András Tóth

András Tóth
Károli Gáspár Református Egyetem · Faculty of Law

PhD

About

34
Publications
1,765
Reads
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7
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2010 - present
Károli Gáspár Református Egyetem
Position
  • Head of Department
Education
September 2002 - June 2005
University of Pécs
Field of study
  • Doctoral
September 1997 - June 2002

Publications

Publications (34)
Preprint
Full-text available
Complying with the abstract rules of competition law has always been a challenge. The category of restrictions of competition by object is precisely what facilitates compliance. However, in parallel with the strengthening of compliance, much more complicated restrictions of competition cases dealt with the competition authorities in the EU. In this...
Article
Full-text available
A significant part of the legal problems with technology giants can be traced back to insufficient competition. While the increase in market concentration seems to be a common phenomenon, technology giants made this matter and the responsibility of competition law a central issue. As a result of this, the current concept of competition law enforcem...
Article
Full-text available
After 2010, significant changes took place in the regulation of the Hungarian merger law. This and the shift of emphasis in the operation of the state affected the practice of merger law of the Hungarian Competition Authority. The Hungarian Competition Authority had two major goals. On the one hand, the aim was to review unproblematic mergers as qu...
Article
Full-text available
A szociális szabályozás területén Sparrow által kidolgozott problémamegoldó mechanizmus a versenyjogba is átültethető a károk megelőzése érdekében. A versenyhatóságok (mint védelmi jellegű állami szervek) célja is a közérték-teremtés kell, hogy legyen. Ennek sikere a hatóságok arra való képességében rejlik, hogy mennyire tudják a valós társadalmi p...
Chapter
Full-text available
Az EU XXI. századi egyik legfontosabb stratégiai kérdése, hogy miként tudja megteremteni saját adatvagyonát.
Article
Full-text available
Mint minden technológiai vívmánynak, a robotoknak is csak annyiban van értelmük, amennyiben az emberiség javát szolgálják. Ezek következik a technológiai fejlődést is az emberi méltóság alá helyező megközelítésből. A robotok esetében ez konkrétan az emberi képességek kiterjesztését jelenti. Jelen tanulmányukban a robotok bűnüldözési és védelmi célú...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A mesterséges intelligencia alkalmazásának jogi vonatkozásai a bíróságokra alkalmazandó jogelvek fényében
Chapter
Full-text available
The technological challenges raise double expectation on the law: on one hand to strengthen provisions to ensure that technological development does not undermine the public interests. On the other hand, it is also necessary that law does not undermine technological developments. The responsibility of the law is to form a bridge between the technol...
Article
Full-text available
A vélelem a bizonyítékok egyik típusa, olyan jogi mechanizmus, amely ismert tényből következtet másik kevésbé ismert tényre vagy tapasztalatok alapján jogi következtetést von le tényekből. Vélelmeket jellemzően ott alkalmaznak, ahol a vélelmezett tény bizonyítása nehézségekbe ütközik, viszont egy könnyebben bizonyítható tényből levezethető. A vélel...
Chapter
Full-text available
The competition law has a rich practical experience concerning technologies which are key drivers of markets and competition. This study reviews the competitive practices involving technologies through such topics as competition law forced intellectual property licensing, research and development agreements, competition law aspects of on-line and p...
Article
Full-text available
Jelen tanulmány az eddigi legátfogóbb kutatás eredményeit mutatja be, amely a rendszerváltozással egyidős, 30 éves magyar fúzióengedélyezéssel kapcsolatban valaha született. A kutatás célja elsősorban az volt, hogy a magyarországi fúziók (vagy összefonódások) engedélyezésének elmúlt évtizedben elindult fejlesztését és annak közértéket képező hozadé...
Article
Full-text available
The present study presents the findings of the most comprehensive research that has ever been conducted in relation to the 30-year-old Hungarian merger authorisation process that has been in place since the political transition in Hungary. The aim of the research is, in particular, to present to the wider professional public the development of the...
Article
Full-text available
Az Európai Unió (EU) célja a digitális korban is az, hogy megőrizze értékeit, ezért a digitális kor kihívásainak megválaszolásakor is a saját útját kívánja járni. Az EU a digitális szuverenitás elérése egyik fő eszközének (a technológiai befektetések ösztönzése és támogatása mellett) az értékei mentén működő szabályozást választotta. Lévén a digitá...
Preprint
In the field of energy sector, regulation and the regulatory style application of competition law has proved to be an effective combination. Regulation and competition law enforcement together have not only contributed to the development of the internal energy market and promoted infrastructure-based competition through network divestitures and cap...
Article
Full-text available
Global companies providing digital services utilise the public services of the countries from which they derive their revenue generating datasets. Despite this, they do not necessarily contribute to supporting public burden in these countries. The present study aims to demonstrate the importance of digital services taxation not only in terms of inc...
Article
Full-text available
A digitális szolgáltatásokat kínáló világcégek jellemzően úgy nőttek nagyra, hogy a közterhek viseléséhez nem feltétlenül járulnak hozzá abban az országban, ahonnan a bevételeik megteremtéséhez szükséges adatvagyon származik. Jelen tanulmány célja annak bemutatása, hogy a digitális szolgáltatást nyújtó világcégek megadóztatása nem csak adóbevétel-n...
Article
Full-text available
Az MI kapcsán egyfajta versenyhelyzet tapasztalható a világ vezető gazdaságai között. Ez adott esetben a technológiák szabályozásában élen járó EU esetében azzal a veszéllyel járhat, hogy megfontolt technológia-szabályozási megközelítéseiből esetleg emiatt felad. A kérdés konkrétan az elővigyázatosság technológiaszabályozási elvére vonatkozik, amel...
Preprint
Full-text available
This article provides a practical overview of the most recent and interesting developments arising from the national enforcement of EU competition law. It is not only the preliminary rulings by the Court of Justice of the European Union that highlight interesting competition cases taking place at national level. For example, as will be discussed in...
Article
Full-text available
It is important to distinguish between economic and non-economic public services, as the latter services are not subject to EU competition law and Member States are free to regulate them. EU competition law is applicable to public services having an economic nature, with a certain degree of derogation available under Article 106 (2) TFEU. Article 1...
Article
Full-text available
On 6 th October 2015, the Court of Justice of the European Union ('CJEU') delivered in Case C-23/14 Post Danmark A/S v Konkurrenceråd the first preliminary ruling related to the interpretation of Article 82 EC (now Article 102 TFEU) on rebate scheme applied by an undertaking enjoying dominant position. The most important issue raised by the case an...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the fact that the telecommunication sector is heavily regulated in the EU, several important telecommunication-specific competition law issues have emerged over the past two years. In its recent enforcement practice, the Commission gave important competition law guidance to the national regulatory authorities as to how to define the relevan...
Article
Full-text available
This paper specifically discusses the challenges faced by national competition authorities in the context of the crisis erupted in 2008.The competition authorities must continue to consistently and strictly enforce competition law during the crisis as it does not alter the purpose of competition policy, only the economic environment of its applicat...
Article
Full-text available
Two years after the Polish regulatory authority required the termination of the contested practice, the Commission found that the former Telekomunikacja Polska has abused its dominant position in the Polish wholesale broadband access market. Although the Commission’s Decision addressed a number of interesting sectoral issues (e.g. relevance of the...
Article
Full-text available
A reverse tendency can be observed in the European abuse of dominance practice: while in the case of tangible assets there is an attempt to establish a transitory exemption from competition law - a sort of temporary exclusivity - with respect to intangible assets there is a move away from this periodic exclusivity as the IPR that provides such exem...
Article
Full-text available
Increasingly more focus is placed on the human rights aspects of competition enforcement in the past years also in Hungary. By now, the Hungarian courts clarified the human rights aspects of Hungarian competition law from various perspectives. The goal of this study is to give practical insight as to how the Hungarian courts interpret the human rig...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides a practical overview of the most recent and interesting developments arising from the national enforcement of EU competition law. It is not only the preliminary rulings by the Court of Justice of the European Union that highlight interesting competition cases taking place at national level. For example, as will be discussed in...
Article
Full-text available
Should competition authorities reward compliance? How could competition authorities reward compliance? This article aims to examine these questions by analysing the approaches taken by the European Union and national competition authorities, and the positive and negative effects that may result if competition authorities reward competition complian...
Article
Full-text available
It is important to distinguish between economic and non-economic public services, as the latter services are not subject to EU competition law and Member States are free to regulate them. EU competition law is applicable to public services having an economic nature, with a certain degree of derogation available under Article 106 (2) TFEU. Article 1...
Article
Full-text available
The European Commission published its third Recommendation on the markets within electronic communications sector susceptible to ex-ante regulation in October 2014 (the new ‘Recommendation’) after the adoption of the current regulatory framework in 2002. The Recommendation lists relevant markets susceptible to ex-ante regulation throughout the EU,...

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