Andrea Lombardi

Andrea Lombardi
University of Milan | UNIMI · Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation

MD

About

103
Publications
8,579
Reads
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1,122
Citations
Citations since 2016
101 Research Items
1121 Citations
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Introduction
Doctor of Medicine, specialist-board certified in Infectious Diseases, interested in clinical and translational research in ID.
Additional affiliations
January 2020 - present
Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico
Position
  • Medical Doctor
April 2016 - January 2020
University of Pavia
Position
  • Medical Doctor
June 2015 - April 2016
Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève
Position
  • Researcher
Education
November 2015 - October 2019
University of Pavia
Field of study
  • Infectious and Tropical Diseases
September 2008 - September 2014
University of Pavia
Field of study
  • Medicine and Surgery

Publications

Publications (103)
Article
The activating natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp30 is critical for natural killer (NK) cell function and tumor immune surveillance. The natural cytotoxicity receptor-3 (NCR3) gene is transcribed into several splice variants whose physiological relevance is still incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of NKp30 and its major...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The management of healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to confirmed cases of COVID-19 is still a matter of debate. We aimed to assess in this group the attack rate of asymptomatic carriers and the symptoms most frequently associated with the infection. Methods Occupational and clinical characteristics of HCWs who performed a nasopharyngeal...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is a recently discovered pathogen responsible of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The immunological changes associated with this infection are largely unknown. Methods: We evaluated the peripheral blood mononuclear cells profile of 63 patients with COVID-19 at diagnosis. We also asses...
Article
Full-text available
To understand how a protective immune response against SARS-CoV-2 develops over time, we integrated phenotypic, transcriptional, and repertoire analyses on PBMCs from patients with mild and severe COVID-19 during and after infection and compared them to healthy donors (HDs). A type I IFN response signature marked all the immune populations from sev...
Article
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Background: Vaccines against COVID-19 are a powerful tool to control the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. A thorough description of their immunogenicity among people living with HIV (PLWHIV) is necessary. We aimed to assess the immunogenicity of the mRNA-1273 vaccine among PLWHIV. Methods: In this prospective cohort, adult PLWHIV outpatients were en...
Article
Full-text available
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are drugs growingly employed in the treatment of cancers but there are still uncertainties about their possible role in the risk of developing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections. To understand this, we performed a systematic review of the literature including studies published between 20/06/2012–20/06/...
Article
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Background and aims: COVID-19 mRNA vaccines were approved to prevent severe forms of the disease, but their immunogenicity and safety in cirrhosis is poorly known. Method: In this prospective single-center study enrolling patients with cirrhosis undergoing COVID-19 vaccination (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273), we assessed humoral and cellular responses...
Article
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Discontinuation of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and increased antibiotic use were described during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In order to measure COVID-19 impact on ASPs in a setting of high multidrug resistance organisms (MDRO) prevalence, a qualitative survey was designed. In July 2021, eighteen ID Units were asked to answer a questionnair...
Article
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Background: Early treatment with remdesivir (RMD) or monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could be a valuable tool in patients at risk of severe COVID-19 with unsatisfactory responses to vaccination. We aim to assess the safety and clinical outcomes of these treatments among immunocompromised subjects. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all nonhospita...
Article
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Passive immunization with mAbs has been employed in COVID-19. We performed a systematic review of the literature assessing the endogenous humoral immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in patients treated with mAbs. Administration of mAbs in seronegative patients led to a reduction in both antibody titres and neutralizing activity against the virus.
Article
Objectives: to evaluate immunogenicity and effectiveness of BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine in a cohort of healthcare workers (HCWs). Design: cohort study. Setting and participants: in a hospital in Milan (Lombardy Region, Northern Italy) HCWs without ("negative cohort") and with ("positive cohort") history of SARS-CoV-2 infection or elevated serum...
Article
Background: Infections following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement have been poorly described. We aim to investigate the rate and the potential predictors of infections occurring after TIPS placement. Methods: Single center, retrospective, observational study. All patients who had undergone TIPS placement in the last...
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Full-text available
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental microorganisms capable of a wide range of infections that primarily involve the lymphatic system and the lower respiratory tract. In recent years, cases of lung infection sustained by NTM have been steadily increasing, due mainly to the ageing of the population with underlying lung dis...
Article
Background and objectives Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) still has substantial morbidity and mortality. For non-HIV patients, course of infection is severe, and management guidelines relatively recent. We collected all PCP cases (EORTC criteria) diagnosed in HIV-negative adult inpatients in 2019-2020 at our Center in northern Italy. Result...
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Background: Immunological treatments (immune checkpoint inhibitors, chimeric antigen receptor T cells, Bi-specific T-cell engagers) have deeply changed the treatment of several cancers. However, the impact of these treatments on the risk of developing infections has not been completely ascertained, yet. Methods: We reviewed all the registration st...
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Since the start of the COVID-19 outbreak, more than four million people have died of this disease. Given its ability to provide a precise response, mass spectrometry-based proteomics could represent a useful tool to study this pathology. To this end, an untargeted nLC-ESI-MS/MS-based method to characterise SARS-CoV-2 proteins, including possible va...
Article
High-resolution CT-scan (HRCT) plays a major role in the diagnosis of Nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease (NTM-LD), but its role in follow-up is controversial. Our aim was first to conceive a radiological score able to quantify the severity of pulmonary involvement by NTM infection and, second, to check its association with the NTM-LD clinical...
Article
Background: Antibodies against cationic platelet chemokine, platelet factor 4 (PF4/CXCL4), have been described in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), but also in patients positive for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) even in the absence of heparin treatment and HIT-related clinical manifestations. Anti-PF4 antibodies have been recently descri...
Article
Full-text available
Background The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), had a significant impact worldwide. Vaccines against COVID-19 appear as a tool able to curb out mortality and reduce the circulation of the virus. Little is known so far about the clinical characteristics of in...
Article
Full-text available
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by beta-coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has rapidly spread across the globe starting from February 2020. It is well established that during viral infection, extracellular vesicles become delivery/presenting vectors of viral material. Ho...
Article
Background: In Italy, healthcare workers (HCWs) were among the first to receive COVID-19 vaccination. Aim of the present study is to evaluate frequency and severity of adverse events (AEs) following the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine among HCWs of a large university hospital in Milan, Italy. Methods: One month after having received the second d...
Article
Influenza is an acute respiratory illness caused by the influenza A, B, and C viruses. It can occur in local outbreaks or seasonal epidemics, with possibility to spread worldwide in a pandemic when a novel strain with significant antigenic differences emerges. During the past years, several new drugs have become available, with different accessibil...
Article
Full-text available
Immune exhaustion is a condition associated with chronic infections and cancers, characterized by the inability of antigen-specific T cells to eliminate the cognate antigen. Exhausted T cells display a peculiar phenotypic profile and exclusive functional characteristics. Immune exhaustion has been described in patients with Mycobacterium tuberculos...
Conference Paper
Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common infection acquired in the intensive care unit (ICU). To date, there is no diagnostic gold standard for VAP, and its diagnosis is based on presumptive scores. In COVID-19 patients, the viral disease itself and its therapies have a direct impact on clinical, laboratory and radiologic...
Conference Paper
Introduction Randomized controlled trials showed efficacy of vaccines against coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). There is the need to quantify vaccine effectiveness in real-word contexts, including people at high risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as health care workers (HCWs). Objectives To e...
Article
Full-text available
Background Vaccines against COVID-19 are a powerful tool to control the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. A thorough description of their immunogenicity among people living with HIV (PLWHIV) is necessary. We aimed to assess the immunogenicity of the mRNA-1273 vaccine among PLWHIV. Methods In this prospective cohort, adult PLWHIV outpatients were enrolle...
Article
Full-text available
Urticarial eruptions and angioedema are the most common cutaneous reactions in patients undergoing mRNA COVID-19 vaccinations. The vasoactive peptide bradykinin has long been known to be involved in angioedema and recently also in urticaria. Bradykinin is mainly catabolized by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which is inhibited by ACE inhibitor...
Article
Liver transplantation (LT) is a life-saving strategy for patients with end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma and acute liver failure. LT success can be hampered by several short-term and long-term complications. Among them, bacterial infections, especially due to multidrug-resistant germs, are particularly frequent with a prevalence bet...
Article
Full-text available
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are reshaping the landscape of cancer treatment, redefining the prognosis of several tumors. They act by restoring the cytotoxic activity of tumor-specific T lymphocytes that are in a condition of immune exhaustion. The same condition has been widely described in chronic HIV infection. In this review, we dissect...
Article
Full-text available
The occurrence of pulmonary fungal superinfection due toAspergillusspp. in patients withCOVID-19 is a well-described complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Thiscan be related to a directed effect of the virus and to the immunosuppressive role of the therapiesadministered for the disease. Here, we describe the first case o...
Article
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Rare liver diseases caused by ductal plate malformation, such as congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF), Caroli syndrome, and polycystic liver disease, can have clinical manifestations such as recurrent cholangitis—frequently involving multidrug-resistant microorganisms—leading to difficulties in selecting the optimal antimicrobial treatment. Without pr...
Article
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Abstract: Background: since October 2020, a second SARS-CoV-2 epidemic wave has hit Italy. We investigate the frequency of positive nasopharyngeal swabs among HCWs during the two waves and the association with occupation and demographic characteristics. Methods: this is a retrospective, observational study conducted in a large university hospital i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has hardly affected the entire world. Vaccines against COVID-19 appear as a tool able to curb out the mortality and to reduce the circulation of the virus. Little is known so far about the clinical characteris...
Preprint
Antibodies against cationic platelet chemokine, platelet factor 4 (PF4/CXCL4) have been described in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) but also in patients positive for anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) even in the absence of heparin treatment and HIT-related clinical manifestations. Anti-PF4 antibodies have been recently described also in su...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The Italian Society of Anti-Infective Therapy (SITA) and the Italian Society of Pulmonology (SIP) constituted an expert panel for developing evidence-based guidance for the clinical management of adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outside intensive care units. Methods Ten systematic literature searches were perfor...
Article
Full-text available
Background Uveitis is a vision-threatening inflammation and is considered an ophthalmic emergency. It is generally referred to systemic diseases, such as autoimmune conditions, infections, to ocular trauma or can occur as an isolated disorder. In the past decades, several cases of vaccine associated uveitis have been described, with HBV-vaccine bei...
Article
Previous evidence suggests that sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 7 (Siglec-7) protein is significantly increased in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and directly correlates with clinical parameters of liver inflammation and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of Siglec-7 as a non-invasive t...
Article
Full-text available
Great expectations are placed in vaccines against COVID-19 to control the pandemic. We reviewed the antibody titres in a cohort of healthcare workers (HCWs) vaccinated with BNT162b2 to assess the influence of a previous infection on them. We stratified the results according to the individual history of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and symptoms. Among...
Article
Full-text available
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic viral disease affecting also obstetric patients and uncertainties exist about the prognostic role of inflammatory biomarkers and hemocytometry values in patients with this infection. To clarify that, we have assessed the values of several inflammatory biomarkers and hemocytometry variables in a coho...
Article
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Introduction: Therapy of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) involves evolving algorithms that include drugs aimed at reducing disease progression by counteracting two different, but intertwined processes: (i) the damage caused by the virus (with antivirals); (ii) the damage caused by a dysregulated host response (with immunomodulatory agents). A...
Article
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Nocardia has always been considered a pathogen of the immunocompromised host, but recent evidence has also highlighted its role as a pathogen in the immunocompetent. We aim to assess the role of immunosuppression in the disease. We reviewed all the cases of infections due to Nocardia spp. in our center that occurred from 1 January 2012 to 30 Septem...
Article
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Background: BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 are the two recently approved mRNA-based vaccines against COVID-19 which has shown excellent safety and efficacy. Preliminary data about specific and neutralizing antibodies is available covering the first 100 days after vaccination. Methods: We reviewed all the publications regarding the immunologic consequences...
Article
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Background: Limited and wide-ranging data are available on the recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) incidence rate. Methods: We performed a cohort study with the aim to assess the incidence of and risk factors for rCDI. Adult patients with a first CDI, hospitalized in 15 Italian hospitals, were prospectively included and followed-...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To assess the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG among health careworkers (HCWs) in our university hospital and verify the risk of acquiring the infection according to work area. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Monocentric, Italian, third-level university hospital. Participants All the employees of the hospital on a voluntary...
Article
The disease burden due to nontuberculous mycobacteria is growing worldwide, consequently to improved diagnostic abilities and an increase in the individuals at risk. Uncertainties exist about the right moment on which start treatment. We investigated the clinical features associated with starting an antimicrobial treatment in patients with nontuber...
Article
Full-text available
In routine clinical practice, HCV‐infected patients can prematurely discontinue the prescribed regimen for several reasons. The aim of our study was to investigate sustained virological response (SVR12) rates in patients who prematurely discontinued directly acting antiviral (DAA) regimens and to assess the shortest effective duration of DAA able t...
Article
Background Immunomodulants have been proposed to mitigate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2–induced cytokine storm, which drives acute respiratory distress syndrome in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective We sought to determine efficacy and safety of the association of IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra plus methylprednisolo...
Article
Background: we explored predictors of CD4/CD8 ratio improvement and optimal immunological recovery (OIR) after initiation of antiretroviral therapy(ART) in naïve people living with HIV (PLWH). Methods: Retrospective multicenter study including naïve PLWH starting ART with 2NRTIs + one InSTI or NNRTI or PI. PLWH were followed from the time of ART...
Article
The paper wants to present the data of infection of the Health Care Workers of a research and teaching hospital in Milan, Italy. The majority (2554, 55.9%) of 4572 HCWs were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and 8.8% were found positive. Most of the tested workers were women, but we found higher relative frequency of positivity for men, even after adjustment f...
Preprint
Full-text available
Coronavirus disease 2019 is a pandemic viral disease affecting also obstetric patients and uncertainties exist about the prognostic role of inflammatory biomarkers and hemocytometry values in patients with this infection. To clarify that, we assessed the values of several inflammatory biomarkers and hemocytometry variables in a cohort of obstetric...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial resistance is an important issue for global health; in immunocompromised patients, such as solid organ and hematological transplant recipients, it poses an even bigger threat. Colonization by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria was acknowledged as a strong risk factor to subsequent infections, especially in individuals with a compromis...
Article
Background and aims Direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have revolutionized the landscape of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) enabling treatment of all those infected. It remains to be determined how the characteristics of those receiving treatment are changing. Materials and methods We retrospectively analysed all the patients with CHC who received tr...
Article
Full-text available
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by resistant strains is becoming a public health concern also in high-income countries. In Pavia province, Northern Italy, the prevalence of foreign-born has increased in recent years. Nevertheless, it is unclear if this has modified epidemiology and resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We retrospectively coll...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The management of healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to confirmed cases of COVID-19 is still a matter of debate. It is unclear whether these subjects should be tested in the absence of symptoms and if those can guide diagnosis. Methods Occupational and clinical characteristics of all the consecutive HCWs who performed a nasopharyngeal swa...