and therefore it is justifiable that they gain political attention. Forest disturbance events cause considerable harm to Europe’s bio-economy and biodiversity, and ultimately they threaten the resilience and sustainability of the forest ecosystem. This is easily understood for large-scale devastating events such as forest fires, but often underestimated, even by professionals, for less detectable impacts from, for example, damaging biotic agents. Important deficiencies need to be addressed in terms of coordination, exchange of information, know-how and technology. This would help to increase effectiveness and efficiency when addressing forest disturbances that do not stop at borders, whether they are regional or national. While they may differ in nature, cause and effect, this conclusion is valid for all of the presented forest disturbances. Capacity building should address stakeholders at various levels in the forest and environment domain, which currently often have to come by relatively unprepared, with ad-hoc experience that needs to build up on-the-go. Information and communication, increased understanding and risk analysis, mitigation strategies and risk readiness planning, crisis management, supporting, networking and building capacities, are all types of activities that would help those responsible for managing the forest, from stand scale to the national level, in order to be as well informed as possible and manage forests in the best possible manner. Taking the above into account, it could be seen as a very positive development that discussions are on-going towards initiating an entity that could facilitate these activities. Therefore the authors of this report consider it timely and highly welcome that the common ground that is opening up for potentially increased regional and European cooperation is explored in a start-up project named FRISK-GO (http://www.friskgo.org/).
- Jul 2015
The technical report 'Towards a European Forest Risk Facility. Annex of the Strategy and Business Plan' is an accompanying document to the publication: SCHUCK, A., HELD, A., VAN BRUSSELEN, J., CASTELLNOU, M., (Eds.), 2015. Towards a European Forest Risk Facility. Strategy and Business Plan. Andreas Schuck, Alexander Held, Marc Castellnou (Eds.). FRISK-GO final report. European Forest Institute. 2015. 95p It was compiled jointly with many other contributors which are referenced to within the Annex. Andreas Schuck, Alexander Held, Verena Quadt acted both as editors and authors. It can be downloaded at: http://www.friskgo.org/media-center.html
- Aug 2014
- Foerst landscape mosaics: disturbance, restoration and management at times of global change
Recently the research project Integrate carried out by EFICENT (Regional office of the European Forest Institute in Freiburg) was finalized. The main goals of the project were to assess the current state of knowledge of biodiversity in managed and unmanaged forests and to investigate how indicators can sufficiently describe biodiversity in multi-functional forests. Based on the contributions from more than seventy renowned scientists in this field, Integrate has attempted to make available the most recent knowledge and the best international scientific expertise on the complex relationships, trade-offs and emerging challenges regarding the integration of forest biodiversity conservation into forest management. Management goals and ecosystem functions such as biodiversity conservation can be met in both set-aside forest reserves and off-reserve forests. The major argument for well developed and protected forest reserves is the increase of alpha-diversity with extended succession periods and turn-over cycles. However, the establishment of new protected areas is limited due to space and competing management goals. Trade-offs have to be made where such conflicts of interest occur. Accordingly, emphasis is shifted towards integrating rare forest biotopes and structural attributes into production forests. In segregative forest management systems, strictly protected areas are embedded in a matrix of intensively managed forests or plantations. The matrix in integrative systems in Central Europe is often managed on the basis of silvicultural principles with high forest management standards. Integrative forest management aims to maximize the cross-section between the different main functions of modern forestry: production, protection and conservation. The area of synergy, however, is limited and a certain amount of exclusive area is needed to guarantee different ecosystem functions. Consequently, a dual strategy where segregative instruments for biodiversity hotspots are embedded in a high standard forest management landscape presents a viable alternative. This concept enables connectivity and habitat resistance within managed forests.
COOL project. More fodder for the oven? Dealing with forest related conflicts arising from the production and use of energy wood in europe: national stakeholder perspectives
- Oct 2013
- Integrative Ansätze als Chance für die Erhaltung der Artenvielfalt in Wäldern
German translation of the chapter: KRUMM, F., SCHUCK, A., KRAUS, D., 2013. Integrative management approaches: a synthesis. published in: IN FOCUS – Managing Forests in Europe: ‘Integrative approaches as an opportunity for the conservation of forest biodiversity’. Daniel Kraus, Frank Krumm (editors). European Forest Institute. 256 – 262. The translation became available in March 2016 and is accessible at: http://www.integrateplus.org/media-center/publications.html
- Oct 2013
- Les approaches intégratives en tant qu’opportunité de conservation de la biodiversité forestière
French translation of the chapter: KRUMM, F., SCHUCK, A., KRAUS, D., 2013. Integrative management approaches: a synthesis. published in: IN FOCUS – Managing Forests in Europe: ‘Integrative approaches as an opportunity for the conservation of forest biodiversity’. Daniel Kraus, Frank Krumm (editors). European Forest Institute. 256 – 262. The translation became available in March 2016 and is accessible at: http://www.integrateplus.org/media-center/publications.html
Windstorms are a major disturbance factor for European forests. In the past six decades wind storms have damaged standing forest volume, which on a yearly average equals about the size of Poland's annual fellings. The evedence also indicates that the actual severity of storms in the wake of climatic changes may increase during next decades.Windstorms damages have many environmental, economic and social implications.
- Jun 2011
- State of Europe’s Forests 2011
Key findings by indicators 5.1 Protective forests – soil, water and other ecosystem functions About one-fifth of the forest and other wooded land area in Europe is reported to serve the protection of water supplies, the prevention of soil erosion and the provision of other important ecosystem services. When including the Russian Federation the area devoted to protective functions in the FOREST EUROPE region is 11 percent. The importance of these functions is clearly recognized although the mechanisms for ensuring and safeguarding them may vary. 5.2 Protective forests – infrastructure and managed natural resources Forests protect a wide range of infrastructures and managed natural resources against natural hazards in Europe. Protective functions for infrastructure are often difficult to separate from other protective functions of forests, such as soil and water, and they may overlap. Nineteen countries reporting on protective forests for infrastructure have mechanisms in place to either identify or designate forests for these protective functions. In Europe, including the Russian Federation, about 7 percent of forests are protected for infrastructure and managed natural resources. When excluding the Russian Federation, it amounts to 2 percent.
- Jun 2011
- State of Europe’s Forests 2011. Status and Trends in Sustainable Forest Management in Europe.
Key findings by Indicators 4.1 Tree species composition The area of forest that consists of a single tree species has decreased annually by around 0.6 percent during the last 15-year period. About 70 percent of the forests in Europe are dominated by two or several tree species, and the remaining 30 percent are dominated by one tree species alone, mainly coniferous. 4.2 Regeneration Natural regeneration is expanding in Central European regions, while in other European regions planting and afforestation are the most used regeneration types. Nearly 70 percent of the total forest area in Europe, without the Russian Federation, is regenerated naturally or through natural expansion. In the Russian Federation, the share of naturally regenerated forests is as high as 98 percent. In some European countries, coppicing with rotation poplar and willow coppice as a renewable energy source is becoming more common. 4.3 Naturalness About 87 percent of the European forests, excluding the Russian Federation, is classified as semi-natural. Undisturbed forests and plantations cover 4 percent and 9 percent, respectively, of the forest area in Europe. The highest share of undisturbed forests of the forest area can be found in the Russian Federation (32 percent) and in countries in North Europe, while the share of plantations is highest in the Central-West European region. 4.4 Introduced tree species The area dominated by introduced tree species covers 4 percent of the forest area in Europe, equal to the land area of Portugal. The Russian Federation is not included as its area of introduced tree species is negligible. No significant changes are observed over the last 10 years. The highest share of introduced tree species is found in Central-West Europe. A very small proportion of the forest area, 0.5 percent, is occupied by invasive tree species. 4.5 Deadwood The average volume of deadwood, both standing and lying, is about 20.5 m3/hectare in the forest area of the European region. When excluding the Russian Federation, this average ranges between 8 m3/hectare in North Europe and 15 m3/hectare in South-East Europe. Data suggest that the amount of deadwood, particularly the standing deadwood, has been slightly increasing in most of Europe’s regions over the past 20 years. However, the amount of deadwood varies considerably based on forest types, standing volume of the stands, rate of decay and vegetation zones and is influenced by forest management regimes. The results indicate that the increase of deadwood in forests is furthered by policies that support a shift towards more nature-oriented management and by certification standards. 4.6 Genetic resources The areas managed for ex situ conservation and seed production increased during the 1990-2010 period. In 2010, a total of 476 000 hectares and 7 700 hectares of forests were managed for in situ and ex situ gene conservation, respectively, and 870 000 hectares for seed production in Europe, without the Russian Federation. Overall, the areas were managed for a total of 142 tree species including subspecies and hybrids. There are significant gaps in the geographical representativeness of in situ gene conservation areas as compared to the distribution maps of European tree species. Wide coverage of areas for gene resources ensures the capacity of forest trees to adapt to climate change. 4.7 Landscape pattern European maps on landscape-level forest fragmentation and connectivity are available for the first time for the year 2006 from a low- and high-scale perspective. Trends in forest connectivity in the landscape context have been assessed at low scale and are reported per country for the 1990-2006 time period. Results indicate that expansion of forest area after natural succession or restoration in a given region does not necessarily improve the forest connectivity. Fragmentation and defragmentation are local processes that can be identified and measured in a harmonized manner over Europe, but their observation requires the availability of European-wide harmonized forest maps at different spatial and temporal scales in order to make conclusions about the trends. 4.8 Threatened forest species Reporting on threatened forest species has improved as more countries are providing information. Of the tree species reported under the IUCN Red List categories, 77 percent were classified as vulnerable and endangered while 21 percent were seen as critically endangered. This includes trees growing at the limits of their potential range. Information on other threatened forest species groups is more heterogeneous and sometimes fragmentary; thus, changes have to be interpreted with care as the number of threatened species may coincide with improved knowledge of species and monitoring surveys. 4.9 Protected forests Over the last 10 years, Europe’s forest area designated for biodiversity and landscape protection has increased by half a million hectares annually. About 10 percent of European forests, without Russian Federation, are protected with the main objective of conserving biodiversity and about 9 percent with the main objective of protecting landscape, which accounts for an area of 39 million hectares. The strictness of protection for biodiversity varies considerably within Europe: in North Europe and in some Eastern European countries, restrictive protection with no or minimal intervention dominates, whereas in Central and Southern European countries, active management in protected areas is emphasized. In the Russian Federation the area of protected forests with no or minimal intervention is 17 million hectares. This shows the different policies applied across Europe due to natural conditions, traditions and population density.
- Jun 2011
Forests are considered an important resource to meet renewable energy targets. The intensified use of woody biomass could significantly affect forest biodiversity and other services provided by forests. This article presents results of a modeling study, which allows estimating impacts on the biodiversity indicator deadwood. This study suggests that the average amount of deadwood is reduced and the quality of deadwood changes if felling levels and residue extraction rates would be substantially increased. This would have a negative effect on deadwood- dependent species, constituting an important component of biodiversity in European forests. Potential positive or negative impacts on other services are not yetwell studied and require some further investigation. Understanding possible trade-offs and developing optimized management strategies are key issues for future forest management in Europe.
Storms are one of the major damaging agents in Europe's forests. Sharing best practice, facilitating a rapid response following storms and building on adaptive forest management strategies are measures that can mitigate the impacts of storms. Storms can have a major impact on timber prices in the short term and on timber availability in the longer term. They also affect water quality, carbon sequestration and biodiversity. The dominant factors which determine damage levels within forests and stands are tree height, soil condition and recent thinning. Research suggests that forest storm damage will continue to increase in Europe, with damage increasing by between 2 to 4 times the present levels by the end of the century, if current management practices continue. A range of practice and policy measures are recommended to help mitigate the effects of storms on the European forest industry and forest owners and to prepare for future storm events.
This paper presents a methodology for producing broadleaf, coniferous and total growing stock maps for the Pan-European forest area. The approach is based on the combination of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) data and statistics derived from national forest inventories of European countries. Data were compiled at sub-national level for 14 countries comprising 224 regions and at the national level for 24 countries growing stock data where data were only available at the national level. The method demonstrates that calibrated forest cover proportion maps allow distributing regional forest cover-related statistics proportionally to the forest cover represented within the NOAA-AVHRR pixels.
All EU Member States face economic and ecological losses due to forest damages. Thus, combating forest dieback, as for example caused by the effects of climate change, is a contribution to human safety and well-being and the sustainable development of Europe. At the EU level several efficient and well established policy instruments are developed and implemented, which contribute to the prevention, mitigation and control of forest dieback. The most important EU instruments in this context are the Rural Development Regulation (Council Regulation (EC) No 1257/1999, replaced by the Council Regulation (EC) No 1698/2005) and the Forest Focus Regulation (Council Regulation (EC) No 2152/2003, expired in 2006). The article reviews main EU policy and financial instruments and evaluates the feasibility of combating various causes of forest dieback in Europe.
- Jan 2009
Pan-European distribution maps have been compiled for six main species groups in Europe. The aim was to combine detailed tree species information from plot data of the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) with other existing spatial and statistical information on forests. The applied method involves the interpolation of the plot data using the geo-statistical interpolation method kriging and a scaling and calibration procedure which makes the maps correspond both to the Forest map of Europe on pixel level and to national forest inventory statistics at regional or national level. Output is a set of European-wide maps with a resolution of 1 km, showing the proportion of the main tree species groups as a percent of the total land area. The maps are considered to be potentially valuable input for various applications in the forestry and biodiversity field at a pan-European scale.
- Jun 2008
A study report has shown that several efficient and well-established measures have been implemented by European Union (EU) contributing to the prevention, mitigation and control of forest dieback. The most important EU measure are the Rural Development Regulation No 1257/1999, replaced by the Council Regulation (EC) No 1698/2005 and the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD). Instruments such as the EU Solidarity Fund and the Civil Protection Mechanism are popular in case of natural disasters, which include large scale forest fires, storms of floods. The implementation of a feasibility study on 'Means of combating forest dieback in the European Union' was requested by the European Parliament, asking the European Commission to investigate the development of concrete proposals for preventing, mitigating and control forest dieback in the EU.
This paper concerns the analysis of needs for and requirements towards forest information products from Earth Observation on the both policy level and that of practical users of services of the GMES Service Element (GSE) for Forest Monitoring (GSE FM). Detailed user feedback is summarised concerning specific policy drivers, working practices & decision-making cycles; existing geo-spatial monitoring capacity and evolution potential ; current and future information needs of the organisation ; applicable existing standards and accepted best practices at user organisations; and the scope for cost-saving or performance improvement based on the implementation of GSE Forest Monitoring services. The analysis will be complemented with an overview of the organisational setup of the interface between providers and users of GSE Forest Monitoring services.
The current paper analyses the potential for prescribed burning techniques for mitigating carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from forest fires and attempts to show quantitatively that it can be a means of achieving a net reduction of carbon emissions in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. The limited number of available studies suggests that significant reductions in CO2 emissions can be obtained and that prescribed burning can be a viable option for mitigating emissions in fire-prone countries. The present analysis shows that the potential reduction attained by prescribed burning as a percentage of the reduction in emissions required by the Kyoto Protocol varies from country to country. Out of the 33 European countries investigated, only in one the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol could potentially be achieved by applying prescribed burning, while three other nations showed a potential net CO2 emissions reduction of about 4–8% of the Kyoto requirements and the majority showed a reduction of less than 2%. This implies that prescribed burning can only make a significant contribution in those countries with high wildland fire occurrence. Over a 5-year period the emissions from wildfires in the European region were estimated to be approximately 11 million tonnes of CO2 per year, while with prescribed burning application this was estimated to be 6 million tonnes, a potential reduction of almost 50%. This means that for countries in the Mediterranean region it may be worthwhile to account for the reduction in emissions obtained when such techniques are applied.
EFI has presented EUROFOREST Portal that is a free and non-commercial service for forest and forestry information users. Various organizations such as FAO, International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO), and EFI have led efforts to offer on-line information on forests in a comprehensive manner such as Global Forest Information Service (GFIS) that is an Internet gateway to forest information resources from around the world. EUROFOREST Portal aims to meet demands for better access to current information on European forest and forestry in an easily accessible and user-friendly form. Metadata plays an important users to find and allows information users to find and evaluate the resources and the users will get overview of the use of information. The portal offers information on the web-pages of organizations, networks, information providers, databases available via web, selected major reports via web, news about European forests.
- Jun 2007
- COST Action E27 ‘Protected Forest Areas in Europe - Analysis and Harmonisation
Wildfire legislation and policy measures are developed at the national and regional or sub-national level in the European countries, within the frame of forest policy and other spatial policies (i.e.: civil protection policy, spatial planning policy). European Union can also influence through the Council Regulations on the protection of the Community's forests against fire (ECC nº 3529/86, nº 2158/92, nº 1485/2001 and nº 2152/2003), the Forest Action Plan (COM (2006)302 final) and the Ministerial Conferences on Forest Protection commitments and resolutions. However, the wildland fire management remains a policy competence of the Member States, which is formulated and implemented in the context of National and Regional Forest Programmes. In this context, the European Project FIRE PARADOX (FP6-018505) aims to set the bases for a new legislation and long term policy measures for wildland fire management in the European Union. The strategic vision is an integrated approach based on the wise use of fire.
EFISCEN is a forest resource projection model, used to gain insight into the future development of European forests. It has been used widely to study issues such as sustainable management regimes, wood production possibilities, nature oriented management, climate change impacts, natural disturbances and carbon balance issues. This report describes the history of EFISCEN and the current state of the model, version 3.1.3. It contains a user guide as well as a description of past validations and an uncertainty analysis
The paper is written jointly by two parties, computer scientists specializing in geovisualization and experts in forestry, who cooperated within a joint project. The authors tell a story about an attempt of the geovisualizers to introduce the foresters to the concept and principles of exploratory data analysis and to the use of visualization for systematic and comprehensive data exploration. This endeavor should be considered as an informal experiment rather than a rigorous scientific study. Unlike customary tests of the usability of specific tools and techniques, the geovisualizers did not give the forestry specialists a series of tasks to carry out by applying geovisualization tools and did not try to measure how well the foresters performed. The idea of the geovisualizers was to demonstrate the principles and power of exploratory data analysis to the foresters by an example. For this purpose, the
The project 'Network for a Forest Information Service' (NEFIS; contract number QLK5-CT-2002-30638) is an 'Accompanying Measure' of the European Commission (EC) 5 th Framework Programme. A central component of the project is the establishment of a Web-based KnowledgeBase with substantive structured information content. The KnowledgeBase of NEFIS includes a repository of metadata and controlled vocabulary standards, software design documents, comprehensive frequently asked questions, worked examples and software distributions. Its content is based on essential documentation of activities related to forest information systems. NEFIS originates from the Council Regulation (1989, (EC) No 1615/89 and its extension as of 1998; 1998-2002) aiming to elaborate a European Forest Information and Communication System. A Web- based demonstration tool of such a system was built within a preceding project (European Forest Information System - EFIS; contract number 17186-2000-12 F1ED). NEFIS is taking the development of the tool further by seeking coordination of ongoing efforts to create forest information systems and services at the European level. Further it seeks options to support potential data providers at various spatial (international, national, sub- national) levels to develop harmonized standards and procedures for providing actual data and elaborate metadata. The project has close cooperation with the Global Forest Information Service initiative. This paper will concentrate on giving insight into the establishment of the KnowledgeBase.
- Jun 2006
An advanced Computer simulated tool was developed to study the long term development of forest resources under management and policy alternatives. The basic idea in creating the model was that pan European harmonized modeling would yield national advantages and fill the gap between national level models and global models. The model is timber oriented model, not fully covering other forest functions like biodiversity. A more flexible approach must allow dynamic modeling from the plot level to regional and country scale. An integrated approach on land use in Europe is developing where forestry is just one player in the land use policies. The new generation EFISCEN will need to be able to efficiently incorporate input from other research in the fields of economics, land use, climate change, and biodiversity in a flexible way.
This paper addresses the development of a metadata schema for forestry related information resources in the course of the Accompanying Measure project under the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources Programme of the European Commission (QLK5-CT-2002-30638). It describes the use of metadata standards within NEFIS, and gives particular attention to the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI). Description of data quality was one of the central issues of discussion in the project. An approach for elaborating quality reporting within the metadata schema is presented. It was seen as important that the metadata standards should be robust, and based on the principles of interoperability, technology independence and extensibility.
The European forest types — Categories and types for sustainable forest management reporting and policy presents the findings of a study carried out by an international consortium of experts aimed at providing the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE) with an user‑friendly forest types classification. The primary goal of the scheme is to improve the MCPFE reporting on sustainable forest management (SFM) in Europe, with special regard to forest type based SFM indicators.
This Outlook for the Development of European Forest Resources provides the methodologies, data, scenarios, and results of the outlook on the European forest resources from 2000 to 2040. The aim of this forest resource study was to analyse the impacts on the European forest resources under the level of fellings needed to fulfil the derived roundwood demand according to two scenarios as provided by the market modelling project within the EFSOS framework. Thus fellings and removals presented in this study cannot be identified with a wood supply forecast in economic terms. The study includes the forest available for wood supply (FAWS) in geographical Europe, i.e. from Ireland to the Ural mountains and from the northern tip of Lapland to the southern border of Turkey. The model outcomes are based on assumptions about the increase in FAWS as well as unchanged forest management regimes (e.g. rotation period, thinning intensity, afforestation), and growth of stands ratios between felling and removals over the analysed period. Although removals are assumed to rise significantly, the results as presented sketch large and increasing forest resources in Europe. The growing stock increases under the baseline scenario from 51 billion m3 o.b. to 63 billion m3 o.b. in 2040, whereas the net annual increment declines only slightly from the current 1.2 billion m3 o.b o.b to 1.15 billion m3 o.b. in 2040. The FAWS area is assumed to decrease from 335 million ha to 329 million ha by the year 2040, in the base scenario. In the alternative scenario the forest area is expected to increase to 343 million ha. The market model outcomes projected a fast increase in required fellings in the current outlook study. This demand for fellings on FAWS is foreseen to increase from 643 million m3 o.b. per year in 2000 to 847 million m3 o.b. per year in 2020 in the baseline scenario (1014 million m3 o.b. per year in the alternative). This, together with an approach that dynamically simulates age class development, shows that annual availability of roundwood may be hampered after 2020. In the baseline scenario the actual fellings in 2036-2040 were about 2% lower than the required fellings, whereas in the alternative scenario the difference was about 11% per year. In reality market mechanisms will take care of this difference, by adjusting prices, forestry management and especially trade, considering the legal restriction, which assure sustainable forestry management. These adjustments cannot be simulated with the current modelling system.
- Dec 2005
The Network for a European Forest Infomation Service (NEFIS) project which was carried out by a consortium of 16 forestry/environmental information providers throughout Europe focused on the significance of sharing forest informations. The project planned to develop a metadata schema for description of forest information resources. It aimed at the initiation of a consultative analysis-design process for outlining a system architecture based on pan-European forest information processes. The project also focused on the elaboration of an advanced prototype based on the EFIS results systems for information resource discovery and online processing.
Protected Forest Areas PFA have become a major issue in the international forest policy forum. To analyse the large number of PFA categories and classification systems at both the national and international level, the EU-COST Action E27 "Protected Forest Areas -Analysis and Harmonisation" was launched in 2002 with a duration of 4 years. The main objective of the action is to describe, analyse and harmonise the wide-range of PFA categories used in European countries within the context of existing international systems of protected forest areas. The scientific programme covers PFA definitions, national classifications and their historical and legal background, analysis of options for the integration of data collected in national forest inventory programmes, and harmonisation of definitions and identification of problem areas when using international classification systems and reporting to international organisations. Clarification of the concept of naturalness and key terms is needed. An overview of provisional results of the action is given.
- Sep 2005
- Database and Expert Systems Applications, 2005. Proceedings. Sixteenth International Workshop on
This paper addresses the development of a metadata schema for forestry related information resources in the course of the Accompanying Measure project under the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources Programme of the European Commission (QLK5-CT-2002-30638). It describes the use of metadata standards, and in particular that of the Dublin core metadata initiative. Quality in data description was one of the central issues. An approach to elaborating quality reporting within the schema is presented. The metadata standards need to be robust based on the principles of interoperability, technology independence, and be easily upgradeable. Promising examples at the current stage of interoperability technology are DCMI for catalogue functionality, and XML schema, Web-services, or also resource description framework schemas, for distributed database functionality.
Improving access to forestry information is an important component in addressing the implementation of national and international commitments towards sustainable forest management, climate change and biological diversity. A demonstrator of a European Forest Information System (EFIS) has been developed within the framework of the EU regulation (EEC) No. 1615/89 on establishing a European Forest Information and Communication System (EFICS). EFIS includes elements that allow: (a) searching of metadata catalogues (Resource Discovery), and (b) importing of identified data for exploratory data analysis (Visualisation Toolkit). The authors describe the set-up of EFIS and its functionality by presenting two examples of possible uses of the system. They also discuss the steps necessary for the development of the demonstrator into an operational component within an EFICS.
The European Environment Agency developed Forest Biodiversity Indicators and European Nature Information System. The information based on indicator scheme allows for policy-decisions more effectively based on sound knowledge and guarantees monitoring the progress of various environmental issues. The indicators addressed mainly issues related to main policy sectors and pressures. A consortium submitted a bid during 2004 for the establishment of a European Topic Center (ETC) for the period 2005-2008.
A policy foundations review has been conducted by the European Forest Institute as part of the public policy analysis and strategic planning for the GMES Service Element (GSE) Forest Monitoring. Major global and European environmental policies and instruments have been studied for information requirements on forests, with a possible role for Earth Observation. The findings will allow the GSE Forest Monitoring project to take into consideration immediate policy requirements when developing its Earth Observation services. The policy processes under review in this document are: the United Nations Environmental Conferences, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, the United Nations Forum on Forests, Criteria and Indicator processes and the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe, the Council of Europe Landscape Convention, the European Union Forest Focus Regulation, National Forest Programmes, and the issues illegal logging and forest certification. The Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Forest Focus Regulation concern climate change and atmospheric pollution. The ultimate objective of the Framework Convention on Climate Change is the stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The Kyoto Protocol aims to contribute to this objective by promoting the reduction of emissions of carbon dioxide by sources and the removal from the atmosphere and the durable storage of carbon in sinks. To this end, considerable attention is given to the role of forests. The Forest Focus Regulation is a policy instrument to continue and reinforce the monitoring of atmospheric pollution and their effect on forests and to monitor and enhance the prevention of forest fires at the European level. In the near future it will additionally integrate the monitoring of issues like biodiversity and carbon sequestration. Desertification, addressed by the Convention to Combat Desertification, is also related to climate and climate change but in most cases it is related to unsustainable land use, whether it is through deforestation or through improper agricultural practices. The remaining policy processes relate to biodiversity and sustainable forest management. The main objective of the Convention on Biological Diversity is the protection of biological diversity, among which forest (biological) diversity has its place. The United Nations Forum on Forests and the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe have among their main objectives the preservation of sustainably managed forests. The Landscape convention aims at preserving all types of landscapes. National forest programmes are holistic processes that address forestry issues defined by stakeholders, national and international policy processes. The G8 special Action Programme on Forests addressed combating illegal logging and forest law enforcement, governance and trade, with the main aim to stimulate sustainable use of forest resources. Forest certification is a market-based initiative to guarantee consumers through third party audit and certification that wood products originate from sustainably managed forests. While these policies differ in their main objectives, they often require identical or similar information. The identification of these information needs will allow to react in a coordinated way, thus taking into account different requirements simultaneously, based on a harmonised assessment methodology. The most stringent and specific information requirements result from the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol will be the only process, upon ratification, with such criticality of information that non-information can result e.g. to legal procedures with (direct or indirect) financial implications. This is one reason why it has been pre-defined as the most important target policy of GSE Forest Monitoring. For other policy areas, absence of detailed information would not have such severe consequences. However that lack could lead to less efficient and effective governing from regional to national level, with undesired effects at the forest management level. The information needs identified from the policy review can be separated into three main categories, being: “Area”, “Biomass” and “Disturbances”. The most important variables are derived from the Kyoto Protocol and relate to the surface and biomass contained on areas of afforestation, deforestation and reforestation. The most important disturbance variables are derived from the Forest Focus Regulation and are related to defoliation of the forest canopy and to forest fires. Stakeholders may already have monitoring schemes in place or they may be under preparation. The quality of in-situ observations and estimations could be largely improved when combining these information sources with the wall-to-wall mapping power of Earth Observation infrastructure. The identified needs from the Policy Foundations Review will be presented to stakeholders. They will be asked to acknowledge and prioritise those needs. The stakeholders’ input is seen as essential in particular towards the compliance with standards that are specific to a country or region under consideration.
Awards & Achievements (1)
Award · Mar 2008
Bronze Medal of Merit - Central Chamber of Commerce of Finland