# Andrea GiustiETH Zurich | ETH Zürich · Institute for Theoretical Physics

Andrea Giusti

PhD, Dr. rer. nat.

## About

108

Publications

22,383

Reads

**How we measure 'reads'**

A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more

1,475

Citations

Introduction

Additional affiliations

March 2021 - present

March 2019 - February 2021

March 2017 - November 2018

## Publications

Publications (108)

We generate new spherical and time-dependent solutions of viable Horndeski gravity by disforming a solution of the Einstein equations with scalar field source and positive cosmological constant. They describe dynamical objects embedded in asymptotically FLRW spacetimes and contain apparent horizons and a finite radius singularity that evolve in tim...

We revisit the analogy between a minimally coupled scalar field in general relativity and a perfect fluid, correcting previous identifications of effective temperature and chemical potential. This provides a useful complementary picture for the first-order thermodynamics of scalar-tensor gravity, paving the way for the Einstein frame formulation (w...

We generate new spherical and time-dependent solutions of viable Horndeski gravity by disforming a solution of the Einstein equations with scalar field source and positive cosmological constant. They describe dynamical objects embedded in asymptotically FLRW spacetimes and contain apparent horizons and a finite radius singularity that evolve in tim...

In the context of the recently proposed first-order thermodynamics of scalar-tensor gravity, we discuss the possibility of zero-temperature states of equilibrium other than Einstein gravity, including pathological Brans-Dicke theory, Palatini $f(R)$ gravity, and cuscuton gravity, all with non-dynamical scalar fields. The formalism is extended to No...

A new thermodynamics of scalar-tensor gravity is applied to spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in this class of theories and tested on analytical solutions. A forever-expanding universe approaches the Einstein “state of equilibrium” with zero effective temperature at late times and departs from it near spacetime singularities. “Cooling...

We present a quantum description of electrically charged spherically symmetric black holes given by coherent states of gravitons in which both the central singularity and the Cauchy horizon are not realised.

A new thermodynamics of scalar-tensor gravity is applied to spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in this class of theories and tested on analytical solutions. A forever-expanding universe approaches the Einstein "state of equilibrium" with zero effective temperature at late times and departs from it near spacetime singularities. "Cooling...

We present a novel definition of variable-order fractional Laplacian on $${\mathbb {R}}^n$$ R n based on a natural generalization of the standard Riesz potential. Our definition holds for values of the fractional parameter spanning the entire open set (0, n /2). We then discuss some properties of the fractional Poisson’s equation involving this ope...

We consider the quantum description of a toy model universe in which the Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry emerges from the coherent state of a massless scalar field. Although highly idealised, this simple model allows us to find clear hints supporting the conclusion that the reaction of the de Sitter background to the presence of matter sources ind...

We discuss and expand a new approach to the thermodynamics of scalar-tensor gravity and its diffusion toward general relativity (seen as an equilibrium state) proposed in a previous paper [Phys. Rev. D 103, L121501 (2021), upon which we build. We describe scalar-tensor gravity as an effective dissipative fluid and apply Eckart’s first order thermod...

One of the defining results of the twentieth century was the unravelling of the key feature of curvature singularities and what leads to their formation in General Relativity.

Several approaches to the formulation of a fractional theory of calculus of “variable order” have appeared in the literature over the years. Unfortunately, most of these proposals lack a rigorous mathematical framework. We consider an alternative view on the problem, originally proposed by G. Scarpi in the early seventies, based on a naive modifica...

Bootstrapped Newtonian gravity is a non-linear version of Newton's law which can be lifted to a fully geometric theory of gravity starting from a modified potential. Here, we study geodesics in the bootstrapped Newtonian effective metric in vacuum and obtain bounds on a free parameter from Solar System data and $S$-star orbits near our Galaxy centr...

We further develop the recently proposed thermodynamics of scalar-tensor gravity and investigate its diffusion toward general relativity, seen as a thermal equilibrium state. Describing scalar-tensor gravity as an effective dissipative fluid, its constitutive relations suggest a natural analogy with Eckart's first order thermodynamics of irreversib...

We present a novel definition of variable-order fractional Laplacian on Rn based on a natural generalization of the standard Riesz potential. Our definition holds for values of the fractional parameter spanning the entire open set (0, n/2). We then discuss some properties of the fractional Poisson's equation involving this operator and we compute t...

We extend to the Horndeski realm the irreversible thermodynamics description of gravity previously studied in "first generation" scalar-tensor theories. We identify a subclass of Horndeski theories as an out-of--equilibrium state, while general relativity corresponds to an equilibrium state. In this context, we identify an effective heat current, "...

We consider the quantum description of a toy model universe in which the Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry emerges from the coherent state of a massless scalar field. Although highly idealised, this simple model allows us to find clear hints supporting the conclusion that the reaction of the de Sitter background to the presence of matter sources ind...

Previously, the Einstein equation has been described as an equation of state, general relativity as the equilibrium state of gravity, and f(R) gravity as a nonequilibrium one. We apply Eckart’s first order thermodynamics to the effective dissipative fluid describing scalar-tensor gravity. Surprisingly, we obtain simple expressions for the effective...

General Relativity and the $\Lambda$CDM framework are currently the standard lore and constitute the concordance paradigm. Nevertheless, long-standing open theoretical issues, as well as possible new observational ones arising from the explosive development of cosmology the last two decades, offer the motivation and lead a large amount of research...

We review spherical and inhomogeneous analytic solutions of the field equations of Einstein and of scalar-tensor gravity, including Brans–Dicke theory, non-minimally (possibly conformally) coupled scalar fields, Horndeski, and beyond Horndeski/DHOST gravity. The zoo includes both static and dynamic solutions, asymptotically flat, and asymptotically...

We develop several formal analogies between the logistic equation and the spatially homogeneous and isotropic relativistic cosmology described by the Einstein–Friedmann equations. These analogies produce an effective Lagrangian and Hamiltonian and new symmetries for the logistic equation.

We develop several formal analogies between the logistic equation and the spatially homogeneous and isotropic relativistic cosmology described by the Einstein-Friedmann equations. These analogies produce an effective Lagrangian and Hamiltonian and new symmetries for the logistic equation.

We report a new one-parameter family of spherically symmetric, inhomogeneous, and time-dependent solutions of the vacuum Brans-Dicke field equations which are conformal to the Roberts scalar field geometries of Einstein gravity. The new solution is spherical and time-dependent and contains a naked central singularity. We use it as a seed to generat...

Previously, the Einstein equation has been described as an equation of state, general relativity as the equilibrium state of gravity, and $f({\cal R})$ gravity as a non-equilibrium one. We apply Eckart's first order thermodynamics to the effective dissipative fluid describing scalar-tensor gravity. Surprisingly, we obtain simple expressions for the...

Since, in Einstein gravity, a massless scalar field with lightlike gradient behaves as a null dust, one could expect that it can act as the matter source of Vaidya geometries. We show that this is impossible because the Klein–Gordon equation forces the null geodesic congruence tangent to the scalar field gradient to have zero expansion, contradicti...

The concept of turnaround surface in an accelerating universe is generalized to arbitrarily large deviations from spherical symmetry, to close the gap between the idealized theoretical literature and the real world observed by astronomers. As an analytical application, the characterization of turnaround surface is applied to small deviations from s...

Bootstrapped Newtonian gravity was developed with the purpose of estimating the impact of quantum physics in the nonlinear regime of the gravitational interaction, akin to corpuscular models of black holes and inflation. In this work, we set the ground for extending the bootstrapped Newtonian picture to cosmological spaces. We further discuss how s...

Several approaches to the formulation of a fractional theory of calculus of "variable order" have appeared in the recent literature to describe physical systems showing special memory effects with features changing over time. Unfortunately, most of these proposals lack a rigorous mathematical framework. Here, we consider an alternative view on the...

We point out an association between anomalies in the Hawking quasilocal mass (or, in spherical symmetry, in its better known version, the Misner-Sharp-Hernandez mass) and unphysical properties of the spacetime geometry. While anomalous behaviors show up in certain quantum-corrected black holes, they are not unique to this context and signal serious...

We determine the complete space-time metric from the bootstrapped Newtonian potential generated by a static spherically symmetric source in the surrounding vacuum. This metric contains post-Newtonian parameters which can be further used to constrain the complete underlying dynamical theory. For values of the post-Newtonian parameters within experim...

We review spherical and inhomogeneous analytic solutions of the field equations of Einstein and of scalar-tensor gravity, including Brans-Dicke theory, non-minimally (possibly conformally) coupled scalar fields, and Horndeski gravity. The zoo includes both static and dynamic solutions, asymptotically flat, and asymptotically Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Ro...

We report a new one-parameter family of spherically symmetric, inhomogeneous, and time-dependent solutions of the vacuum Brans-Dicke field equations which are conformal to the Roberts scalar field geometries of Einstein gravity. The new solution is spherical and time-dependent and contains a naked central singularity. We use it as a seed to generat...

A recent generalization of the Hawking–Hayward quasilocal energy to scalar–tensor gravity is adapted to general spherically symmetric geometries. It is then applied to several black hole and other spherical solutions of scalar–tensor and $f\left(\mathcal{R}\right)$ gravity. The relations of this quasilocal energy with the Abreu–Nielsen–Visser gauge...

Fractional Newtonian gravity, based on the fractional generalization of Poisson’s equation for Newtonian gravity, is a novel approach to Galactic dynamics aimed at providing an alternative to the dark matter paradigm through a non-local modification of Newton’s theory. We provide an in-depth discussion of the gravitational potential for the Kuzmin...

We point out an association between anomalies in the Hawking quasilocal mass (or, in spherical symmetry, in its better known version, the Misner-Sharp-Hernandez mass) and unphysical properties of the spacetime geometry. While anomalous behaviours show up in certain quantum-corrected black holes, they are not unique to this context and signal seriou...

Bootstrapped Newtonian gravity was developed with the purpose of estimating the impact of quantum physics in the non-linear regime of the gravitational interaction, akin to corpuscular models of black holes and inflation. In this work, we set the ground for extending the bootstrapped Newtonian picture to cosmological spaces. We further discuss how...

Fractional Newtonian gravity, based on the fractional generalization of Poisson's equation for Newtonian gravity, is a novel approach to Galactic dynamics aimed at providing an alternative to the dark matter paradigm through a non-local modification of Newton's theory. We provide an in-depth discussion of the gravitational potential for the Kuzmin...

Following an existing procedure in general relativity, the turnaround radius of a spherical structure is studied in scalar-tensor gravity using a new prescription for the analog of the Hawking-Hayward quasilocal mass in this class of theories.

We study a quantum-corrected Schwarzschild black hole proposed recently in Loop Quantum Gravity. Prompted by the fact that corrections to the innermost stable circular orbit of Schwarzschild diverge, we investigate time-like and null radial geodesics. Massive particles moving radially outwards are confined, while photons make it to infinity with in...

In recent years, many papers discuss the theory and applications of new fractional-order derivatives that are constructed by replacing the singular kernel of the Caputo or Riemann-Liouville derivative by a non-singular (i.e., bounded) kernel. It will be shown here, through rigorous mathematical reasoning, that these non-singular kernel derivatives...

We study a quantum-corrected Schwarzschild black hole proposed recently in Loop Quantum Gravity. Prompted by the fact that corrections to the innermost stable circular orbit of Schwarzschild diverge, we investigate timelike and null radial geodesics. Massive particles moving radially outwards are confined, while photons make it to infinity with inf...

I provide a derivation of some characteristic effects of Milgrom’s modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) from a fractional version of Newton’s theory based on the fractional Poisson equation. I employ the properties of the fractional Laplacian to investigate the features of the fundamental solution of the proposed model. The key difference between MON...

A recent generalization of the Hawking-Hayward quasilocal energy to scalar-tensor gravity is adapted to general spherically symmetric geometries. It is then applied to several black hole and other spherical solutions of scalar-tensor and $f({\cal R}) $ gravity. The relations of this quasilocal energy with the Abreu-Nielsen-Visser gauge and the Koda...

Following an existing procedure in general relativity, the turnaround radius of a spherical structure is studied in scalar-tensor gravity using a new prescription for the analog of the Hawking-Hayward quasilocal mass in this class of theories. Contrary to the usual study of radial timelike geodesics, this procedure has the advantage of being gauge-...

The Mittag-Leffler function is universally acclaimed as the Queen function of fractional calculus. The aim of this work is to survey the key results and applications emerging from the three-parameter generalization of this function, known as the Prabhakar function. Specifically, after reviewing key historical events that led to the discovery and mo...

The Mittag-Leffler function is universally acclaimed as the Queen function of fractional calculus. The aim of this work is to survey the key results and applications emerging from the three-parameter generalization of this function, known as the Prabhakar function. Specifically, after reviewing key historical events that led to the discovery and mo...

It is now established that, contrary to common belief, (electro-)vacuum Brans-Dicke gravity does not reduce to general relativity (GR) for large values of the Brans-Dicke coupling
ω
. Since the essence of experimental tests of scalar-tensor gravity consists of providing lower bounds on
ω
, in light of the misguided assumption of the equivalence b...

General fractional calculus offers an elegant and self-consistent path toward the generalization of fractional calculus to an enhanced class of kernels. Prabhakar's theory can be thought of, to some extent, as an explicit realization of this scheme achieved by merging the Prabhakar (or, three-parameter Mittag-Leffler) function with the general wisd...

The concept of turnaround surface in an accelerating universe is generalized to arbitrarily large deviations from spherical symmetry, to close the gap between the idealized theoretical literature and the real world observed by astronomers. As an analytical application, the characterization of turnaround surface is applied to small deviations from s...

General fractional calculus offers an elegant and self-consistent path toward the generalization of fractional calculus to an enhanced class of kernels. Prabhakar’s theory can be thought of, to some extent, as an explicit realization of this scheme achieved by merging the Prabhakar (or, three-parameter Mittag-Leffler) function with the general wisd...

We revisit the invariance of the curved spacetime Maxwell equations under conformal transformations. Contrary to standard literature, we include the discussion of the four-current, the wave equations for the four-potential and the field, and the behaviour of gauge conditions under the conformal transformation.

We try to shed some light on the role of matter in the final stages of black hole evaporation from the fundamental frameworks of classicalization and the black-to-white hole bouncing scenario. Despite being based on very different grounds, these two approaches attempt at going beyond the background field method and treat black holes as fully quantu...

We provide a (simplified) quantum description of primordial black holes at the time of their formation. Specifically, we employ the horizon quantum mechanics to compute the probability of black hole formation starting from a simple quantum mechanical characterization of primordial density fluctuations given by a Planckian spectrum. We then estimate...

The aim of this paper is to provide a fractional generalization of the Gompertz law via a Caputo-like definition of fractional derivative of a function with respect to another function. In particular, we observe that the model presented appears to be substantially different from the other attempt of fractional modifications of this model, since the...

We study geodesics in the Schwarzschild space-time affected by an uncertainty in the mass parameter described by a Gaussian distribution. This study could serve as a first attempt at investigating possible quantum effects of black hole space-times on the motion of matter in their surroundings as well as the role of uncertainties in the measurement...

The turnaround radius of a large structure in an accelerating universe has been studied only for spherical structures, while real astronomical systems deviate from spherical symmetry. We show that, for small deviations from spherical symmetry, the gauge-invariant characterization of the turnaround size using the Hawking–Hayward quasi-local mass and...

It is now established that, contrary to common belief, (electro-)vacuum Brans-Dicke gravity does not reduce to general relativity for large values of the Brans-Dicke coupling $\omega$. Since the essence of experimental tests of scalar-tensor gravity consists of providing stringent lower bounds on $\omega$, the PPN formalism on which these tests are...

We revisit the invariance of the curved spacetime Maxwell equations under conformal transformations. Contrary to standard literature, we include the discussion of the four-current, the wave equations for the four-potential and the field, and the behaviour of gauge conditions under the conformal transformation.

Black holes in d < 3 spatial dimensions are studied from the perspective of the corpuscular model of gravitation, in which black holes are described as Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) of (virtual soft) gravitons. In particular, since the energy of these gravitons should increase as the black hole evaporates, eventually approaching the Planck scale,...

The turnaround radius of a large structure in an accelerating universe has been studied only for spherical structures, while real astronomical systems deviate from spherical symmetry. We show that, for small deviations from spherical symmetry, the gauge-invariant characterization of the turnaround size using the Hawking-Hayward quasi-local mass and...

The aim of this paper is to provide a more precise description of the paradigm of corpuscular slow-roll inflation, which was previously introduced by Casadio et al. in [Corpuscular slow-roll inflation, Phys. Rev. D 97 (2018) 024041]. Specifically, we start by expanding the Starobinsky theory on a curved background and then infer the number and natu...

We try to shed some light on the role of matter in the final stages of black hole evaporation from the fundamental frameworks of classicalization and the black-to-white hole bouncing scenario. Despite being based on very different grounds, these two approaches lead to the common prediction that the semiclassical description of black hole evaporatio...

It is shown that the recent corpuscular description of gravity generically excludes de Sitter spacetime in any semiclassical version of f(R) gravity. A phantom phenomenology of the cosmic dynamics is also naturally excluded.

We study geodesics in the Schwarzschild space-time affected by an uncertainty in the mass parameter described by a Gaussian distribution. This study could serve as a first attempt at investigating possible quantum effects of black hole space-times on the motion of matter in their surroundings as well as the role of uncertainties in the measurement...

The aim of this work is to provide a general description of the corpuscular theory of gravity. After reviewing some of the major conceptual issues emerging from the semiclassical and field theoretic approaches to Einstein’s gravity, we present a synthetic overview of two novel (and extremely intertwined) perspectives on quantum mechanical effects i...

We provide a (simplified) quantum description of primordial black holes at the time of their formation. Specifically, we employ the horizon quantum mechanics to compute the probability of black hole formation starting from a simple quantum mechanical characterization of primordial density fluctuations given by a Planckian spectrum. We then estimate...

The Horizon Quantum Mechanics is an approach that allows one to analyse the gravitational radius of spherically symmetric systems and compute the probability that a given quantum state is a black hole. We first review the (global) formalism and show how it reproduces a gravitationally inspired GUP relation. This results leads to unacceptably large...

We study the location of marginally trapped surfaces in spacetimes resulting from an axial deformation of static isotropic systems, and show that the Misner-Sharp mass evaluated on the corresponding undeformed spherically symmetric space provides the correct gravitational radius to locate the spheroidal horizon.

After reviewing the definition of two differential operators which have been recently introduced by Caputo and Fabrizio and, separately, by Atangana and Baleanu, we present an argument for which these two integro-differential operators can be un- derstood as simple realizations of a much broader class of fractional operators, i.e. the theory of Pra...

The aim of this paper is to provide a fractional generalization of the Gompertz law via a Caputo-like definition of fractional derivative of a function with respect to another function. In particular, we observe that the model presented appears to be substantially different from the other attempt of fractional modifications of this model, since the...

The aim of this paper is to provide a more precise description of the paradigm of corpuscular slow-roll inflation, which was previously introduced by Casadio et al. in [1]. Specifically, we start by expanding the Starobinsky theory on a curved background and then infer the number and nature of the propagating degrees of freedom, both in the true in...

In a recent paper, Zhou et al. (2017) studied the time-dependent properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers composites by employing a new rheological model with a time-dependent viscosity coefficient. This rheological model is essentially based on a generalized Scott-Blair body with a time-dependent viscosity coefficient. Motivated by this study...

Black holes in $d < 3$ spatial dimensions are studied from the perspective of the corpuscular model of gravitation. We show that the occupation number of gravitons in the condensate scales holographically in all dimensions as $N_d \sim \left(L_d/\ell_{\rm p}\right)^{d-1}$, where $L_d$ is the relevant length for the system in the $(d+1)$-dimensional...

In a recent paper, Zhou et al. [Mech Time-Depend Mater (2017) 21: 151] studied the time-dependent properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers composites by employing a new rheological model with a time-dependent viscosity coefficient. This rheological model is essentially based on a generalized Scott-Blair body with a time-dependent viscosity coe...

We study the location of trapping surfaces in space-times resulting from an axial deformation of static isotropic systems, and show that the Misner-Sharp mass evaluated on the corresponding undeformed spherically symmetric space provides the correct gravitational radius to locate the spheroidal horizon.

We investigate the emergent laws of gravity when Dark Energy and the de Sitter space-time are modelled as a critical Bose-Einstein condensate of a large number of soft gravitons $N_{\rm G}$. We argue that this scenario requires the presence of various regimes of gravity in which $N_{\rm G}$ scales in different ways. Moreover, the local gravitationa...

We start investigating the extension of the Horizon Quantum Mechanics to the case of spheroidal sources. We first study the location of trapping surfaces in space-times resulting from an axial deformation of static isotropic systems, and show that the Misner-Sharp mass evaluated on the corresponding undeformed spherically symmetric space provides t...

In this paper, after a brief review of the physical notion of quality factor in viscoelasticity, we present a complete discussion of the attenuation processes emerging in the Maxwell-Prabhakar model, recently developed by Giusti and Colombaro. Then, taking profit of some illuminating plots, we discuss some potential connections between the presente...

We study the extent of quantum gravitational effects in the internal region of non-singular, Hayward-like solutions of Einstein's field equations according to the formalism known as Horizon Quantum Mechanics. We grant a microscopic description to the horizon by considering a huge number of soft, off-shell gravitons, which superimpose in the same qu...

The aim of this paper is to present a simple generalization of bosonic string theory in the framework of the theory of fractional variational problems. Specifically, we present a fractional extension of the Polyakov action, for which we compute the general form of the equations of motion and discuss the connection between the new fractional action...

In this paper we discuss some mathematical aspects of the horizon wave-function formalism, also known in the literature as horizon quantum mechanics. In particular, first we review the structure of both the global and local formalism for static spherically symmetric sources. Then, we present an extension of the global analysis for rotating black ho...

In this paper, after a brief review of the general theory concerning regularized derivatives and integrals of a function with respect to another function, we provide a peculiar fractional generalization of the $(1+1)$-dimensional Dodson's diffusion equation. For the latter we then compute the fundamental solution, which turns out to b