Andrea Piccinin

Andrea Piccinin
University of Victoria | UVIC · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

120
Publications
14,331
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,802
Citations
Introduction

Publications

Publications (120)
Article
Research suggests that personality traits are associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and mortality risk, but the timing of when traits are most important in the progression to dementia and the extent to which they are associated with years of cognitive health span are unclear. This project applied secondary data analysis to the...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objectives There is an urgent need to better understand frailty and it’s predisposing factors. Although numerous cross-sectional studies have identified various risk and protective factors of frailty, there is a limited understanding of longitudinal frailty progression. Furthermore, discrepancies in the methodologies of these studies...
Article
Full-text available
Decreasing estrogen levels have been hypothesized to be associated with increased risk of dementia, yet the current literature reveals conflicting results. This study aimed to determine whether a longer reproductive period, as an indicator of longer exposure to endogenous estrogens, is associated with risk of transitioning to MCI and dementia. Wome...
Article
Full-text available
Olfactory dysfunction is a common issue in late-life and can be an early indicator for neurodegenerative diseases. Further, olfactory interventions not only improve olfaction but have shown promise for the delay and treatment of dementia. This study aimed to better understand the feasibility and barriers of implementing an olfactory intervention. P...
Article
Full-text available
Existing literature suggests that in comparison to a single blood pressure (BP) measurement, or the mean of multiple recordings, BP variability (BPV) may reflect dysfunction in cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms, leading to compromised cognitive health. No systematic review has yet synthesized observational reports examining the association betwe...
Article
Coordinated analysis is a powerful form of integrative analysis, and is well suited in its capacity to promote cumulative scientific knowledge, particularly in subfields of psychology that focus on the processes of lifespan development and aging. Coordinated analysis uses raw data from individual studies to create similar hypothesis tests for a giv...
Article
Full-text available
Existing literature indicates a relatively consistent relationship between neuroticism and cognitive functioning (CF). Interindividually, high levels of neuroticism may predispose individuals to cognitive aging and dementia-related neuropathology. Intraindividually, increases in neuroticism may be intrinsic to the aging process or to dementia patho...
Article
Full-text available
Previous cross-sectional research suggests that age-related decreases in Rapid-Eye Movement (REM) sleep may contribute to poorer cognitive functioning (CF); however, few studies have examined the relationship at the intraindividual level by measuring habitual sleep over multiple days. Applying a 14-day daily diary design, the current study examines...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals low in conscientiousness are typically characterized by higher rates of dropout in longitudinal studies compared to individuals high in conscientiousness. Given that low conscientiousness is associated with increased risk of mortality and several adverse health behaviours and outcomes, attrition of individuals low in conscientiousness m...
Article
Full-text available
Early investigations of the neuroticism by conscientiousness interaction with regards to health have been promising, but to date, there have been no systematic investigations of this interaction that account for the various personality measurement instruments, varying populations, or aspects of health. The current study – the second of three – uses...
Article
Full-text available
Current literature suggests that neuroticism is positively associated with maladaptive life choices, likelihood of disease, and mortality. However, recent research has identified circumstances under which neuroticism is associated with positive outcomes. The current project examined whether "healthy neuroticism", defined as the interaction of neuro...
Article
Full-text available
Individual differences in the Big Five personality traits have emerged as predictors of health and longevity. Although there are robust protective effects for higher levels of conscientiousness, results are mixed for other personality traits. In particular, higher levels of neuroticism have significantly predicted an increased risk of mortality, no...
Article
This study assessed change in self‐reported Big Five personality traits. We conducted a coordinated integrative data analysis using data from 16 longitudinal samples, comprising a total sample of over 60 000 participants. We coordinated models across multiple datasets and fit identical multi‐level growth models to assess and compare the extent of t...
Chapter
A majority of research by personality psychologists examining health has utilized publicly available datasets, for good reason. These resources are often the only available datasets large enough to detect expected effect sizes and may contain biological or genetic data that is difficult to obtain. However, researchers tend to examine only one large...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed age-graded change in positive and negative affect over decades of the lifespan. We conducted a coordinated integrative data analysis (IDA) using data from 11 longitudinal samples, comprising a total of 74076 respondents, spanning the ages of 11 to 106. Positive and negative affect were measured using the CES-D in 8 studies, the...
Article
Full-text available
Although existing research shows that physical activity (PA) protects against cognitive decline, it is unclear if maintenance of PA throughout older adulthood influences the timing of onset or transitions through cognitive states. Further understanding of modifiable lifestyle factors that protect against cognitive changes characteristic of both nor...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Very few studies looking at slow gait speed as early marker of cognitive decline investigated the competing risk of death. The current study examines associations between slow gait speed and transitions between cognitive states and death in later life. Methods: We performed a coordinated analysis of three longitudinal studies with 9...
Preprint
Full-text available
A majority of research by personality psychologists examining health has utilized publicly available datasets, for good reason. These resources are often the only available datasets large enough to detect expected effect sizes and may contain biological or genetic data that is difficult to obtain. However, researchers tend to examine only one large...
Article
Objective: Handgrip strength, an indicator of overall muscle strength, has been found to be associated with slower rate of cognitive decline and decreased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia. However, evaluating the replicability of associations between aging-related changes in physical and cognitive functioning is challenging due to differ...
Article
Full-text available
Background International comparisons of trajectories of depressive symptoms in older adults are scarce and longitudinal associations with co-morbid conditions not fully understood. Objective To compare trajectories of depressive symptoms from participants living in 10 European Countries and identify ages at which the associations of co-morbid cond...
Article
Background Substantial research is dedicated to understanding the aging-related dynamics among individual differences in level, change, and variation across physical and cognitive abilities. Evaluating replicability and synthesizing these findings has been limited by differences in measurements and samples, and by study design and statistical analy...
Article
Full-text available
Recent observational research examining personality at the intra-individual level has identified a consistent pattern between personality trait stability, in contrast to trait change or variability, and maintaining higher levels of cognitive functioning. However, no study has examined dynamic change in both personality traits and cognitive function...
Article
This symposium provides an integrative perspective of age and health-related multivariate dynamics underlying changes in physical and cognitive function. Declines in physical and cognitive function in older adults can be indicators of both pathological and biological aging. Change in physical functioning has been associated with loss of quality of...
Article
Full-text available
Three high-quality longitudinal studies were selected to examine personality trait changes in the context of different cognitive outcome (i.e., dementia, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and no diagnosis). The datasets varied in several characteristics, including intervals between measurement occasions, number of occasions, assessment of personality, and...
Article
Substantial research has focused on aging-related dynamics among individual differences in level, change, and variation across physical and cognitive functioning. Evaluating replicability and synthesizing these findings has been limited by differences in measurements and samples, and by study design and statistical analyses confounding between-pers...
Article
We investigated the heterogeneity in end of life cognitive decline in two European longitudinal studies of the oldest old: the OCTO-Twin and the Newcastle 85+ Study. Using a coordinated analytical approach, we identified unobserved groups of individuals with similar trajectories of cognitive decline at the end of life by fitting Tobit Growth Mixtur...
Article
Full-text available
The study of aging demands an integrative life-span developmental framework, involving interdisciplinary collaborations and multiple methodological approaches for understanding how and why individuals change, in both normative and idiosyncratic ways. Many issues are encountered when conducting integrative multi-study research for understanding agin...
Article
We investigated the association between rates of change in grip strength and indicators of different domains of cognitive function (mental status, processing speed, attention and working memory, perceptual reasoning, verbal ability, and learning and memory) within a multiple-study comparative framework. Bivariate growth models stratified by gender...
Conference Paper
We investigated the heterogeneity in end of life cognitive decline in two European longitudinal studies of the oldest old: the OCTO-Twin and the Newcastle 85+ Study. Using a coordinated analytical approach, we identified unobserved groups of individuals with similar trajectories of cognitive decline at the end of life by fitting Tobit Growth Mixtur...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Substantial research is dedicated to understanding the aging-related dynamics among individual differences in level, change, and variation across physical and cognitive abilities. Evaluating replicability and synthesizing findings has been limited by differences in measurements, samples, study design and statistical analyses which conf...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: We explore the association between different patterns of change in depressive symptoms and memory trajectories in US and European Mediterranean (Spain, France, Italy, and Israel) and non-Mediterranean (Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria) older adults. Methods: Samples consisted of 3,466 participa...
Article
Objectives: To determine whether assessment-to-assessment fluctuations in episodic memory (EM) reflect fluctuations in olfaction over time. Methods: Within-person coupled variation in EM and the Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) was examined in 565 participants aged 58-106 with autopsy data from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. A growth m...
Article
Background: previous research has demonstrated how older adults exhibit different patterns of change in cognitive and physical functioning, suggesting differences in the underlying causal processes. Objective: to (i) identify subgroups of older adults that best account for different patterns of longitudinal change in performance on global cognit...
Article
Objectives: Although personality change is typically considered a symptom of dementia, some studies suggest that personality change may be an early indication of dementia. One prospective study found increases in neuroticism preceding dementia diagnosis (Yoneda et al, 2017). The current study extends this research by examining trajectories of pers...
Article
Objectives: To model trajectories of visuospatial reasoning measured using Kohs Block Design test under realistic missing data assumptions and evaluate their association with hazard of death. Methods: A joint longitudinal-survival model was used to estimate trajectories of visuospatial reasoning under a missing not at random assumption of partic...
Article
Objectives Grip strength and cognitive function reflect upper body muscle strength and mental capacities. Cross-sectional research has suggested that in old age these two processes are moderately to highly associated, and that an underlying common cause drives this association. Our aim was to synthesize and evaluate longitudinal research addressing...
Article
Introduction: This study examines the role of educational attainment, an indicator of cognitive reserve, on transitions in later life between cognitive states (normal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), mild MMSE impairment, and severe MMSE impairment) and death. Methods: Analysis of six international longitudinal studies was performed using a...
Preprint
This study assessed change in the Big Five personality traits. We conducted a coordinated integrative data analysis (IDA) using data from 14 studies including 47,190 respondents to examine trajectories of change in the traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. Coordinating models across multiple study site...
Preprint
This study examined the Big Five personality traits as predictors of mortality risk, and smoking as a mediator of that association. Replication was built into the fabric of our design: we used a Coordinated Analysis with 15 international datasets, representing 44,094 participants. We found that high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, extraversi...
Article
Maintaining independence in older age depends on adequate levels of physical and cognitive functioning. Numerous studies, both longitudinal and cross-sectional, describe progressive declines although few studies report on the dynamics within and across these domains of functioning. In a coordinated analysis of 12 longitudinal studies, we examined a...
Article
Two studies suggest that personality change may be an early indicator of dementia (Balsis et al, 2005; Smith-Gamble et al, 2001); however, these studies did not assess personality trait change. Although Yoneda et al (2015) prospectively examined personality traits, the nature of the analyses did not allow comparison between trajectories in normal a...
Article
The earliest stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology begins in one of the main components of the olfactory pathway, the entorhinal cortex, making deficits in smell a potential prospective biomarker for the early detection of AD. A bivariate longitudinal coupling model was used to determine whether assessment-to-assessment variation in olfaction...
Article
This study examined the Big Five personality traits as predictors of mortality risk, and smoking as a mediator of that association. Replication was built into the fabric of our design: we used a Coordinated Analysis with 15 international datasets, representing 44,094 participants. We found that high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, extraversi...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to explore the pattern of change in multiple measures of cognitive abilities in a sample of oldest-old adults, comparing two different time metrics (chronological age and time to death) and therefore examining both underlying conceptual assumptions (age-related change and terminal decline). Moreover, the association with in...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cognitive reserve was postulated to explain individual differences in susceptibility to ageing, offering apparent protection to those with higher education. We investigated the association between education and change in memory in early old age. Methods: Immediate and delayed memory scores from over 10,000 individuals aged 65 years a...
Article
Social activity is 1 aspect of an active lifestyle and some evidence indicates it is related to preserved cognitive function in older adulthood. However, the potential mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We investigate 4 potential mediational pathways through which social activity may relate to cognitive performance. A multilevel...
Article
Full-text available
Background We aimed to identify the hierarchy of rates of decline in 16 physical functioning measures in U.S. and English samples, using a systematic and integrative coordinated data analysis approach. Methods The U.S. sample consisted of 13,612 Health and Retirement Study participants, and the English sample consisted of 5,301 English Longitudina...
Article
Objective: Given theoretical and methodological advances that propose hypothesis about change in one or multiple processes, analytical methods for longitudinal data have been developed that provide researchers with various options for analyzing change over time. In this paper, we revisit several latent growth curve models that may be considered to...
Article
Objective: The association between patterns of change in self-rated health (SRH) and memory trajectories in older adults was examined using a systematic approach. Method: Data from the Health and Retirement Study (n = 6,016) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 734) were analyzed. Individuals were grouped into five categories accord...
Article
Background: Several retrospective studies using informant report have shown that individuals with dementia demonstrate considerable personality change. Two prospective studies, also using informant report, have shown that individuals who develop dementia show some personality changes prior to diagnosis. The current study is the first to assess per...
Article
The importance of preventing and controlling hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) to mitigate risks to physical health has long been understood by health care professionals. More recently, a growing body of evidence implicates HTN and DM in age-related cognitive decline and risk for dementia, though consensus has yet to be reached on wheth...
Article
Full-text available
A major goal of much aging-related research and geriatric medicine is to identify early changes in health and functioning before serious limitations develop. To this end, regular collection of patient-reported outcome measure (PROMs) in a clinical setting may be useful to identify and monitor these changes. However, existing PROMs were not designed...
Chapter
Data harmonization involves creating commensurate variables across multiple datasets. Comparing research findings across nations and the study of rare characteristics both depend on it. Harmonization can be implemented either prospectively or retrospectively, based on when the process is begun relative to the original data collection. Some variable...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Education, a marker for cognitive reserve, is thought to be associated with low risks of dementia, but less is known about its association with cognitive decline in preclinical stages of dementia. This study aimed to see whether higher education level could have a protective effect against faster cognitive decline in preclinical stages o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cognitive performance substantially deteriorates close to death, as postulated by the terminal decline hypothesis. However, the association between education and terminal decline remains controversial. This study investigated the role of education in terminal decline in two European longitudinal studies of oldest-old.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Cognitive performance shows a marked deterioration in close proximity to death, as postulated by the terminal decline hypothesis. The effect of education on the rate of terminal decline in the oldest people (i.e. persons 85+ years) has been controversial and not entirely understood. In the current study, we investigated the rate of decl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Cognitive reserve hypothesis suggest that highly educated individuals are less likely to manifest clinical symptoms of dementia compared to their less-educated counterparts. We aimed to examine the association between education, used as a marker of cognitive reserve, and change in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in preclinical stage...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Cognitive performance shows a marked deterioration in close proximity to death, as postulated by terminal decline hypothesis. However, the association between education and terminal decline remains highly controversial. This study investigated the role of education on terminal decline in healthy and incident dementia cases from two Europ...
Article
The current study examines the role of social contact intensity, cognitive activity, and depressive symptoms as within- and between-person mediators for the relationships between physical activity and cognitive functioning. All three types of mediators were considered simultaneously using multilevel structural equations modeling with longitudinal d...
Conference Paper
Hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are two of the most prevalent health conditions in the older adult population and both place diagnosed individuals at increased risk for earlier or more dramatic decline in several cognitive domains. Though HTN and DM often co-occur, their impacts on long-term cognitive functioning are typically conside...
Article
Full-text available
Background A current phenomenon is the constant increase in life expectancy with polarised consequences for health. Among these, dementia represents a major public health impact on individuals and governments around the world. The search for modifiable risk factors remains a high priority. Many longitudinal studies have shown that education is asso...
Article
Abstract The quality of life over time of long-term survivors has become an important part of both cancer and aging research. This paper examines individual differences in trajectories of cancer-related worries and depressive symptoms of 179 participants who completed four waves of annual interviews. Cancer-related worries were significantly associ...