Andreas M Brandmaier

Andreas M Brandmaier
Max Planck Institute for Human Development | MPIB · Center of Lifespan Psychology

Dr. rer. nat.

About

93
Publications
143,577
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Introduction
Andreas M Brandmaier currently works at the Center of Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development. Andreas does research in Data Mining and Quantitative Psychology.
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
May 2008 - present
Max Planck Institute for Human Development
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (93)
Article
Full-text available
We used intra-class effect decomposition (ICED) to evaluate the reliability of myelin water fraction (MWF) and geometric mean T2 relaxation time (geomT2IEW) estimated from a multi-echo MRI sequence. Our evaluation addressed test-retest reliability, with and without participant re-positioning, for seven commonly assessed white matter tracts: anterio...
Article
We investigate the reliability of individual differences of four quantities measured by magnetic resonance imaging-based multiparameter mapping (MPM): magnetization transfer saturation (MT), proton density (PD), longitudinal relaxation rate (R1 ), and effective transverse relaxation rate (R2 *). Four MPM datasets, two on each of two consecutive day...
Preprint
The question of how much sleep is best for the brain attracts scientific and public interest, and there is concern that insuficient sleep leads to poorer brain health. However, it is unknown how much sleep is sufficient and how much is too much. We analyzed 51,295 brain magnetic resonnance images from 47,039 participants, and calculated the self-re...
Article
Full-text available
The beneficial effects of physical exercise on physical health and cognitive functioning have been repeatedly shown. However, evidence of its effect on psychosocial functioning in healthy adults is still scarce or inconclusive. One limitation of many studies examining this link is their reliance on correlational approaches or specific subpopulation...
Article
Full-text available
Background Loneliness is most prevalent during adolescence and late life and has been associated with mental health disorders as well as with cognitive decline during aging. Associations between longitudinal measures of loneliness and verbal episodic memory and brain structure should thus be investigated. Methods We sought to determine association...
Preprint
The question of how much sleep is best for the brain attracts scientific and public interest, and there is concern that insuficient sleep leads to poorer brain health. However, it is unknown how much sleep is sufficient and how much is too much. We analyzed 51,295 brain magnetic resonnance images from 47,039 participants, and calculated the self-re...
Preprint
We show that separable nonlinear least squares (SNLLS) estimation is applicable to all linear structural equation models (SEMs) that can be specified in RAM notation. SNLLS is an estimation technique that has successfully been applied to a wide range of models, for example neural networks and dynamic systems, often leading to improvements in conver...
Article
Theories of adult cognitive development classically distinguish between fluid abilities, which require effortful processing at the time of assessment, and crystallized abilities, which require the retrieval and application of knowledge. On average, fluid abilities decline throughout adulthood, whereas crystallized abilities show gains into old age....
Article
Brain maintenance has been identified as a major determinant of successful memory aging. However, the extent to which brain maintenance in support of successful memory aging is specific to memory-related brain regions or forms part of a brain-wide phenomenon is unresolved. Here, we used longitudinal brain-wide gray matter MRI volumes in 262 healthy...
Article
Full-text available
Computational reproducibility is the ability to obtain identical results from the same data with the same computer code. It is a building block for transparent and cumulative science because it enables the originator and other researchers, on other computers and later in time, to reproduce and thus understand how results came about, while avoiding...
Article
Dopamine (DA) integrity is suggested as a potential cause of individual differences in working memory (WM) performance among older adults. Still, the principal dopaminergic mechanisms giving rise to WM differences remain unspecified. Here, 61 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, located in or adjacent to various dopamine-related genes, were assessed fo...
Preprint
We investigate the reliability of individual differences of four quantities measured by magnetic resonance imaging based multiparameter mapping (MPM): magnetization transfer (MT), proton density (PD), longitudinal relaxation rate (R1), and effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*). A total of four MPM datasets, two on each of two consecutive days,...
Article
Full-text available
Brain age is a widely used index for quantifying individuals’ brain health as deviation from a normative brain aging trajectory. Higher-than-expected brain age is thought partially to reflect above-average rate of brain aging. Here, we explicitly tested this assumption in two independent large test datasets (UK Biobank [main] and Lifebrain [replica...
Article
Unmodeled differences between individuals or groups can bias parameter estimates and may lead to false-positive or false-negative findings. Such instances of heterogeneity can often be detected and predicted with additional covariates. However, predicting differences with covariates can be challenging or even infeasible, depending on the modeling f...
Article
Missing data are ubiquitous in psychological research. They may come about as an unwanted result of coding or computer error, participants' non-response or absence, or missing values may be intentional, as in planned missing designs. We discuss the effects of missing data on χ²-based goodness-of-fit indices in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), sp...
Article
WE INTRODUCE THE BERLIN GEHOERBILDUNG SCALE (BGS), a multidimensional assessment of music expertise in amateur musicians and music professionals. The BGS is informed by music theory and uses a variety of testing methods in the ear-training tradition, with items covering four different dimensions of music expertise: (1) intervals and scales, (2) dic...
Article
Full-text available
Higher socio-economic status (SES) has been proposed to have facilitating and protective effects on brain and cognition. We ask whether relationships between SES, brain volumes and cognitive ability differ across cohorts, by age and national origin. European and US cohorts covering the lifespan were studied (4–97 years, N = 500 000; 54 000 w/brain...
Preprint
Reproducibility has long been considered integral to the scientific method. Something is called reproducible when an independent person obtains the same results from the same data. Until recently, detailed descriptions of methods and analyses were the primary instrument for ensuring scientific reproducibility. Technological advancements now enable...
Article
Full-text available
Unmodeled differences between individuals or groups can bias parameter estimates and may lead to false-positive or false-negative findings. Such instances of heterogeneity can often be detected and predicted with additional covariates. However, predicting differences with covariates can be challenging or even infeasible, depending on the modeling f...
Article
Full-text available
Development and aging of the cerebral cortex show similar topographic organization and are governed by the same genes. It is unclear whether the same is true for subcortical regions, which follow fundamentally different ontogenetic and phylogenetic principles. We tested the hypothesis that genetically governed neurodevelopmental processes can be tr...
Preprint
Full-text available
In biostatistics and medical research, longitudinal data are often composed of repeated assessments of a variable (e.g., blood pressure or other biomarkers) and dichotomous indicators to mark an event of interest (e.g., recovery from disease, or death). Consequently, joint modeling of longitudinal and time-to-event data has generated much interest...
Article
In this tutorial, we describe a workflow to ensure long-term reproducibility of R-based data analyses. The workflow leverages established tools and practices from software engineering. It combines the benefits of various open-source software tools including R Markdown, Git, Make, and Docker, whose interplay ensures seamless integration of version m...
Article
Education has been related to various advantageous lifetime outcomes. Here, using longitudinal structural MRI data (4,422 observations), we tested the influential hypothesis that higher education translates into slower rates of brain aging. Cross-sectionally, education was modestly associated with regional cortical volume. However, despite marked m...
Article
Adopting open science principles can be challenging, requiring conceptual education and training in the use of new tools. This paper introduces the Workflow for Open Reproducible Code in Science (WORCS): A step-by-step procedure that researchers can follow to make a research project open and reproducible. This workflow intends to lower the threshol...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brain age is a widely used index for quantifying individuals brain health as deviation from a normative brain aging trajectory. Higher than expected brain age is thought partially to reflect above-average rate of brain aging. We explicitly tested this assumption in two large datasets and found no association between cross-sectional brain age and st...
Article
Full-text available
Aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are associated with progressive brain disorganization. Although structural asymmetry is an organizing feature of the cerebral cortex it is unknown whether continuous age- and AD-related cortical degradation alters cortical asymmetry. Here, in multiple longitudinal adult lifespan cohorts we show that higher-order c...
Article
Full-text available
Structural equation model (SEM) trees are data-driven tools for finding variables that predict group differences in SEM parameters. SEM trees build upon the decision tree paradigm by growing tree structures that divide a data set recursively into homogeneous subsets. In past research, SEM trees have been estimated predominantly with the R package s...
Article
Dynamic panel models are a popular approach to study interrelationships between repeatedly measured variables. Often, dynamic panel models are specified and estimated within a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. An endemic problem threatening the validity of such models is unmodelled heterogeneity. Recently, individual parameter contribut...
Article
Full-text available
We examined whether sleep quality and quantity are associated with cortical and memory changes in cognitively healthy participants across the adult lifespan. Associations between self-reported sleep parameters (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI) and longitudinal cortical change were tested using five samples from the Lifebrain consortium (n = 22...
Article
Full-text available
Maintained structural integrity of hippocampal and cortical gray matter may explain why some older adults show rather preserved episodic memory. However, viable measurement models for estimating individual differences in gray matter structural integrity are lacking; instead, findings rely on fallible single indicators of integrity. Here, we introdu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Socio-economic status (SES) has been proposed to have facilitating and protective effects on brain and cognition. Here we show that relationships between SES, brain volumes and general cognitive ability differ significantly across European and US cohorts (4-97 years, N ≈ 500,000; 54,000 with brain imaging). Education was positively related to intra...
Article
Full-text available
Analyzing data from multiple neuroimaging studies has great potential in terms of increasing statistical power, enabling detection of effects of smaller magnitude than would be possible when analyzing each study separately and also allowing to systematically investigate between-study differences. Restrictions due to privacy or proprietary data as w...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), accelerated cognitive aging, and hippocampal atrophy, but its influence on the association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline in non-demented individuals remains unclear. Methods: We analyzed longitudinal (two to...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Brain health is a multi-faceted concept used to describe brain physiology, cognitive function, mental health and well-being. Diseases of the brain account for one third of the global burden of disease and are becoming more prevalent as populations age. Diet, social interaction as well as physical and cognitive activity are lifestyle fac...
Preprint
Full-text available
Normal aging and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) are accompanied by large-scale alterations in brain organization that undermine brain function. Although hemispheric asymmetry is a global organizing feature of cortex thought to promote brain efficiency, current descriptions of cortical thinning in aging and AD have largely overlooked cortical asymmetry. C...
Preprint
Full-text available
While development and aging of the cerebral cortex show a similar topographic organization and are mainly governed by the same genes, it is unclear whether the same is true for subcortical structures, which follow fundamentally different ontogenetic and phylogenetic principles than the cerebral cortex. To test the hypothesis that genetically govern...
Preprint
Adopting open science principles can be challenging and time-intensive, because doing so requires substantial conceptual education and training in the use of new tools. The goal of this paper is to lower the threshold to adoption. We introduce the Workflow for Open Reproducible Code in Science (WORCS). WORCS constitutes a step-by-step procedure tha...
Preprint
Structural equation model (SEM) trees are data-driven tools for finding covariates that predict group differences in the parameters of an SEM. SEM trees build upon the decision tree paradigm by growing tree structures that divide a data set recursively into homogeneous subsets. Currently, the selection of split variables among covariates involves t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Older persons with poor sleep are more likely to develop neurodegenerative disease, but the causality underlying this association is unclear. To move towards explanation, we examine whether sleep quality and quantity are similarly associated with brain changes across the adult lifespan. Methods Associations between self-reported sleep p...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we extend the Bayesian nonparametric regression method Gaussian Process Regression to the analysis of longitudinal panel data. We call this new approach Gaussian Process Panel Modeling (GPPM). GPPM provides great flexibility because of the large number of models it can represent. It allows classical statistical inference as well as...
Article
Structural equation model trees (SEM Trees) allow for the construction of decision trees with structural equation models fit in each of the nodes. Based on covariate information, SEM Trees can be used to create distinct subgroups containing individuals with similar parameter estimates. Currently, the structural equation modeling component of SEM Tr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Maintained structural integrity of hippocampal and cortical grey matter may explain why some older adults show rather preserved episodic memory. However, viable measurement models for estimating individual differences in grey matter structural integrity are lacking; instead, findings rely on fallible single indicators of integrity. Here, we introdu...
Preprint
Analyzing data from multiple neuroimaging studies has great potential in terms of increasing statistical power, enabling detection of effects of smaller magnitude than would be possible when analyzing each study separately and also allowing to systematically investigate between-study differences. Restrictions due to privacy or proprietary data as w...
Article
Full-text available
Longitudinal data collection is a time-consuming and cost-intensive part of developmental research. Wu et al. (2016) discussed planned missing (PM) designs that are similar in efficiency to complete designs but require fewer observations per person. The authors reported optimal PM designs for linear latent growth curve models based on extensive Mon...
Article
Age-related memory impairments have been linked to differences in structural brain parameters, including cerebral white matter (WM) microstructure and hippocampal (HC) volume, but their combined influences are rarely investigated. In a population-based sample of 337 older participants aged 61-82 years (Mage = 69.66, SDage = 3.92 years), we modeled...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated test–retest reliability of two MRI-derived indices of white-matter microstructural properties in the human corpus callosum (CC): myelin water fraction (MWF) and geometric mean T2 relaxation time of intra/extracellular water (geomT2IEW), using a 3D gradient and multi spin-echo sequence in 20 healthy adults (aged 24–69 years, 10 men)....
Preprint
In this tutorial, we describe a workflow to ensure long-term reproducibility of R-based data analyses. The workflow leverages established tools and practices from software engineering. It combines the benefits of various open-source software tools including R Markdown, Git, Make, and Docker, whose interplay ensures seamless integration of version m...
Article
Full-text available
Dynamic panel models are a popular approach to study interrelationships between repeatedly measured variables. Often, dynamic panel models are specified and estimated within a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. An endemic problem threatening the validity of such models is unmodelled heterogeneity. Recently, individual parameter contribut...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aging brain undergoes several changes, including reduced vascular, structural, and dopamine (DA) system integrity. Such brain changes have been associated with age-related cognitive deficits. However, their relative importance, interrelations, and links to risk factors remain elusive. Methods: The present work used magnetic resona...
Preprint
Full-text available
Age-related memory impairments have been linked to differences in structural brain parameters, including cerebral white matter (WM) microstructure and hippocampal (HC) volume, but their combined influences are rarely investigated. In a population-based sample of 337 older participants 61–82 years of age (M age =69.66, SD age =3.92 years) we modeled...
Preprint
Full-text available
A general method is introduced in which variables that are products of other variables in the context of a structural equation model (SEM) can be decomposed into the sources of variance due to the multiplicands. The result is a new category of SEM which we call a Multiplicative Reticular Action Model (XRAM). XRAM can include interactions between la...
Article
Full-text available
The fact that tyrosine increases dopamine availability that, in turn, may enhance cognitive performance has led to numerous studies on healthy young participants taking tyrosine as a food supplement. As a result of this dietary intervention, participants show performance increases in working memory and executive functions. However, the potential as...
Article
Full-text available
Adequate reliability of measurement is a precondition for investigating individual differences and age-related changes in brain structure. One approach to improve reliability is to identify and control for variables that are predictive of within-person variance. To this end, we applied both classical statistical methods and machine-learning-inspire...
Article
Full-text available
Methodological innovations have allowed researchers to consider increasingly sophisticated statistical models that are better in line with the complexities of real-world behavioral data. However, despite these powerful new analytic approaches, sample sizes may not always be sufficiently large to deal with the increase in model complexity. This diff...
Preprint
Dynamic panel models are a popular approach to study interrelationships between repeatedly measured variables. Often, dynamic panel models are specified and estimated within a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. An endemic problem threatening the validity of such models is unmodelled heterogeneity. Recently, individual parameter contribut...
Article
With advancing age, healthy adults typically exhibit decreases in performance across many different cognitive abilities such as memory, processing speed, spatial ability, and abstract reasoning. However, there are marked individual differences in rates of cognitive decline, with some adults declining steeply and others maintaining high levels of fu...
Article
Full-text available
Magnetic resonance imaging has become an indispensable tool for studying associations between structural and functional properties of the brain and behavior in humans. However, generally recognized standards for assessing and reporting the reliability of these techniques are still lacking. Here, we introduce a new approach for assessing and reporti...
Article
Assessing and analysing individual differences in change over time is of central scientific importance to developmental neuroscience. However, the extant literature is based largely on cross-sectional comparisons, which reflect a variety of influences and cannot directly represent change. We advocate using latent change score (LCS) models in longit...
Preprint
Full-text available
Missing data are ubiquitous in both small and large datasets. Missing data may come about as a result of coding or computer error, participant absences, or it may be intentional, as in planned missing designs. We discuss missing data as it relates to goodness-of-fit indices in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), specifically the effects of missing...
Article
Full-text available
Latent Growth Curve Models (LGCM) have become a standard technique to model change over time. Prediction and explanation of inter-individual differences in change are major goals in lifespan research. The major determinants of statistical power to detect individual differences in change are the magnitude of true inter-individual differences in line...