Andreas Sander

Andreas Sander
Universität Heidelberg · Centre for Astronomy (ZAH)

PhD

About

110
Publications
4,444
Reads
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1,909
Citations
Citations since 2016
91 Research Items
1828 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
Additional affiliations
July 2018 - present
Armagh Observatory
Position
  • PostDoc Position
February 2016 - June 2018
Universität Potsdam
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 2011 - January 2016
Universität Potsdam
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (110)
Article
The most massive stars dominate the chemical enrichment, mechanical and radiative feedback, and energy budget of their host environments. Yet how massive stars initially form and how they evolve throughout their lives is ambiguous. The mass loss of the most massive stars remains a key unknown in stellar physics, with consequences for stellar feedba...
Preprint
The emission line spectra of WR stars are often formed completely in the optically thick stellar wind. Hence, any assumption on the wind velocity law in a spectral analysis has a profound impact on the determination of the stellar parameters. By comparing Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model spectra calculated with different $\beta$ laws, we show that t...
Preprint
The most massive stars dominate the chemical enrichment, mechanical and radiative feedback, and energy budget of their host environments. Yet how massive stars initially form and how they evolve throughout their lives is ambiguous. The mass loss of the most massive stars remains a key unknown in stellar physics, with consequences for stellar feedba...
Preprint
Full-text available
M33 X-7 is the only known eclipsing black hole high mass X-ray binary. The system is reported to contain a very massive O supergiant donor and a massive black hole in a short orbit. The high X-ray luminosity and its location in the metal-poor galaxy M33 make it a unique laboratory for studying the winds of metal-poor donor stars with black hole com...
Article
Full-text available
Context. Massive stars are among the main cosmic engines driving the evolution of star-forming galaxies. Their powerful ionising radiation and stellar winds inject a large amount of energy in the interstellar medium. Furthermore, mass-loss ( Ṁ ) through radiatively driven winds plays a key role in the evolution of massive stars. Even so, the wind m...
Preprint
Massive stars are among the main cosmic engines driving the evolution of star-forming galaxies. Their powerful ionising radiation and stellar winds inject a large amount of energy in the interstellar medium. Furthermore, mass-loss ($\dot{M}$) through radiatively driven winds plays a key role in the evolution of massive stars. Even so, the wind mass...
Article
Full-text available
Very massive stars (VMS) dominate the physics of young clusters due to their ionising radiation and extreme stellar winds. It is these winds that determine their lifepaths until expiration. Observations in the Arches cluster show that VMS all have similar temperatures. The VLT-Flames Tarantula survey analysed VMS in the 30 Dor region of the LMC als...
Preprint
Full-text available
Very massive stars (VMS) dominate the physics of young clusters due to their ionising radiation and extreme stellar winds. It is these winds that determine their lifepaths until expiration. Observations in the Arches cluster show that VMS all have similar temperatures. The VLT-Flames Tarantula survey analysed VMS in the 30 Dor region of the LMC als...
Preprint
Classical Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars mark an important stage in the late evolution of massive stars. As hydrogen-poor massive stars, these objects have lost their outer layers, while still losing further mass through strong winds indicated by their prominent emission line spectra. Wolf-Rayet stars have been detected in a variety of different galaxies. T...
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Full-text available
The link between hot and cool stellar outflows is shown to be critical for correctly predicting the masses of the most massive black holes (BHs) below the so-called pair-instability supernova (PISN) mass gap. Gravitational Wave (GW) event 190521 allegedly hosted an "impossibly" heavy BH of 85 Solar Masses. Here we show how our increased knowledge o...
Article
Context. Massive stars at low metallicity are among the main feedback agents in the early Universe and in present-day star forming galaxies. When in binaries, these stars are potential progenitors of gravitational-wave events. Knowledge of stellar masses is a prerequisite to understanding evolution and feedback of low-metallicity massive stars. Aim...
Preprint
Full-text available
Massive stars at low metallicity are among the main feedback agents in the early Universe and in present-day star forming galaxies. When in binaries, these stars are potential progenitors of gravitational-wave events. Knowledge of stellar masses is a prerequisite to understanding evolution and feedback of low-metallicity massive stars. Using abunda...
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Full-text available
Context. Contrary to expectations from scenarios of black hole growth driven by galaxy interactions and mergers, dual active galactic nuclei (AGN) with kiloparsec separations are rarely observed and are very difficult to identify, in particular at high redshifts (i.e. z > 2). Aims. Focussing on the recently discovered dual AGN system LBQS 0302−0019...
Preprint
Contrary to expectations from scenarios of black hole growth driven by galaxy interactions and mergers, dual active galactic nuclei (AGN) with kiloparsec separations are rarely observed and are very difficult to identify, in particular at high redshifts (i.e. z>2). Focussing on the recently discovered dual AGN system LBQS 0302-0019 at z=3.29, we se...
Article
The Humphreys-Davidson (HD) limit sets the boundary between evolutionary channels of massive stars that either end their lives as red supergiants (RSGs) or as the hotter blue supergiants (BSGs) and Wolf-Rayet stars. Mixing in the envelopes of massive stars close to their Eddington limit is crucial for investigating the upper luminosity limit of the...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Humphreys-Davidson (HD) limit sets the boundary between evolutionary channels of massive stars that either end their lives as red supergiants (RSGs) or as the hotter blue supergiants (BSGs) and Wolf-Rayet stars. Mixing in the envelopes of massive stars close to their Eddington limit is crucial for investigating the upper luminosity limit of the...
Article
Evolved Wolf-Rayet stars form a key aspect of massive star evolution, and their strong outflows determine their final fates. In this study, we calculate grids of stellar models for a wide range of initial masses at five metallicities (ranging from solar down to just 2 per cent solar). We compare a recent hydrodynamically-consistent wind prescriptio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Evolved Wolf-Rayet stars form a key aspect of massive star evolution, and their strong outflows determine their final fates. In this study, we calculate grids of stellar models for a wide range of initial masses at five metallicities (ranging from solar down to just 2% solar). We compare a recent hydrodynamically-consistent wind prescription with t...
Article
Full-text available
Context. The Vela X-1 system is one of the best-studied X-ray binaries because it was detected early, has persistent X-ray emission, and a rich phenomenology at many wavelengths. The system is frequently quoted as the archetype of wind-accreting high-mass X-ray binaries, and its parameters are referred to as typical examples. Specific values for th...
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Full-text available
Context: Vela X-1 is one of the best studied X-ray binaries. Frequently though, specific values for its parameters have been used in subsequent studies without considering alternatives. Aims: We aim to provide a robust compilation and synthesis of the accumulated knowledge about Vela X-1 as a solid baseline for future studies and identify specific...
Article
Mass-loss rates and terminal wind velocities are key parameters that determine the kinetic wind energy and momenta of massive stars. Furthermore, accurate mass-loss rates determine the mass and rotational velocity evolution of mass stars, and their fates as neutron stars and black holes in function of metallicity (Z). Here we update our Monte Carlo...
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Full-text available
At the end of its life, a very massive star is expected to collapse into a black hole. The recent detection of an 85 M⊙ black hole from the gravitational wave event GW 190521 appears to present a fundamental problem as to how such heavy black holes exist above the approximately 50 M⊙ pair-instability limit where stars are expected to be blown to pi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mass-loss rates and terminal wind velocities are key parameters that determine the kinetic wind energy and momenta of massive stars. Furthermore, accurate mass-loss rates determine the mass and rotational velocity evolution of mass stars, and their fates as neutron stars and black holes in function of metallicity (Z). Here we update our Monte Carlo...
Article
Full-text available
We present spectroscopy of the P Cygni profile of the 1.083-$\mu$m He i line in the WC7+O5 colliding-wind binary (CWB) WR 140 (HD 193793), observed in 2008, before its periastron passage in 2009, and in 2016–2017, spanning the subsequent periastron passage. Both absorption and emission components showed strong variations. The variation of the absor...
Article
Luminous blue variables (LBVs) are hot, very luminous massive stars displaying large quasi-periodic variations in brightness, radius, and photospheric temperature on timescales of years to decades. The physical origin of this variability, called S Doradus cycle after its prototype, has remained elusive. We study the feedback of stellar wind mass-lo...
Preprint
We present spectroscopy of the P~Cygni profile of the 1.083-micron He I line in the WC7 + O5 colliding-wind binary (CWB) WR 140 (HD 193793), observed in 2008, before its periastron passage in 2009, and in 2016-17, spanning the subsequent periastron passage. Both absorption and emission components showed strong variations. The variation of the absor...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the first visual orbit for the nitrogen-rich Wolf-Rayet binary, WR 133 (WN5o + O9I) based on observations made with the CHARA Array and the MIRC-X combiner. This orbit represents the first visual orbit for a WN star and only the third Wolf-Rayet star with a visual orbit. The orbit has a period of 112.8 d, a moderate eccentricity of 0.36,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) are hot, very luminous massive stars displaying large quasi-periodic variations in brightness, radius,and photospheric temperature, on timescales of years to decades. The physical origin of this variability, called S Doradus cycle after its prototype, has remained elusive. Here, we study the feedback of stellar wind m...
Preprint
At the end of its life, a very massive star is expected to collapse into a black hole. The masses of these black holes are pivotal for our understanding of the evolution and fate of these stars, as well as for galaxy evolution and the build-up of black hole masses through Cosmic time. The recent detection of an 85 solar mass black hole from the gra...
Article
The mass-loss rates of massive helium stars are one of the major uncertainties in modern astrophysics. Regardless of whether they were stripped by a binary companion or managed to peel off their outer layers by themselves, the influence and final fate of helium stars – in particular the resulting black hole mass – highly depends on their wind mass-...
Preprint
Full-text available
At the end of its life, a very massive star is expected to collapse into a black hole. The masses of these black holes are pivotal for our understanding of the evolution and fate of these stars, as well as for galaxy evolution and the build-up of black hole masses through Cosmic time. The recent detection of an 85 solar mass black hole from the gra...
Preprint
Full-text available
The mass-loss rates of massive helium stars are one of the major uncertainties in modern astrophysics. Regardless of whether they were stripped by a binary companion or managed to peel off their outer layers by themselves, the influence and final fate of helium stars -- in particular the resulting black hole mass -- highly depends on their wind mas...
Article
Full-text available
Context. The recent gravitational wave measurements have demonstrated the existence of stellar mass black hole binaries. It is essential for our understanding of massive star evolution to identify the contribution of binary evolution to the formation of double black holes. Aims. A promising way to progress is investigating the progenitors of double...
Preprint
The supergiant High Mass X-ray Binary IGR J16318-4848 was the first source detected by the INTEGRAL satellite in 2003 and distinguishes itself by its high intrinsic absorption and B[e] phenomenon. It is the perfect candidate to study both binary interaction and the environment of supergiant B[e] stars. This study targets the local properties of IGR...
Article
Context. Classical Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars are massive, hydrogen-depleted, post main-sequence stars that exhibit emission-line dominated spectra. For a given metallicity Z , stars exceeding a certain initial mass MsingleWR (Z) can reach the WR phase through intrinsic mass-loss or eruptions (single-star channel). In principle, stars of lower masses ca...
Preprint
Classical Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars are massive, hydrogen depleted, post main-sequence stars that exhibit emission-line dominated spectra. For a given metallicity Z, stars exceeding a certain initial mass M_single(Z) can reach the WR phase through intrinsic mass-loss (single-star channel). Stars of lower masses can reach the WR phase via binary mass tr...
Article
Context. High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) are exceptional astrophysical laboratories that offer a rare glimpse into the physical processes that govern accretion on compact objects, massive-star winds, and stellar evolution. In a subset of the HMXBs, the compact objects accrete matter solely from winds of massive donor stars. These so-called wind-fe...
Preprint
High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) are exceptional astrophysical laboratories that offer a rare glimpse into the physical processes that govern accretion on compact objects, massive-star winds, and stellar evolution. In a subset of the HMXBs, the compact objects accrete matter solely from winds of massive donor stars. These so-called wind-fed HMXBs a...
Preprint
The recent gravitational wave measurements have demonstrated the existence of stellar mass black hole binaries. It is essential for our understanding of massive star evolution to identify the contribution of binary evolution to the formation of double black holes. A promising way to progress is investigating the progenitors of double black hole sys...
Article
Classical Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars are at a crucial evolutionary stage for constraining the fates of massive stars. The feedback of these hot, hydrogen-depleted stars dominates their surrounding by tremendous injections of ionizing radiation and kinetic energy. The strength of a WR wind decides the eventual mass of its remnant, likely a massive black...
Preprint
Classical Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars are at a crucial evolutionary stage for constraining the fates of massive stars. The feedback of these hot, hydrogen-depleted stars dominates their surrounding by tremendous injections of ionizing radiation and kinetic energy. The strength of a WR wind decides the eventual mass of its remnant, likely a massive black...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the concept of BlueMUSE, a blue-optimised, medium spectral resolution, panoramic integral field spectrograph based on the MUSE concept and proposed for the Very Large Telescope. With an optimised transmission down to 350 nm, a larger FoV (1.4 x 1.4 arcmin$^2$) and a higher spectral resolution compared to MUSE, BlueMUSE will open up a new...
Article
Context . Massive Wolf–Rayet (WR) stars dominate the radiative and mechanical energy budget of galaxies and probe a critical phase in the evolution of massive stars prior to core collapse. It is not known whether core He-burning WR stars (classical WR; cWR) form predominantly through wind stripping (w-WR) or binary stripping (b-WR). Whereas spectro...
Preprint
Massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars dominate the radiative and mechanical energy budget of galaxies and probe a critical phase in the evolution of massive stars prior to core-collapse. It is not known whether core He-burning WR stars (classical WR, cWR) form predominantly through wind-stripping (w-WR) or binary stripping (b-WR). With spectroscopy of WR b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Vela X-1 is an eclipsing high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) consisting of a 283s accreting X-ray pulsar in a close orbit of 8.964 days around the B0.5Ib supergiant HD77581 at a distance of just 2.4 kpc. The system is considered a prototype of wind-accreting HMXB and it has been used as a baseline in different theoretical or modelling studies. We discuss...
Article
Comprehensive spectral analyses of the Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars of the nitrogen sequence (i.e. the WN subclass) have been performed in a previous paper. However, the distances of these objects were poorly known. Distances have a direct impact on the “absolute” parameters, such as luminosities and mass-loss rates. The recent Gaia Data Release (DR2)...
Article
Full-text available
Stars which start their lives with spectral types O and early-B are the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae, long gamma-ray bursts, neutron stars, and black holes. These massive stars are the primary sources of stellar feedback in star-forming galaxies. At low metallicities, the properties of massive stars and their evolution are not yet fully...
Preprint
Comprehensive spectral analyses of the Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars of the nitrogen sequence (i.e.\ the WN subclass) have been performed in a previous paper. However, the distances of these objects were poorly known. Distances have a direct impact on the "absolute" parameters, such as luminosities and mass-loss rates. The recent Gaia Data Release (DR2...
Preprint
Stars which start their lives with spectral types O and early-B are the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae, long gamma-ray bursts, neutron stars, and black holes. These massive stars are the primary sources of stellar feedback in star-forming galaxies. At low metallicities, the properties of massive stars and their evolution are not yet fully...
Article
Full-text available
Context . Metal-poor massive stars are assumed to be progenitors of certain supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and compact object mergers that might contribute to the early epochs of the Universe with their strong ionizing radiation. However, this assumption remains mainly theoretical because individual spectroscopic observations of such objects have ra...
Article
Context . In supergiant X-ray binaries (SgXB), a compact object captures a fraction of the wind of an O/B supergiant on a close orbit. Proxies exist to evaluate the efficiency of mass and angular momentum accretion, but they depend so dramatically on the wind speed that given the current uncertainties, they only set loose constraints. Furthermore,...
Article
Among the different types of massive stars in advanced evolutionary stages is the enigmatic WN8h type. There are only a few Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars with this spectral type in our Galaxy. It has long been suggested that WN8h-type stars are the products of binary evolution that may harbor neutron stars (NS). One of the most intriguing WN8h stars is the...
Article
Wolf-Rayet stars of the carbon sequence (WC stars) are an important cornerstone in the late evolution of massive stars before their core collapse. As core-helium burning, hydrogen-free objects with huge mass-loss, they are likely the last observable stage before collapse and thus promising progenitor candidates for type Ib/c supernovae. Their stron...
Preprint
Among different types of massive stars in advanced evolutionary stages is the enigmatic WN8h type. There are only a few Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars with this spectral type in our Galaxy. It has long been suggested that WN8h-type stars are the products of binary evolution that may harbor neutron stars (NS). One of the most intriguing WN8h stars is the run...
Article
Context. HD 93129A was classified as the earliest O-type star in the Galaxy (O2 If*) and is considered as the prototype of its spectral class. However, interferometry shows that this object is a binary system, while recent observations even suggest a triple configuration. None of the previous spectral analyses of this object accounted for its multi...
Preprint
Full-text available
HD93129A was classified as the earliest O-type star in the Galaxy (O2~If*) and is considered as the prototype of its spectral class. However, interferometry shows that this object is a binary system, while recent observations even suggest a triple configuration. None of the previous spectral analyses of this object accounted for its multiplicity. W...
Article
The study of massive stars in different metallicity environments is a central topic of current stellar research. The spectral analysis of massive stars requires adequate model atmospheres. The computation of such models is difficult and time-consuming. Therefore, spectral analyses are greatly facilitated if they can refer to existing grids of model...
Preprint
Full-text available
The study of massive stars in different metallicity environments is a central topic of current stellar research. The spectral analysis of massive stars requires adequate model atmospheres. The computation of such models is difficult and time-consuming. Therefore, spectral analyses are greatly facilitated if they can refer to existing grids of model...
Preprint
Understanding the complex behavior of High Mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) is not possible without detailed information about their donor stars. While crucial, this turns out to be a challenge on multiple fronts. First, multi-wavelength spectroscopy is vital. As such systems can be highly absorbed, this is often already hard to accomplish. Secondly, ev...
Preprint
In Supergiant X-ray binaries (SgXB), a compact object captures a fraction of the wind of an O/B supergiant on a close orbit. Proxies exist to evaluate the efficiency of mass and angular momentum accretion but they depend so dramatically on the wind speed that given the current uncertainties, they only set loose constrains. Furthermore, they often b...