Andrea Cipriani

Andrea Cipriani
University of Oxford | OX · Department of Psychiatry

M.D., Ph.D.

About

487
Publications
120,651
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25,125
Citations
Citations since 2016
291 Research Items
18531 Citations
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Publications

Publications (487)
Chapter
‘E-learning’ can be defined broadly as the use of internet technologies to deliver teaching and to enhance knowledge and performance. It is also referred to as web-based, online, distributed or internet-based learning (Ruiz et al. 2006). Many sites use ‘blended learning’, where e-learning is combined with in-person or virtual face-to-face instructo...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath have increased pre-existing inequalities and risk factors for mental disorders in general, but perinatal mental disorders are of particular concern. They are already underdiagnosed and undertreated, and this has been magnified by the pandemic. Access to services (both psychiatric and obstetric) has been reduc...
Article
Background: To what extent the COVID-19 pandemic and its containment measures influenced mental health in the general population is still unclear. Purpose: To assess the trajectory of mental health symptoms during the first year of the pandemic and examine dose–response relations with characteristics of the pandemic and its containment. Data Sour...
Article
Introduction: Pharmacotherapy is an important component of the multimodal treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cardiovascular safety of medications for ADHD is of concern from a clinical and public health standpoint. We aim to conduct a network meta-analysis (NMA) comparing the effects of available medications for ADHD on...
Conference Paper
Background Meta-analysis and network meta-analysis (NMA) in particular is rapidly becoming the standard form of evidence synthesis. It is exceedingly important to present such evidence in a timely, clinically relevant and comprehensible manner for patients, clinicians and policy makers. However, it is often challenging because the evidence synthesi...
Article
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Background Internationally, the impact of continued exposure to workplace environmental and psychological stressors on health care professionals’ mental health is associated with increased depression, substance misuse, sleep disorders, and posttraumatic stress. This can lead to staff burnout, poor quality health care, and reduced patient safety out...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic increased pressure on a nursing workforce already facing high levels of stress, burnout, and fatigue in the United Kingdom (UK) and internationally. The contribution of nurses to keeping the public safe was widely recognised as they met the challenges of delivering complex patient care during the healthcare crisis. However, th...
Article
Background: Patient characteristics may predict the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may moderate the effects of donepezil. Objective: To build a personalized prediction model for patients with AD and to estimate patient-specific treatment effects of donepezil, using individual patient characteristics. Methods: We systematically sea...
Preprint
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Background Detailed information on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on large public health systems is lacking. Here we describe the overall functioning of a regional network comprising 58 community mental health centres (CMHCs), which covers a catchment area of approximately 10 million people. Methods We employed a registry–based approach to su...
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Background Non-serious adverse events (NSAEs) should be captured and reported because they can have a significant negative impact on patients and treatment adherence. However, the reporting of NSAEs in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is limited. Objective To identify the most important NSAEs of antidepressants for patients and clinicians, to b...
Article
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Background: In double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antidepressants, blinding can be broken due to the apparent side effects, and unsuccessful blinding can lead to overestimation of effect sizes. New generation antidepressants with less severe side effects may be less susceptible to broken blinding. However, successfulness of blindin...
Article
Background Behavioural, cognitive, and pharmacological interventions can all be effective for insomnia. However, because of inadequate resources, medications are more frequently used worldwide. We aimed to estimate the comparative effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for the acute and long-term treatment of adults with insomnia disorder. Me...
Conference Paper
Background Meta-analysis and network meta-analysis (NMA) in particular is rapidly becoming the standard form of evidence synthesis. It is exceedingly important to present such evidence in a timely, clinically relevant and comprehensible manner for patients, clinicians and policy makers. However, it is often challenging because the evidence synthesi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare activity across a broad range of clinical services. The NHS stopped non-urgent work in March 2020, later recommending services be restored to near-normal levels before winter where possible. Aims Using routinely collected data, our aim was to describe changes in the volume and variation of...
Article
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It is common experience for practising psychiatrists that individuals with schizophrenia vary markedly in their symptomatic response to antipsychotic medication. What is not clear, however, is whether this variation reflects variability of medication‐specific effects (also called “treatment effect heterogeneity”), as opposed to variability of non‐s...
Article
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Objective A network meta-analysis (NMA) usually assesses multiple outcomes across several treatment comparisons. The Vitruvian plot aims to facilitate communication of multiple outcomes from NMAs to patients and clinicians. Methods We developed this tool following the recommendations on the communication of benefit–risk information from the availa...
Article
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Background The debate of whether machine learning models offer advantages over standard statistical methods when making predictions is ongoing. We discuss the use of a meta-learner model combining both approaches as an alternative. Methods To illustrate the development of a meta-learner, we used a dataset of 187,757 people with depression. Using 3...
Article
Sleep deprivation, alone or in combination with pharmacological treatment and as part of a chronotherapy package, is of potential use for people with major depressive episodes, however the evidence base is still conflicting. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the clinical effects of sleep deprivation in comparison to a...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic required mental health services around the world to adapt quickly to the new restrictions and regulations put in place to reduce the risk of transmission. As face-to-face contacts became difficult, virtual methods were implemented to continue to safely provide mental health care. However, it is unclear to what exten...
Article
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic required mental health services around the world to adapt quickly to the new restrictions and regulations put in place to reduce the risk of transmission. As face-to-face contact became difficult, virtual methods were implemented to continue to safely provide mental health care. However, it is unclear to what exte...
Article
Psychometric network analysis is an alternative theoretically-driven analytic approach that has the potential to conceptualize cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease differently than was previously assumed and consequently detect unknown treatment effects. Based on individual participant data, extracted from three double-blind, randomized plac...
Article
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We mapped the evidence on the type and strength of associations between a broad range of mental and physical conditions in children and adolescents, by carrying out an umbrella review, i.e., a quantitative synthesis of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses. We also assessed to which extent the links between mental and physical conditions va...
Article
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Introduction For major depression, a one-size-fits-all treatment does not exist. Patients enter a ‘trial-and-change’ algorithm in which effective therapies are subsequently applied. Unfortunately, an empirically based order of treatments has not yet been determined. There is a magnitude of different treatment strategies while clinical trials only c...
Article
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Background People with substance use disorders may be at a greater risk of contracting COVID-19 infection and developing medical complications. Several institutional and governmental health agencies across the world developed ad hoc guidance for substance use disorder services and care of individuals misusing substances. We aimed to synthesise the...
Preprint
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In network meta-analysis (NMA), we synthesize all relevant evidence about health outcomes with competing treatments. The evidence may come from randomized controlled trials (RCT) or non-randomized studies (NRS) as individual participant data (IPD) or as aggregate data (AD). We present a suite of Bayesian NMA and network meta-regression (NMR) models...
Article
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Introduction It is unclear how pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions compare with each other in terms of efficacy and tolerability for core symptoms and additional problems in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aim to conduct the first network meta-analysis (NMA) comparing pharmacological and non-pharmac...
Article
Background: Globally, nurses are facing increased pressure to provide high-quality, complex patient care within environments with scarce resources in terms of staffing, infrastructure, or financial reward. The strain and demand on the psychological health and wellbeing of nurses during COVID-19 has been substantial, with many experiencing burnout;...
Article
Full-text available
Background Donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine and memantine are potentially effective interventions for cognitive impairment in dementia, but the use of these drugs has not been personalised to individual patients yet. We examined whether artificial intelligence-based recommendations can identify the best treatment using routinely collected patie...
Article
The association between early improvement and subsequent change in cognition is unexamined in antidementia clinical trials. We aimed to examine the consequences of early-response to antidementia medication in Alzheimer's disease. Participant-level data were analyzed from five pivotal clinical trials of donepezil for Alzheimer's disease lasting up t...
Article
Importance: Most evidence about efficacy and safety of antipsychotics in schizophrenia spectrum disorders relies on randomized clinical trials (RCTs). However, owing to their strict eligibility criteria, RCTs represent only a part of the real-world population (ie, unselected patients seen in everyday clinical practice), which may result in an effi...
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Background Valid assessment of drug efficacy and safety requires an evidence base free of reporting bias. Using trial reports in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug approval packages as a gold standard, we previously found that the published literature inflated the apparent efficacy of antidepressant drugs. The objective of the current study wa...
Article
Objective The current practice in meta-analysis of the effects of psychopharmacological interventions ignors the administered dose or restricts the analysis in a dose range. This may introduce unnecessary uncertainty and heterogeneity. Methods have been developed to integrate the dose–effect models in meta-analysis. Methods We describe the two-sta...
Article
Background: Evidence is limited regarding the most effective pharmacological treatment for psychotic depression: monotherapy with an antidepressant, monotherapy with an antipsychotic, another treatment (e.g. mifepristone), or combination of an antidepressant plus an antipsychotic. This is an update of a review first published in 2005 and last upda...
Preprint
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Background: Accessing specialist secondary mental health care in the NHS in England requires a referral, usually from primary or acute care. Community mental health teams triage these referrals deciding on the most appropriate team to meet patients' needs. Referrals require resource-intensive review by clinicians and often, collation and review of...
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Introduction Improving our understanding of the broad range of social, emotional and behavioural factors that contribute to mental health outcomes in adolescents will be greatly enhanced with diverse, representative population samples. We present a protocol for a repeated self-report survey assessing risk and protective factors for mental health an...
Article
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Background Selective outcome reporting and publication bias threaten the validity of systematic reviews and meta-analyses and can affect clinical decision-making. A rigorous method to evaluate the impact of this bias on the results of network meta-analyses of interventions is lacking. We present a tool to assess the Risk Of Bias due to Missing Evid...
Article
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Introduction Clinical depression is usually treated in primary care with psychological therapies and antidepressant medication. However, when patients do not respond to at least two or more antidepressants within a depressive episode, they are considered to have treatment resistant depression (TRD). Previous small randomised controlled trials sugge...
Article
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Background Aripiprazole augmentation is proven effective for antidepressant-refractory depression, but its licensed dose range is wide and optimal dosage remains unclear. Aims To find the optimal dosage of aripiprazole augmentation. Method Multiple electronic databases were searched (from inception to 16 February 2021) to identify all assessor-ma...
Article
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Aims and method To gain a deeper understanding of the use of online culture and its potential benefits to mental health and well-being, sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported data on usage, perceived mental health benefits and health status were collected in an online cross-sectional survey during COVID-19 restrictions in the UK in June...
Preprint
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Objective Determining whether individual patients differ in response to treatment ('treatment effect heterogeneity') is important as it is a prerequisite to developing personalised treatment approaches. Previous variability meta-analyses of response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia found no evidence for treatment effect heterogeneity. Conversely,...
Article
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The gabapentinoids, gabapentin, and pregabalin, target the α2δ subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels. Initially licensed for pain and seizures, they have become widely prescribed drugs. Many of these uses are off-label for psychiatric indications, and there is increasing concern about their safety, so it is particularly important to have good...
Article
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Major depression is often a relapsing disorder. It is therefore important to start its treatment with therapies that maximize the chance of not only getting the patients well but also keeping them well. We examined the associations between initial treatments and sustained response by conducting a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial...
Article
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Background Available evidence on the comparative efficacy and acceptability of psychotherapies for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents remains uncertain. Objective We aimed to compare and rank the different types and formats of psychotherapies for PTSD in children and adolescents. Methods We searched eight databases...
Article
Background: Glutamergic system dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar depression. This is an update of the 2015 Cochrane Review for the use of glutamate receptor modulators for depression in bipolar disorder. Objectives: 1. To assess the effects of ketamine and other glutamate receptor modulators in alleviating the acu...
Article
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Background The effects of COVID-19 on the shift to remote consultations remain to be properly investigated. Objective To quantify the extent, nature and clinical impact of the use of telepsychiatry during the COVID-19 pandemic and compare it with the data in the same period of the 2 years before the outbreak. Methods We used deidentified electron...
Article
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Bipolar disorder is a chronic neuropsychiatric condition associated with mood instability, where patients present significant sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities. Currently, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder remains elusive, but treatment with lithium continues as the benchmark pharmacotherapy, functioning as a potent mood stabilizer in...
Article
Background: Many studies have recently been conducted to assess the antidepressant efficacy of glutamate modification in mood disorders. This is an update of a review first published in 2015 focusing on the use of glutamate receptor modulators in unipolar depression. Objectives: To assess the effects - and review the acceptability and tolerabili...
Article
Background The magnitude of the superiority of antipsychotics over placebo is debated. One reason is that the effect-size index which is usually used in meta-analyses is in standard deviation units. Many other indices, some of which are more intuitive, exist. Methods We explain the formulae, advantages, and limitations of 13 effect-size indices: M...
Article
Background: In patients with Alzheimer's disease, global assessment scales, such as the Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB), the Clinician's Interview-Based Impression Plus Caregiver Input (CIBI plus), and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) are commonly used. Objective: To clinically understand and interpret the associations between...
Article
The effects of psychotherapies for depression have been examined in several hundreds of randomized trials, but no recent network meta‐analysis (NMA) has integrated the results of these studies. We conducted an NMA of trials comparing cognitive behavioural, interpersonal, psychodynamic, problem‐solving, behavioural activation, life‐review and “third...
Article
Objective: To examine if cognitive restructuring (CR), behavioral activation (BA), and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) result in differential effects in the treatment of adult depression. Method: We extracted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from a database updated yearly from PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Network and pai...
Preprint
Full-text available
Selective outcome reporting and publication bias threaten the validity of systematic reviews and meta-analysis and ultimately can affect clinical decision-making. A rigorous methodology to evaluate the impact of this bias on the meta-analysis results of a network of interventions is still lacking. We present a tool to assess the Risk Of Bias due to...
Article
Background Internet cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) is a viable delivery format of CBT for depression. However, iCBT programmes include training in a wide array of cognitive and behavioural skills via different delivery methods, and it remains unclear which of these components are more efficacious and for whom. Methods We did a systematic revi...
Article
The nature and magnitude of placebo and nocebo responses to ADHD medications and the extent to which response to active medications and placebo are inter-correlated is unclear. To assess the magnitude of placebo and nocebo responses to ADHD and their association with active treatment response. We searched literature until June 26, 2019, for publish...
Article
Purpose: Most patients with depression are treated by general practitioners, and most of those patients prefer psychotherapy over pharmacotherapy. No network meta-analyses have examined the effects of psychotherapy compared with pharmacotherapy, combined treatment, care as usual, and other control conditions among patients in primary care. Method...
Article
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Introduction Structural MRI is the most frequently used method to investigate brain volume alterations in neuropsychiatric disease. Previous meta-analyses have typically focused on a single diagnosis, thereby precluding transdiagnostic comparisons. Methods and analysis We will include all structural MRI studies of adults that report brain volumes...
Preprint
Network meta-analysis (NMA) has been used to answer a range of clinical questions about the preferable intervention for a given condition. Although the effectiveness and safety of pharmacological agents depend on the dose administered, NMA applications typically ignore the role that drugs dosage play on the results. This leads to more heterogeneity...
Article
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Objectives: Circadian rhythm disruption is commonly reported in patients with bipolar disorder. Lithium has been suggested to have effects on the circadian clock, the biological basis of the circadian rhythm. The objective of the current review was to review systematically the existing studies on the effect of lithium on circadian rhythm in patien...
Article
Importance: Antidepressants are commonly used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). Antidepressant outcomes can vary based on individual differences; however, it is unclear whether specific factors determine this variability or whether it is at random. Objective: To investigate the assumption of systematic variability in symptomatic response...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The extent and profiles of heterogeneity in cognitive functioning among participants in clinical trials of antidementia medication are unknown. We aimed to quantify and identify profiles of heterogeneity of cognition in Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Individual-level participant data were analyzed from five pivotal clinical trials of...
Article
In Reply We appreciate the issues raised by Fountoulakis and Tohen, many of which are common in critiques of psychotherapy trials.¹ As the title of our article² implies, the comparison of interest was psychotherapy plus treatment as usual (TAU) vs TAU alone.² Treatment as usual consisted of standard medication management with routine psychiatric ca...
Article
Background No consistent first-option psychological interventions for adult outpatients with anorexia nervosa emerges from guidelines. We aimed to compare stand-alone psychological interventions for adult outpatients with anorexia nervosa with a specific focus on body-mass index, eating disorder symptoms, and all-cause dropout rate. Methods In thi...
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Dose–response models express the effect of different dose or exposure levels on a specific outcome. In meta-analysis, where aggregated-level data is available, dose–response evidence is synthesized using either one-stage or two-stage models in a frequentist setting. We propose a hierarchical dose–response model implemented in a Bayesian framework....
Article
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Objective This study compares three major elements of evidence-based medicine (EBM) practices, namely evidence synthesis, clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and real-world prescriptions in the US, regarding antidepressant treatments of major depression over the past three decades. Study design and setting We conducted network meta-analyses (NMAs)...
Article
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Objective Recruitment to clinical research in the National Health Service remains challenging. One barrier is accessing patients to discuss research participation. Two general approaches are used in the United Kingdom to facilitate this: an ‘opt-in’ approach (when clinicians communicate research opportunities to patients) and an ‘opt-out’ approach...
Article
Background: Psychosis is an illness characterised by the presence of hallucinations and delusions that can cause distress or a marked change in an individual's behaviour (e.g. social withdrawal, flat or blunted effect). A first episode of psychosis (FEP) is the first time someone experiences these symptoms that can occur at any age, but the condit...
Article
Background: Psychosis is an illness characterised by the presence of hallucinations and delusions that can cause distress or a marked change in an individual's behaviour (e.g. social withdrawal, flat or blunted effect). A first episode of psychosis (FEP) is the first time someone experiences these symptoms that can occur at any age, but the condit...
Chapter
Antipsychotic drugs should be efficacious for all psychotic symptoms, whether they occur in schizophrenia, depression, mania, or any other psychotic disorder. All currently marketed antipsychotic drugs are dopamine antagonists or partial agonists, making the role of dopamine blockade in this context the most likely mechanism of action. Antipsychoti...
Article
Importance Several psychotherapy protocols have been evaluated as adjuncts to pharmacotherapy for patients with bipolar disorder, but little is known about their comparative effectiveness. Objective To use systematic review and network meta-analysis to compare the association of using manualized psychotherapies and therapy components with reducing...