Andreas Richter

Andreas Richter
University of Vienna | UniWien · Centre for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science

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358
Publications
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Publications

Publications (358)
Preprint
In temperate soil systems, microbial biomass often increases during winter and decreases again in spring. This build-up and release of microbial carbon could potentially lead to a stabilization of soil carbon during winter times. Whether this increase is caused by changes in microbial physiology, in community composition or by changed substrate all...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming may lead to carbon transfers from soils to the atmosphere, yet this positive feedback to the climate system remains highly uncertain, especially in subsoils (Ilyina and Friedlingstein, 2016; Shi et al., 2018). Using natural geothermal soil warming gradients of up to +6.4 ∘C in subarctic grasslands (Sigurdsson et al., 2016), we show t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form obligate mutualistic associations with the roots of most plant families, providing nutrients for their host plants and receiving carbon in return. Soil nutrient availability is known to affect AMF abundance and community composition. For example, excessive phosphorus (P) fertilization decreases AM fungal root...
Article
Full-text available
Climate warming is releasing carbon from soils around the world ¹⁻³ , constituting a positive climate feedback. Warming is also causing species to expand their ranges into new ecosystems ⁴⁻⁹ . Yet, in most ecosystems, whether range expanding species will amplify or buffer expected soil carbon loss is unknown ¹⁰ . Here we used two whole-community tr...
Article
Carbon and nutrient inputs are required to stimulate the formation and mineralization of soil organic carbon (SOC) through processes related to microbial growth and priming effects (PEs). PEs are thought to affect microbial life strategies, however, the mechanisms underlying their role in SOC formation and microbial dynamics remain largely unknown,...
Article
Full-text available
How soil microorganisms respond to global warming is key to infer future soil-climate feedbacks, yet poorly understood. Here, we applied metatranscriptomics to investigate microbial physiological responses to medium-term (8 years) and long-term (>50 years) subarctic grassland soil warming of +6°C. Besides indications for a community-wide up-regulat...
Article
Priming is the change of microbial soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition induced by a labile carbon (C) source. It is recognised as an important mechanism influencing soil C dynamics and C storage in terrestrial ecosystems. Microbial nitrogen (N) mining in SOM and preferential substrate utilisation, i.e., a shift in microbial carbon use from SOM...
Preprint
Full-text available
Soils in the northern high latitudes are a key component in the global carbon cycle; the northern permafrost region covers 22% of the Northern Hemisphere and holds almost twice as much carbon as the atmosphere. Permafrost soil organic matter stocks represent an enormous long-term carbon sink which is in risk of switching to a net source in the futu...
Article
Long-term soil warming and nitrogen (N) availability have been shown to affect microbial biomass and community composition. Altered assimilation patterns of recent plant-derived C and changes in soil C stocks following warming as well as increased N availability are critical in mediating the direction and magnitude of these community shifts. A ¹³C...
Preprint
Full-text available
Global warming may lead to carbon transfers from soils to the atmosphere, yet this positive feedback to the cli- mate system remains highly uncertain, especially in subsoils (Ilyina and Friedlingstein, 2016; Shi et al., 2018). Using natural geothermal soil warming gradients of up to +6.4 °C in subarctic grasslands (Sigurdsson et al., 2016), we show...
Article
Full-text available
Permafrost‐affected soils in the northern circumpolar region store more than 1,000 Pg soil organic carbon (OC), and are strongly vulnerable to climatic warming. However, the extent to which changing soil environmental conditions with permafrost thaw affects different compounds of soil organic matter (OM) is poorly understood. Here, we assessed the...
Article
Depolymerization of high-molecular weight organic nitrogen (N) represents the major bottleneck of soil N cycling and yet is poorly understood compared to the subsequent inorganic N processes. Given the importance of organic N cycling and the rise of global change, we investigated the responses of soil protein depolymerization and microbial amino ac...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ongoing climate warming in the western Canadian Arctic is leading to thawing of permafrost soils and subsequent mobilization of its organic matter pool. Part of this mobilized terrestrial organic matter enters the aquatic system as dissolved organic matter (DOM) and is laterally transported from land to sea. Mobilized organic matter is an important...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming increases soil temperatures and promotes faster growth and turnover of soil microbial communities. As microbial cell walls contain a high proportion of organic nitrogen, a higher turnover rate of microbes should also be reflected in an accelerated organic nitrogen cycling in soil. We used a metatranscriptomics and metagenomics approa...
Article
Tundra ecosystems hold large stocks of soil organic matter (SOM), likely due to low temperatures limiting rates of microbial SOM decomposition more than those of SOM accumulation from plant primary productivity and microbial necromass inputs. Here we test the hypotheses that distinct tundra vegetation types and their carbon supply to characteristic...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the mechanisms that drive the change of biotic assemblages over space and time is the main quest of community ecology. Assessing the relative importance of dispersal and environmental species selection in a range of organismic sizes and motilities has been a fruitful strategy. A consensus for whether spatial and environmental distance...
Article
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The positive roles of earthworms on soil functionality has been extensively documented. The capacity of the earthworm gut microbiota on decomposition and nutrient cycling under long-term fertilization in field conditions has rarely been studied. Here, we report the structural, taxonomic, and functional responses of Eisenia foetida and Pheretima gui...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is altering the frequency and severity of drought events. Recent evidence indicates that drought may produce legacy effects on soil microbial communities. However, it is unclear whether precedent drought events lead to ecological memory formation, i.e., the capacity of past events to influence current ecosystem response trajectories....
Article
As the climate warms, drought events are expected to increase in intensity and frequency, with consequences for the carbon cycle. Soil respiration (Rs) accounts for the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. While the drought responses of Rs have been well studied, it is uncertain how they will be modified in a future wo...
Article
Full-text available
Cyanate can serve as a nitrogen and/or carbon source for different microorganisms and as an energy source for autotrophic ammonia oxidizers. However, the extent of cyanate availability and utilisation in terrestrial ecosystems and its role in biogeochemical cycles is poorly known. Here we analyse cyanate concentrations in soils across a range of so...
Article
Soil phosphatase enzymes are produced by plant roots and microorganisms and play a key role in the cycling of phosphorus (P), an often‐limiting element in terrestrial ecosystems. The production of these enzymes in soil is the most important biological strategy for acquiring phosphate ions from organic molecules. Previous works showed how soil poten...
Preprint
Climate warming is releasing carbon from soils around the world 1–3 , constituting a positive climate feedback. Warming is also causing species to expand their ranges into new ecosystems 4–9 . Yet, in most ecosystems, whether range expanding species will amplify or buffer expected soil carbon loss is unknown ¹⁰ . Here we used alpine grasslands as a...
Article
Full-text available
Extracellular DNA is a major macromolecule in global element cycles, and is a particularly crucial phosphorus, nitrogen and carbon source for microorganisms in the seafloor. Nevertheless, the identities, ecophysiology and genetic features of DNA-foraging microorganisms in marine sediments are largely unknown. Here, we combined microcosm experiments...
Article
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Ectomycorrhizal plants trade plant-assimilated carbon for soil nutrients with their fungal partners. The underlying mechanisms are, however, not fully understood. Here we investigated the exchange of carbon for nitrogen in the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis of Fagus Sylvatica across different spatial scales from the root-system to the cellular scale. We...
Article
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In tropical forests, free-living Biological nitrogen (N) fixation (BNF) in soil and litter tends to decrease when substrate N concentrations increase, whereas increasing phosphorus (P) and molybdenum (Mo) soil and litter concentrations have been shown to stimulate free-living BNF rates. Yet, very few studies explored the effects of adding N, P, and...
Article
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Microbial community analysis via marker gene amplicon sequencing has become a routine method in the field of soil research. In this perspective, we discuss technical challenges and limitations of amplicon sequencing and present statistical and experimental approaches that can help addressing the spatio-temporal complexity of soil and the high diver...
Article
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Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) and saprotrophic fungi interact in the breakdown of organic matter, but the mechanisms underlying the EcM role on organic matter decomposition are not totally clear. We hypothesized that the ecological relations between EcM and saprotroph fungi are modulated by resources availability and accessibility, determining decompositio...
Article
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Herbivory by barnacle geese ( Branta leucopsis ) alters the vegetation cover and reduces ecosystem productivity in high-Arctic peatlands, limiting the carbon sink strength of these ecosystems. Here we investigate how herbivory-induced vegetation changes affect the activities of peat soil microbiota using metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and target...
Article
Full-text available
Photosynthesis and soil respiration represent the two largest fluxes of CO2 in terrestrial ecosystems and are tightly linked through belowground carbon (C) allocation. Drought has been suggested to impact the allocation of recently assimilated C to soil respiration, however, it is largely unknown how drought effects are altered by a future warmer c...
Article
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Spatial analysis in earth sciences is often based on the concept of spatial autocorrelation, expressed by W. Tobler as the first law of geography: “everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things." Here, we show that subsurface soil properties in permafrost tundra terrain exhibit tremendous spatial var...
Article
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The possibility of using the elemental compositions of species as a tool to identify species/genotype niche remains to be tested at a global scale. We investigated relationships between the foliar elemental compositions (elementomes) of trees at a global scale with phylogeny, climate, N deposition and soil traits. We analysed foliar N, P, K, Ca, Mg...
Preprint
Full-text available
Microbial physiological responses to long-term warming are poorly understood. Here we applied metatranscriptomics to investigate how microorganisms react to medium-term (8 years) and long-term (>5 decades) subarctic grassland soil warming of +6 °C. Decades, but not years, of warming induced changes in relative abundances of eukaryotic, prokaryotic,...
Preprint
Full-text available
How soil microorganisms respond to global warming is key to infer future soil-climate feedbacks, yet poorly understood. Here we applied metatranscriptomics to investigate microbial physiological responses to medium- (8 years) and long-term (>50 years) subarctic grassland soil warming of +6 °C. Besides indications for a community-wide upregulation o...
Article
Full-text available
A longstanding assumption of glucose tracing experiments is that all glucose is microbially utilized during short incubations of ≤2 days to become microbial biomass or carbon dioxide. Carbon use efficiency (CUE) estimates have consequently ignored the formation of residues (non-living microbial products) although such materials could represent an i...
Article
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Stoichiometric control of input substrate (glucose) and native soil organic C (SOC) mineralization was assessed by performing a manipulation experiment based on N or P fertilization in paddy soil. Glucose mineralization increased with nutrient addition up to 11.6% with combined N and P application compared with that without nutrient addition. Durin...
Article
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Microbial growth and carbon use efficiency (CUE) are central to the global carbon cycle, as microbial remains form soil organic matter. We investigated how future global changes may affect soil microbial growth, respiration, and CUE. We aimed to elucidate the soil microbial response to multiple climate change drivers across the growing season and w...
Article
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Significant rates of atmospheric dihydrogen (H 2) consumption have been observed in temperate soils due to the activity of high-affinity enzymes, such as the group 1h [NiFe]-hydrogenase. We designed broadly inclusive primers targeting the large subunit gene (hhyL) of group 1h [NiFe]-hydrogenases for long-read sequencing to explore its taxonomic dis...
Article
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As global temperatures continue to rise, a key uncertainty of climate projections is the microbial decomposition of vast organic carbon stocks in thawing permafrost soils. Decomposition rates can accelerate up to fourfold in the presence of plant roots, and this mechanism—termed the rhizosphere priming effect—may be especially relevant to thawing p...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrification is a fundamental process in terrestrial nitrogen cycling. However, detailed information on how climate change affects the structure of nitrifier communities is lacking, specifically from experiments in which multiple climate change factors are manipulated simultaneously. Consequently, our ability to predict how soil nitrogen (N) cycli...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cyanate (NCO ⁻ ) can serve as a nitrogen and/or carbon source for different microorganisms and even additionally as an energy source for autotrophic ammonia oxidizers. Despite the widely distributed genetic potential for direct cyanate utilization among bacteria, archaea and fungi, the availability and environmental significance of cyanate is large...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Paddy soil as a major component of cropland, plays an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle and favors carbon sequestration especially in southern China. Soil microorganisms are central to the conversion of organic matter into SOC, yet the mechanisms underlying the paddy management at long time scales remain largely unknown, including micro...
Article
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Background and aims Biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is the main pathway for introducing N into unmanaged ecosystems. While recent estimates suggest that free-living N fixation (FLNF) accounts for the majority of N fixed in mature tropical forests, the controls governing this process are not completely understood. The aim of this st...
Article
Full-text available
The large stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC) in soils and deposits of the northern permafrost region are sensitive to global warming and permafrost thawing. The potential release of this carbon (C) as greenhouse gases to the atmosphere does not only depend on the total quantity of soil organic matter (SOM) affected by warming and thawing, but it a...
Article
Full-text available
Temperature governs most biotic processes, yet we know little about how warming affects whole ecosystems. Here we examined the responses of 128 components of a subarctic grassland to either 5–8 or >50 years of soil warming. Warming of >50 years drove the ecosystem to a new steady state possessing a distinct biotic composition and reduced species ri...
Article
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Numerous studies have demonstrated that fertilization with nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium increase plant productivity in both natural and managed ecosystems, demonstrating that primary productivity is nutrient limited in most terrestrial ecosystems. In contrast, it has been demonstrated that heterotrophic microbial communitie...
Article
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Boreal forests are ecosystems with low nitrogen (N) availability that store globally significant amounts of carbon (C), mainly in plant biomass and soil organic matter (SOM). Although crucial for future climate change predictions, the mechanisms controlling boreal C and N pools are not well understood. Here, using a three-year field experiment, we...
Article
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Soil fauna is a key control of the decomposition rate of leaf litter, yet its interactions with litter quality and the soil environment remain elusive. We conducted a litter decomposition experiment across different topographic levels within the landscape replicated in two rainforest sites providing natural gradients in soil fertility to test the h...
Article
Trees allocate C from sources to sinks by way of a series of processes involving carbohydrate transport and utilization. Yet, these dynamics are not well characterized in trees, and it is unclear how these dynamics will respond to a warmer world. Here, we conducted a warming and pulse‐chase experiment on Eucalyptus parramattensis growing in a whole...
Article
All plant species reach a low temperature range limit when either low temperature extremes exceed their freezing tolerance or when their metabolism becomes too restricted. In this study, we explore the ultimate thermal limit of plant tissue formation exemplified by a plant species that seemingly grows through snow. By a combination of studies in al...
Article
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Marine sponges represent one of the few eukaryotic groups that frequently harbor symbiotic members of the Thaumarchaeota, which are important chemoautotrophic ammonia‐oxidizers in many environments. However, in most studies, direct demonstration of ammonia‐oxidation by these archaea within sponges is lacking, and little is known about sponge‐specif...
Article
Full-text available
Species‐rich plant communities have been shown to be more productive and to exhibit increased long‐term soil organic carbon (SOC) storage. Soil microorganisms are central to the conversion of plant organic matter into SOC, yet the relationship between plant diversity, soil microbial growth, turnover as well as carbon use efficiency (CUE) and SOC ac...
Article
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Microorganisms are critical in mediating carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling processes in soils. Yet, it has long been debated whether the processes underlying biogeochemical cycles are affected by the composition and diversity of the soil microbial community or not. The composition and diversity of soil microbial communities can be influenced by v...
Article
Full-text available
The large stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC) in soils and deposits of the northern permafrost region are sensitive to global warming and permafrost thawing. The potential release of this carbon (C) as greenhouse gases to the atmosphere does not only depend on the total quantity of soil organic matter (SOM) affected by warming and thawing, but also...
Article
Grassland management can modify soil microbial carbon (C)and nitrogen (N)cycling, affecting the resistance to extreme weather events, which are predicted to increase in frequency and magnitude in the near future. However, effects of grassland management on microbial C and N cycling and their responses to extreme weather events, such as droughts and...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) are atmospheric trace gases that contribute to climate change and affect stratospheric and ground-level ozone concentrations. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) are key players in the nitrogen cycle and major producers of N2O and NO globally. However, nothing is known about N2O and NO produc...