Andrea Peruzzi

Andrea Peruzzi
Università di Pisa | UNIPI · Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment (DAFE)

About

78
Publications
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1,095
Citations
Citations since 2016
41 Research Items
878 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150

Publications

Publications (78)
Article
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In the area under tree rows of alley cropping systems, coarse plant material as well as pruning material or stones may be present, so the use of a mower equipped with chains as cutting a tool could be advantageous. A mower designed for under-row weed control in orchards, equipped with an automatic tree-skipping mechanism, was modified by replacing...
Article
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Several trials have been carried out by various authors concerning autonomous mowers, which are battery-powered machines. The effects of these machines on turfgrass quality and energy consumption have been thoroughly investigated. However, there are still some aspects that have not been studied. Among these, random trajectory overlapping is one of...
Article
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In transition areas, cool season turfgrasses are overseeded in autumn to maintain the high quality of dormant warm season turfgrasses, while in spring several agronomic methods (scalping, coring, topdressing, verticutting, irrigation, and targeted fertilization) or chemical desiccation are adopted to remove the cool season turfgrasses from the stan...
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Organic vegetable production is particularly affected by weed pressure and mechanical weeding is the major tactic implemented by growers to keep weeds under economic thresholds. Living mulch (LM) has been shown to provide several environmental services; however, LM management is required to avoid competition between service crops and cash crops. Th...
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Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.) is often managed with a cutting height ranging from 70 to 100 mm in ornamental lawns. Some autonomous mowers have been specifically designed to maintain mowing height in the same range. Generally, autonomous mowers operate by following random trajectories, and substantial overlapping is neede...
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The development of a fully automated robotic weeder is currently hindered by the lack of a reliable technique for weed-crop detection. Autonomous mower moving with random trajectories rely on simplified computational resources and have shown potential when applied for agricultural purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of these au...
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Thermal weed control plays an important role in managing weeds in synthetic herbicide-free systems, particularly in organic agriculture and in urban areas where synthetic herbicides are prohibited. This study compares the impact on weed control of increased doses of hot water and hot foam (i.e. 0, 0.67, 1.67, 3.33, 5.00, 6.67 and 8.33 kg m–2). The...
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Enhancing vineyards sustainability and reducing herbicides usage is a crucial theme, thus alternative weed management methods are starting to be studied. Cover crops have been shown to provide for several environmental services such as performing an efficient weed control and promoting biodiversity, thus improving the sustainability of the overall...
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Preserving soil quality and increasing soil water availability is an important challenge to ensure food production for a growing global population. As demonstrated by several studies, conservative crop management, combined with soil cover and crop diversification, can significantly reduce soil and water losses. The aim of this review is to evaluate...
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The establishment of permanent cover crops is becoming a common practice in vineyard floor management. Turfgrass science may provide species and techniques with a high potential for improving the sustainability of vineyard floor management. Based on this assumption, an experiment was carried out during 2018 and 2019 at the Donna Olimpia Vineyard, B...
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Autonomous mowers are becoming increasingly common in public and private greenspaces. Autonomous mowers can provide several advantages since these machines help to save time and energy and prevent operators from possible injuries. Current autonomous mowers operate by following random trajectories within areas defined by a shallow-buried boundary wi...
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Synthetic herbicides are commonly used in weed management, however, 70 years of use has led to weed resistance and environmental concerns. These problems have led scientists to consider alternative methods of weed management in order to reduce the inputs and impacts of synthetic herbicides. The aim of this experiment was to test the level of weed c...
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Organic farming systems are considered not compatible with conservation tillage mainly because of the reliance of conservative systems on herbicides. In this three-year field experiment, we tested the performances of an innovative vegetable organic and conservative system (ORG+) combining the use of cover crops (exploited as either living or dead m...
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No-till practices reduce soil erosion, conserve soil organic carbon, and enhance soil fertility. Yet, many factors could limit their adoption in organic farming. The present study investigated the effects of tillage and cover cropping on weed biomass, plant growth, yield, and fruit quality of an organic processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L. va...
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Thermal weed control technology plays an important role in managing weeds in synthetic herbicide-free systems, particularly in organic agriculture. The use of hot foam represents an evolution of the hot water weed control thermal method, modified by the addition of biodegradable foaming agents. The aim of this study was to test the weeding effect o...
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Turfgrass mowing is one of the most important operations concerning turfgrass maintenance. Over time, different mowing machines have been developed, such as reel mowers, rotary mowers, and flail mowers. Rotary mowers have become the most widespread mowers for their great versatility and easy maintenance. Modern rotary mowers can be equipped with ba...
Article
Weed control is crucial to ensure that turfgrass is established effectively. Although herbicides are commonly used to control weeds in turfgrasses, environmental and public health concerns have led to limiting or banning the use of synthetic herbicides in urban areas. The species seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatumSw.) is susceptible to such herb...
Article
Weed control is crucial to ensure that turfgrass is established effectively. Although herbicides are commonly used to control weeds in turfgrasses, environmental and public health concerns have led to limiting or banning the use of synthetic herbicides in urban areas. The species seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Sw.) is susceptible to such her...
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Autonomous mowers are battery-powered machines designed to mow turfgrass autonomously and continuously improving turfgrass quality and helping the person who takes care of the turf to save time and energy. However, autonomous mowers work in a way that sometimes does not match with the greenspace’s design. The aim of this study was to analyze greens...
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Before the introduction of positioning technologies in agriculture practices such as global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), data collection and management were time-consuming and labor-intensive tasks. Today, due to the introduction of advanced technologies, precise information on the performance of agricultural machines, and smaller autonomou...
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Suckering is the process of removing the suckers that grapevine trunks put out in the spring. Suckering by hand is costly and time consuming and requires constant bending down, getting up and making repetitive motions. The mechanical removal of suckers with rotating scourges can damage the vine plants. Chemical suckering is a limiting factor for wi...
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Warm season turfgrasses can be grown successfully in the transition zone, but dormancy occurs to some extent during the winter. Overseeding with cool-season turfgrasses is necessary if winter dormancy of warm season turfgrasses is not tolerated. The increasing availability of zoysiagrass cultivars has enabled this genus to be considered suitable fo...
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The termination of cover crops in conventional no-till systems is mostly conducted mechanically in combination with herbicides. Combining flaming and roller crimpers could be a viable solution to avoid using herbicides for cover crop termination in farming systems where herbicides are banned, or at least to reduce their use in an integrated managem...
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A commercial, manually fed vegetable transplanter was modified and adapted to work in no-till soils. Details of the modifications are described in this article. The aim of this research was to evaluate the performance of this transplanter under actual field conditions in both tilled and no-till soils. The draft force in the no-till soil was measure...
Article
Flaming could be an alternative to the use of chemical herbicides for controlling weeds in turfgrass. In fact, the European Union has stipulated that chemical herbicides should be minimized or prohibited in public parks and gardens, sports and recreational areas, school gardens, and children’s playgrounds. The aim of this research was to test diffe...
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Poor quality in turfgrass mowing is highlighted by the shredded leaf tips with necrotic tissues that give an unsightly brownish colour to the turf and may also lead to turf disease. Mowing quality is also typically assessed by visual rating, thus the score depends on the person doing the assessment. To make the evaluation of mowing quality not subj...
Article
A lack of efficient machines and strategies for cropping practices are still problems on small farms and in difficult landscapes, especially in organic crop production. The aim of this study was to develop a new weed control strategy for a typical organic garlic (Allium sativum) grown in Liguria, Italy. Flaming was proposed as an additional tool fo...
Article
High-quality sports turfs often require low mowing and frequent maintenance. Sports turfs often consist of hard-to-mow warm season turfgrasses, such as zoysiagrass (Zoysia sp.) or bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.). Although autonomous mowers have several advantages over manually operated mowers, they are not designed to mow lower than 2.0 cm and are conse...
Article
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Autonomous mowers are battery-powered machines designed for lawn mowing that require very low human labour. Autonomous mowers can increase turf quality and reduce local noise and pollution compared with gasoline-powered rotary mowers. However, very little is known about the effects of autonomous mowing on encroaching weeds. The aim of this research...
Article
Turfgrass species can be classified into two main groups: cool-season and warm-season species. Warm-season species are more suited to a Mediterranean climate. Transplanting is a possible method to convert a cool-season to a warmseason turfgrass in untilled soil. It generally requires the chemical desiccation of the cool-season turfgrass. However, a...
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Feeding the growing global population requires an annual increase in food production. This requirement suggests an increase in the use of pesticides, which represents an unsustainable chemical load for the environment. To reduce pesticide input and preserve the environment while maintaining the necessary level of food production, the efficiency of...
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Intra-row weed control in organic or low-input cropping systems is more difficult than in conventional agriculture. The various mechanical and thermal devices available for intra-row weed control are reported in this review. Low-tech mechanical devices such as cultivators, finger-weeders, brush weeders, and torsionweeders tend to be used in low den...
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Weed competition during spears harvesting reduces asparagus yields. The application of herbicides during this period is illegal, and alternative non-chemical practices are needed. This research tested the effectiveness and efficiency of a custom-built combined flamer-cultivator to control weeds (both in the inter- and intra- spears production bands...
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A near-zero tolerance policy on weeds by markets for nursery crops calls for weed-free container-grown plants, and forces growers to frequently remove weeds. Thermal weed control could represent a novel method to control weeds in shrubs from container nurseries, thus avoiding the use of herbicides and mulches. The aims of this study were to develop...
Article
Battery-powered autonomous mowers are designed to reduce the need of labor for lawn mowing compared with traditional endothermic engine mowers and at the same time to abate local emissions and noise. The aim of this research was to compare autonomous mower with traditional rotary mower on a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) lawn under different nit...
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Flame weeding is the most common thermal intra-row weed control method used in agriculture as an alternative to herbicides in heat-tolerant crops. Within the seventh framework program project "Robot fleets for Highly Effective Agriculture and Forestry Management" (RHEA), the University of Pisa was responsible for the development of an automatic mac...
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Spectral reflectance data originating from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery is a valuable tool to monitor plant nutrition, reduce nitrogen (N) application to real needs, thus producing both economic and environmental benefits. The objectives of the trial were i) to compare the spectral reflectance of 3 turfgrasses acquired via UAV and by a gro...
Article
Soil steaming is a preventive non-chemical weed control method. We designed and studied a new prototype band-steaming machine. Tests were conducted during the growing cycle of organically cultivated carrot in real-field conditions, in order to study the effect of different steam doses on crops and a natural weed seedbank, throughout the whole growt...
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Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can be a profitable crop for farmers; however controlling weeds effectively without a decrease in yield remains a problem. An example where mechanical weed control is difficult to conduct is dry bean ‘Toscanello’, which is a small sized high-income niche product growing low to the ground. Concerning intra-row weed c...
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Flaming could be an alternative weed management at archaeological sites because it controls a wide range of weed species without inducting future resistance. The aim of this study was to test the weed control efficiency of flaming on various horizontal and vertical surfaces of archaeological buildings. Working times and costs were recorded. Flaming...
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This article reports on the results of a study carried out on three prototypes of open flame burners for thermal weed control. Their performance is reported in terms of flame temperature and length, in order to ascertain the best ratio between primary and secondary air, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consumption. To find the best ratio between p...
Article
Physical rather than chemical treatments are preferred for integrated production and are required for organic production to ensure a sustainable production. Weed management in many horticultural crops is heavily constrained by the limited number of herbicides available. Physical weed control strategies, on the other hand, are essential to organic v...
Article
Weed control is one of the most serious problems in vegetable crops, limiting cultivated plants correct development, yields, product quality and farmers income. Therefore, the aim of this work was to set up and improve innovative strategies and machines for physical (mechanical and thermal) weed control in organic or “integrated” vegetables product...
Article
Weed control is a major issue not only in agriculture but also on hard surfaces inurban and suburban contexts. Weeds can cause serious damage to urban structures and areoften considered as a sign of neglect. Moreover, citizens are becoming increasingly aware of environmental pollution and its potential risks for their health. Flaming represents a c...
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Weed control is often a major limitation for vegetable crops, since compared to arable crops fewer herbicides are available and the crops are more sensitive to weeds. Field experiments were carried out in the province of Pisa (Central Italy) to determine the effect of two different mulches (black biodegradable plastic film and wheat straw) and mech...
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Chemical treatments are commonly adopted for poultry house sanitation. In fact, ordinary floor disinfection is needed to deplete the pathogenic population (i.e. various species of bacteria and fungi) and reduce the risk of meat contamination. The increasing focus on the health of consumers and operators, as well as on food quality, has led farmers...
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Peruzzi A, Raffaelli M, Frasconi C, Fontanelli M & Bàrberi P (2012) Influence of an injection system on the effect of activated soil steaming on Brassica juncea and the natural weed seedbank. Weed Research 52, 140–152. SummarySoil steaming is a promising preventive method for weed control in high‐value cash crops, such as vegetables and flowers. A...
Article
An innovative self-propelled machine for soil disinfection was developed using steam and chemicals in an exothermic reaction. The machine and the research carried out to define the mechanical, operative, and thermodynamic aspects of soil disinfection are described. Two activating compounds (CaO and KOH), distributed at different application rates (...
Article
Tomato is a very important vegetable crop in Italy. Improving the means of production for processing organic tomatoes could help guarantee better profits for farmers and, at the same time, enhance environmental management and safeguard consumers’ health. Weed control, in particular within crop rows, is one of the main problems in organic farming, a...
Article
Steam disinfestation represents an increasingly attractive strategy to control soil-borne pathogens and weeds both in greenhouses and field crops. Beyond pest control, steam injection has the potential to alter soil nutrient dynamics and composition of bacterial communities. This study investigated the impact of a soil-steaming method (the Bioflash...
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Leaf-beet is a typical and very important protected cultivation crop in central Italy. In leaf-beet protected cultivation, weed control is one of the most important problems because of its fairly long crop cycle (approximately 4–5 months). The aim of this research was to set up an efficient non chemical weed control strategy performed with innovati...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the weed suppression potential of soil steaming plus activating compounds (KOH or CaO) to boost soil temperature. Different combinations between the compounds and rates were tested in experiments carried out in the field and in a controlled environment. Treatment effects were assessed on field weed vegetation...
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Weed management is often the most troublesome technical problem to be solved in organic farming, especially in poorly competitive crops like vegetables. A four-year (2000–2003) series of trials was established to assess the possibility of adopting an innovative non-chemical weed management system in organic carrot grown on the Fucino plateau, i.e.,...
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This book deals with the principles, concepts, technology, potential, limitations and impacts of various non-chemical weed management options. It contains 12 chapters discussing topics on prevention strategies in weed management, exploitation of weed crop interactions to manage weed problems, cultural methods, cover crops, allelopathy, classical bi...
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Soil steaming has become an important practice in commercial greenhouse production as an alternative to chemicals to control soil-borne pathogens. In addition to their effect on pests, due to soil temperature increase, steaming methods may also have an impact on soil chemical properties, on plant nutrient regime and, consequently, on crop yield. Th...
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Machines for physical weed control having completely different mechanical and operative characteristics are often used on the same crop and/or soil; this is not always logic and explicable, since it is like if a tractor, a city car or a Ferrari were used indifferently for driving. This behaviour is a consequence of lack of knowledge that is not sim...
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The effect of finger-harrowing (FH) on weed control and yield of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf) grown under conventional tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT) was studied in 1995–96. Mechanical weeding—eight combinations between four tine adjustments and two treatment intensities (one or two passes)—was compared with post-emergence herbicide spraying...
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A 3-year (1986–1988) comparison between conventional (CT) (25 cm deep ploughing) and minimum (MT) (10–15 cm deep disk harrowing) tillage was carried out in southwest Tuscany on a very sandy soil (Typic Xeropsamment) where oil rapeseed was cultivated. The CT plots showed a greater water retention capacity in the deeper horizons than the MT plots. Mo...
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I primi studi svolti in Italia sul fabbisogno energetico relativo alla produzione delle colture erbacee, risalgono all'inizio degli anni '60 (Candura e Scotton). Lo scopo, prevalentemente teorico, di queste ricerche era di valutare, in termini energetici, l'impiego di lavoro (di origine meccanica, animale o umana) che caratterizzava i diversi proce...