Andre P Kengne

Andre P Kengne
South African Medical Research Council | MRC · Non-Communicable Diseases Research Unit

MD, PhD

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919
Publications
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Publications

Publications (919)
Article
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Background: Firefighting is a strenuous occupation, which necessitates that firefighters stay in good physical condition and maintain adequate cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness to perform their duties with minimal health and safety risks. The aim of this review is to determine the effects of cardiovascular disease risk factors, musculoskel...
Article
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Introduction. Fire ghting is a strenuous occupation that requires re ghters to be in peak physical condition. However, many re ghters have risk factors for cardiovascular disease, impaired musculoskeletal health, and are not physically t for duty, which all negatively impact their occupational performance. erefore, the aim of this review is to dete...
Article
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Objectives To examine the associations of childhood maltreatment (CM) with hypertension, and the mediating effects of hypertension risk factors on the associations in South African women, using baseline data of the Rape Impact Cohort Evaluation longitudinal study. Design Cross-sectional Setting and participants Self-reported data on CM exposure a...
Article
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Aims/hypothesis Using a targeted proteomics approach, we aimed to identify and validate circulating proteins associated with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and type 2 diabetes in a Black South African cohort. In addition, we assessed sex-specific associations between the validated proteins and pathophysiological pathways of type 2 diabetes. Met...
Preprint
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Introduction Globally, firefighting is recognized as among the most physically demanding professions. In addition, because of the hazardous nature of firefighting, firefighters are required to wear heavy insulated personnel protective equipment that protects them from exposures to hazardous chemicals and fumes and severe temperatures. This requires...
Article
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In South Africa, the nutrition transition has led to unhealthy diets lacking variety, contributing to the rise in overweight, obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases. Using baseline screening data of the South African Diabetes Prevention Programme (SA-DPP) study, this study aims to determine the relationship of dietary diversity (DD) with...
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with diabetes is becoming an increasing major public health concern, disproportionately burdening low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This rising burden is due to various factors, including the lack of disease awareness that results in late referral and the cost of screening and consequent treatment of t...
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Introduction: Firefighting is a hazardous occupation, where firefighters are involved in life-threatening situations, being placed under tremendous physical strain, while wearing heavy and insulated equipment to protect them from chemicals, fumes, and high temperatures. This necessitates that firefighter stay in good physical condition and maintain...
Article
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Increased blood pressure (BP) has been associated with higher risk of stroke and mortality in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). We investigated risk factors associated with Relative Systemic Hypertension (RSH) or systemic hypertension in SCD patients in Cameroon. Using R, Multivariate multinomial logistic regression modeling was used to examine the effect...
Article
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Introduction Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is estimated to affect about 9.1% of the global population with a substantially increased risk of the condition (6.8%–17.2%) among people living with HIV (PLWH). This increased risk is attributed to HIV infection itself, antiretroviral therapy, coexisting viral infections, non-infectious comorbidities and t...
Article
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Background: Plant-based diets (PBDs) are characterised as healthy dietary patterns that emphasise the intake of plant foods and limit the intake of animal foods. The Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets are common examples of healthy dietary patterns that are mainly plant based. There are different dietary pattern...
Article
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Background. Few data are available on COVID-19 outcomes among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where high-risk comorbidities are prevalent. We investigated the impact of pregnancy on SARS-CoV-2 infection and of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnancy to generate evidence for health policy and clinical practice. Methods. We conducted a 6-countr...
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BACKGROUND: Few data are available on COVID-19 outcomes among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where high-risk comorbidities are prevalent. We investigated the impact of pregnancy on SARS-CoV-2 infection and of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnancy to generate evidence for health policy and clinical practice. METHODS: We conducted a 6-countr...
Article
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Background: Few data are available on COVID-19 outcomes among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where high-risk comorbidities are prevalent. We investigated the impact of pregnancy on SARS-CoV-2 infection and of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnancy to generate evidence for health policy and clinical practice. Methods: We conducted a 6-cou...
Article
The role of β cell dysfunction in the development of type 2 diabetes (DM) is not understood across populations with different levels of insulin resistance. We examined β-cell function in two cohorts of Africans and compared them to Asian Indians. Adults without known DM were examined in 3 cohorts: (1) Mixed Ancestry Africans (MAA, n=1112) living in...
Article
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Objective: Evidence points to an increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) across Africa, particularly in high-risk groups, like those with hypertension, diabetes, and HIV. However, there has not been a concerted, Africa-wide, effort to provide estimates to inform health services planning and policy development to address CKD. The CKD-...
Article
Objective: South African women suffer from a dual burden of gender-based violence and hypertension. Studies suggest abuse exposures may increase the risk of hypertension by contributing to psychological stress, but this association has not been clearly described. This study described the associations of intimate partner violence (IPV), non-partner...
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Objective: Early diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) slows disease progression and reduces mortality; yet screening for CKD is sparse in clinical practice. Contrary, screening for CKD risk factors like hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are included in clinical practice guidelines in most countries. Therefore, an opportunity ex...
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Objective: South Africa (SA) is currently home to almost 14% of the estimated 19 million people living with diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Urgent efforts are needed both to diagnose and appropriately manage South Africans with diabetes, as well as to prevent the progression to diabetes among those at high risk. While, there is definitive ev...
Article
Objective: Emerging evidence suggests that the addition of text-messaging to standard healthy lifestyle interventions may improve the outcomes of diabetes prevention programs (DPP). This paper describes the process of developing text-messages for people at risk of developing diabetes in low-resourced communities as part of the South African DPP (S...
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Objective: To describe the prevalence and management of hypertension and dyslipidaemia in adults in Cape Town with 1) known diabetes, and those identified as high-risk for diabetes and subsequently diagnosed with 2) normoglycaemia, or 3) newly diagnosed diabetes, through oral glucose tolerance tests. Design and method: Cross-sectional data colle...
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Background: Early diagnosis is essential to reduce the morbidity and mortality of HIV-associated tuberculosis. We developed a multi-parameter clinical decision tree to facilitate rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis using point-of-care diagnostic tests in HIV-positive patients presenting to an emergency centre. Methods: A cross-sectional study was perfo...
Article
Background : WHO recommends urine lateral-flow lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) testing with AlereLAM in HIV-positive inpatients only if screening criteria are met. We assessed the performance of WHO screening criteria and alternative screening tests/strategies to guide LF-LAM testing and compared diagnostic accuracy of the WHO AlereLAM algorithm (WHO sc...
Article
Background Combining HbA1c with glycated albumin (GA) may improve detection of dysglycaemia. As BMI correlates positively with HbA1c and negatively with GA, HbA1c may be more effective in obese and GA in nonobese individuals. Methods To relate these findings to Africans, we assessed in 1274 South Africans living in CapeTown (male 26%; age 48±16y;...
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Introduction: South Africa's evolving burden of disease is challenging due to a persistent infectious disease, burgeoning obesity, most notably among women and rising rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). With two thirds of women presenting at their first antenatal visit either overweight or obese in urban South Africa (SA), the preconception...
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This study describes associations of intimate partner violence (IPV), non-partner sexual violence (NPSV) and sexual harassment (SH) exposures with hypertension in South African women aged 18–40 years. Baseline data (n = 1742) from the Rape Impact Cohort Evaluation study, including a history of sexual, physical, emotional and economic IPV, NPSV and...
Article
Objective: To describe the use of electronic health (eHealth) in support of health coverage for kidney care across International Society of Nephrology (ISN) regions. Design: Secondary analysis of WHO survey on eHealth as well as use of data from the World Bank, and Internet World Stats on global eHealth services. Setting: A web-based survey on...
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Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake is generally associated with better renal function, while the association of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) remains unconfirmed. Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was used to obtain unconfounded estimates of the causal association of dietary intake and genetically determined serum PUFA and MUFA leve...
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The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Africa remains poorly characterized, due partly to the lack of appropriate diagnostic strategies. Although in recent years the diagnostic and prognostic utility of microRNAs (miRNAs) have gained prominence in the context of CKD, its value has not been evaluated in African populations. We investigated th...
Article
Oral diseases are preventable causes of poor health outcomes in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Investigate the association between dental and periodontal conditions with kidney function and determine whether inflammation mediate the association between periodontitis and CKD. Cross-sectional analysis of 1551 South African adults of mixed...
Article
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Background Since 2011, WHO has recommended that HIV-positive inpatients be routinely screened for tuberculosis with the WHO four-symptom screen (W4SS) and, if screened positive, receive a molecular WHO-recommended rapid diagnostic test (eg, Xpert MTB/RIF [Xpert] assay). To inform updated WHO tuberculosis screening guidelines, we conducted a systema...
Article
Objectives: Blood pressure (BP) values ≥ 120/70 mmHg considerably increase the risk for pulmonary hypertension and renal dysfunction in Sickle Cell Disease (CSD) patients, and ultimately increased morbidity and mortality. This has led to the development of the term relative systemic hypertension (RSH). RSH was defined as Systolic BP 120-139 mm Hg...
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Background Studies have investigated dietary attributes associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Africa. However, there has been no effort to critically assess the existing evidence. This systematic review examined available evidence on the association between plant-based dietary exposures and CVD risk profile in Africa. PROSPERO regist...
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Background: There is a paucity of data on the relationship between thyroid hormones, potassium and eclampsia. Moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency that worsens during pregnancy leads to decreased thyroid hormone output and bioavailability to the brain. Apart from metabolic functions, T3 and T4 are essential fast-acting cytosolic and synaptosomal ne...
Article
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Background: Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity in South Africa. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy, which is amenable to correction through iodine supplementation, has been reported to increase the risk of preeclampsia. However, the association of iodine nutrition status with preeclampsia in South Africa has not been s...
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Introduction Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant health and economic burden, owing to its ever-increasing global prevalence. Due to the limitations in the current diagnostic methods, CKD is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages, where there is an increased risk of cardiovascular complications and end-stage kidney disease. As such, there...
Article
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Aims: Despite a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity in black South African women compared to men, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes does not differ. We explored if this could be due to sex differences in insulin sensitivity, clearance and/or beta-cell function, and also sex-specific associations with total and regional adiposity. Methods: This...
Article
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Aims: To determine the WC thresholds for the prediction of incident dysglycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Black South African (SA) men and women and compare these to advocated International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Europid thresholds. Materials and methods: In this prospective study, Black SA men (n=502) and women (n=527) from the Middle Ag...
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Background Over the last 30 years, South Africa has experienced four ‘colliding epidemics’ of HIV and tuberculosis, chronic illness and mental health, injury and violence, and maternal, neonatal, and child mortality, which have had substantial effects on health and well-being. Using data from the 2019 Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Fa...
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Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) are established markers of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), but when concentrations are discordant ApoB is the superior predictor. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with ASCVD, yet the independent role of atherogenic lipoproteins is contentious. Four gro...
Article
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Background Preeclampsia and hypothyroidism are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Iodine deficiency is a risk factor for subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy. However, there is a paucity of data on the relationship between iodine nutrition state in pregnancy, the degree of endothelial dysfunction, and the risk of preeclampsia. Methods Nin...
Article
Background and Aims While low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a good predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is superior when the two markers are discordant. We aimed to determine the impact of adiposity, diet and inflammation upon ApoB and LDL-C discordance. Methods and Results Machine learning (ML)...
Article
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Leukocyte Telomere length (LTL) is an independent predictor of cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs) and Human Immuno Virus (HIV) infection. However, studies are lacking on the association between LTL with CMD profile in people with HIV. Accordingly, we investigated the association between LTL and CMD profile in HIV-infected adult South Africans. This c...
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Background: It has been reported that maternal gestational environment may be programmed to have a significant impact on foetal and offspring health later in life. Studies have shown that children born to pre-eclamptic mothers are prone to obesity, hypertension, and diabetes in their adult life. However, such findings are yet to be established in a...
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Introduction: sub-Saharan African countries contribute substantially to the global HIV disease burden. Despite this burden, and the promises that prevention could deliver, the implementation and uptake of HIV prevention programmes are still low. The study used the decision support system model to explore the potential impacts of prevention impleme...
Article
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To address the issue of obesity, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a set of comprehensive programmes aimed at changing the obesogenic environments to provide opportunities for healthy food options and increased physical activity in the school, home, and at the population level. The objectives of this study were to examine the nature an...
Article
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Background The WHO-recommended tuberculosis screening and diagnostic algorithm in ambulatory people living with HIV is a four-symptom screen (known as the WHO-recommended four symptom screen [W4SS]) followed by a WHO-recommended molecular rapid diagnostic test (eg Xpert MTB/RIF [hereafter referred to as Xpert]) if W4SS is positive. To inform update...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aims: Despite a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in black South African women compared to men, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes does not differ. We explored if this could be due to sex differences in insulin sensitivity, clearance and or beta cell function, and also sex-specific associations with total and regional adiposity. Methods: T...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: To determine the waist circumference (WC) thresholds for the prediction of incident dysglycemia and type 2 diabetes in Black South African (SA) men and women and compare these to advocated International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Europid thresholds. Research design and methods: In this prospective study, Black SA men (n=502) and women (n=...
Article
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Objective Inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin have been shown to be independent markers of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to assess the correlation between serum levels of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study at a tertiary level...
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MicroRNAs are non-coding, post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and their dysregulation has been associated with development of various diseases, including hypertension. Consequently, understanding their role in the pathogenesis and progression of disease is essential. Prior research focusing on microRNAs in disease has provided a basi...
Article
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Aim: The influence of disease duration and anti-diabetic treatment on epigenetic processes has been described, with limited focus on interactions with microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs have been found to play key roles in the regulation of pathways associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and expression patterns in response to treatment may furthe...
Preprint
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Background People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) are at increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases attributable to the effects of the virus, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and traditional risk factors found in the general population. Most studies have focused on assessing the effect of ART on cardiometabolic disease in PLHIV with fewer studies assessin...
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Abstract: The asymptomatic nature of and lack of effective early-stage diagnostic tools in CKD, predisposes individuals to the risk of end-stage CKD and related complications. Whole blood microRNAs (miRNAs) have the potential for CKD risk screening. We evaluated the expression profile of six novel whole blood miRNAs as well as their ability to pred...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Plant-based diets (PBDs) are characterised as healthy dietary patterns that emphasise the intake of plant foods and limit the intake of animal foods. The Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets are common examples of healthy dietary patterns that are mainly plant based. There are different dietary pattern...