Anders Eklund

Anders Eklund
Linköping University | LiU · Department of Biomedical Engineering

PhD

About

103
Publications
20,771
Reads
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4,097
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2014 - October 2014
Linköping University
Position
  • Engineer
February 2008 - May 2012
Linkoping University
Education
February 2008 - April 2012
Linköping University
Field of study
  • Medical Informatics

Publications

Publications (103)
Article
Full-text available
In the application of deep learning on optical coherence tomography (OCT) data, it is common to train classification networks using 2D images originating from volumetric data. Given the micrometer resolution of OCT systems, consecutive images are often very similar in both visible structures and noise. Thus, an inappropriate data split can result i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Diffusion MRI (dMRI) is the only non-invasive technique sensitive to tissue micro-architecture, which can, in turn, be used to reconstruct tissue microstructure and white matter pathways. The accuracy of such tasks is hampered by the low signal-to-noise ratio in dMRI. Today, the noise is characterized mainly by visual inspection of residual maps an...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the application of deep learning on optical coherence tomography (OCT) data, it is common to train classification networks using 2D images originating from volumetric data. Given the micrometer resolution of OCT systems, consecutive images are often very similar in both visible structures and noise. Thus, an inappropriate data split can result i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Analysis of brain connectivity is important for understanding how information is processed by the brain. We propose a novel Bayesian vector autoregression (VAR) hierarchical model for analyzing brain connectivity in a resting-state fMRI data set with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients and healthy controls. Our approach models functional and ef...
Preprint
Full-text available
Classifying subjects as healthy or diseased using neuroimaging data has gained a lot of attention during the last 10 years. Here we apply deep learning to derivatives from resting state fMRI data, and investigate how different 3D augmentation techniques affect the test accuracy. Specifically, we use resting state derivatives from 1,112 subjects in...
Article
Full-text available
Effective, robust, and automatic tools for brain tumor segmentation are needed for the extraction of information useful in treatment planning. Recently, convolutional neural networks have shown remarkable performance in the identification of tumor regions in magnetic resonance (MR) images. Context-aware artificial intelligence is an emerging concep...
Article
Full-text available
Brain activation mapping using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been extensively studied in brain gray matter (GM), whereas in large disregarded for probing white matter (WM). This unbalanced treatment has been in part due to controversies in relation to the nature of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast in WM and i...
Article
Brainhack is an innovative meeting format that promotes scientific collaboration and education in an open, inclusive environment. This NeuroView describes the myriad benefits for participants and the research community and how Brainhacks complement conventional formats to augment scientific progress.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this work, we leverage the Laplacian eigenbasis of voxel-wise white matter (WM) graphs derived from diffusion-weighted MRI data, dubbed WM harmonics, to characterize the spatial structure of WM fMRI data. Our motivation for such a characterization is based on studies that show WM fMRI data exhibit a spatial correlational anisotropy that coincide...
Chapter
Gliomas are the most common primary brain malignancies, with different degrees of aggressiveness, variable prognosis and various heterogeneous histological sub-regions, i.e., peritumoral edema, necrotic core, enhancing and non-enhancing tumour core. Although brain tumours can easily be detected using multi-modal MRI, accurate tumor segmentation is...
Article
Full-text available
Background In clinical practice, EEGs are assessed visually. For practical reasons, recordings often need to be performed with a reduced number of electrodes and artifacts make assessment difficult. To circumvent these obstacles, different interpolation techniques can be utilized. These techniques usually perform better for higher electrode densiti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brainhack is an innovative meeting format that promotes scientific collaboration and education in an open and inclusive environment. Departing from the formats of typical scientific workshops, these events are based on grassroots projects and training, and foster open and reproducible scientific practices. We describe here the multifaceted, lasting...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this work, we leverage the Laplacian eigenbasis of voxel-wise white matter (WM) graphs derived from diffusion-weighted MRI data, dubbed WM harmonics, to characterize the spatial structure of WM fMRI data. By quantifying the energy content of WM fMRI data associated with subsets of WM harmonics across multiple spectral bands, we show that the dat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Effective, robust and automatic tools for brain tumor segmentation are needed for extraction of information useful in treatment planning. In recent years, convolutional neural networks have shown state-of-the-art performance in the identification of tumor regions in magnetic resonance (MR) images. A large portion of the current research is devoted...
Preprint
Full-text available
Training segmentation networks requires large annotated datasets, which in medical imaging can be hard to obtain. Despite this fact, data augmentation has in our opinion not been fully explored for brain tumor segmentation (a possible explanation is that the number of training subjects (369) is rather large in the BraTS 2020 dataset). Here we apply...
Preprint
Full-text available
The BOLD signal in white matter (WM) exhibits a spatial correlation structure that is highly anisotropic and closely linked to local axonal structure in terms of shape and orientation. This suggests that isotropic Gaussian filters conventionally used for smoothing fMRI data are inadequate for enhancing the SNR of the BOLD signal in WM. We propose a...
Article
Full-text available
Development of world-class artificial intelligence (AI) for medical imaging requires access to massive amounts of training data from clinical sources, but effective data sharing is often hindered by uncertainty regarding data protection. We describe an initiative to reduce this uncertainty through a policy describing a national community consensus...
Preprint
Full-text available
Training segmentation networks requires large annotated datasets, but manual annotation is time consuming and costly. We here investigate if the combination of a noise-to-image GAN and an image-to-image GAN can be used to synthesize realistic brain tumor images as well as the corresponding tumor annotations (labels), to substantially increase the n...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to distinguish between normal and pathologic thyroid tissue, 3D OCT images were acquired on ex vivo thyroid samples from adult subjects (n=22) diagnosed with a variety of pathologies. The follicular structure was analyzed in terms of count, size, density and sphericity. Results show...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background In clinical practice, EEGs are assessed visually. For practical reasons, recordings often need to be performed with a reduced number of electrodes and artifacts make assessment difficult. To circumvent these obstacles, different interpolation techniques can be utilized. These techniques usually perform better for higher electrode densiti...
Preprint
Full-text available
We propose a 3D volume-to-volume Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) for segmentation of brain tumours. The proposed model, called Vox2Vox, generates segmentations from multi-channel 3D MR images. The best results are obtained when the generator loss (a 3D U-Net) is weighted 5 times higher compared to the discriminator loss (a 3D GAN). For the Bra...
Preprint
Full-text available
Analyzing resting state fMRI data is difficult due to a weak signal and several noise sources. Head motion is also a major problem and it is common to apply motion scrubbing, i.e. to remove time points where a subject has moved more than some pre-defined motion threshold. A problem arises if one cohort on average moves more than another, since the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deep learning requires large datasets for training (convolutional) networks with millions of parameters. In neuroimaging, there are few open datasets with more than 100 subjects, which makes it difficult to, for example, train a classifier to discriminate controls from diseased persons. Generative adversarial networks (GANs) can be used to synthesi...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Susceptibility distortions impact diffusion MRI data analysis and is typically corrected during preprocessing. Correction strategies involve three classes of methods: registration to a structural image, the use of a fieldmap, or the use of images acquired with opposing phase encoding directions. It has been demonstrated that phase encoding...
Article
There are many techniques using sensors and wearable devices for detecting and monitoring patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). A recent development is the utilization of human interaction with computer keyboards for analyzing and identifying motor signs in the early stages of the disease. Current designs for classification of time series of comp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brain activation mapping using functional MRI (fMRI) based on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast has been conventionally focused on probing gray matter, the BOLD contrast in white matter having been generally disregarded. Recent results have provided evidence of the functional significance of the white matter BOLD signal, showing at...
Preprint
Full-text available
Existing Bayesian spatial priors for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data correspond to stationary isotropic smoothing filters that may oversmooth at anatomical boundaries. We propose two anatomically informed Bayesian spatial models for fMRI data with local smoothing in each voxel based on a tensor field estimated from a T1-weighted a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Existing Bayesian spatial priors for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data correspond to stationary isotropic smoothing filters that may oversmooth at anatomical boundaries. We propose two anatomically informed Bayesian spatial models for fMRI data with local smoothing in each voxel based on a tensor field estimated from a T1-weighted a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose Susceptibility distortions impact diffusion MRI data analysis and is typically corrected during preprocessing. Correction strategies involve three classes of methods: registration to a structural image, the use of a fieldmap, or the use of images acquired with opposing phase encoding directions. It has been demonstrated that phase encoding...
Preprint
Full-text available
Registration between an fMRI volume and a T1-weighted volume is challenging, since fMRI volumes contain geometric distortions. Here we present preliminary results showing that 3D CycleGAN can be used to synthesize fMRI volumes from T1-weighted volumes, and vice versa, which can facilitate registration.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The human brain cortical layer has a convoluted morphology that is unique to each individual. Characterization of the cortical morphology is necessary in longitudinal studies of structural brain change, as well as in discriminating individuals in health and disease. A method for encoding the cortical morphology in the form of a graph is presented....
Preprint
Bayesian whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis with three-dimensional spatial smoothing priors have been shown to produce state-of-the-art activity maps without pre-smoothing the data. The proposed inference algorithms are computationally demanding however, and the proposed spatial priors have several less appealing prop...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Estimation of uncertainty of MAP-MRI metrics is an important topic, for several reasons. Bootstrap derived uncertainty, such as the standard deviation, provides valuable information, and can be incorporated in MAP-MRI studies to provide more extensive insight. Methods: In this paper, the uncertainty of different MAP-MRI metrics was quantif...
Preprint
Full-text available
The human brain cortical layer has a convoluted morphology that is unique to each individual. Characterization of the cortical morphology is necessary in longitudinal studies of structural brain change, as well as in discriminating individuals in health and disease. A method for encoding the cortical morphology in the form of a graph is presented....
Article
Full-text available
One-sided t-tests are commonly used in the neuroimaging field, but two-sided tests should be the default unless a researcher has a strong reason for using a one-sided test. Here we extend our previous work on cluster false positive rates, which used one-sided tests, to two-sided tests. Briefly, we found that parametric methods perform worse for two...
Article
Full-text available
Methodological research rarely generates a broad interest, yet our work on the validity of cluster inference methods for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) created intense discussion on both the minutia of our approach and its implications for the discipline. In the present work, we take on various critiques of our work and further explor...
Preprint
Anonymization of medical images is necessary for protecting the identity of the test subjects, and is therefore an essential step in data sharing. However, recent developments in deep learning may raise the bar on the amount of distortion that needs to be applied to guarantee anonymity. To test such possibilities, we have applied the novel CycleGAN...
Preprint
Full-text available
One-sided t-tests are commonly used in the neuroimaging field, but two-sided tests should be the default unless a researcher has a strong reason for using a one-sided test. Here we extend our previous work on cluster false positive rates, which used one-sided tests, to two-sided tests. Briefly, we found that parametric methods perform worse for two...
Preprint
Full-text available
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI) is a non-invasive microstructure assessment method. Scalar measures quantifying micro-structural tissue properties can be obtained using diffusion models and data processing pipelines. However, it is costly and time consuming to collect high quality diffusion data. We demonstrate how Generative A...
Preprint
Full-text available
In medical imaging, a general problem is that it is costly and time consuming to collect high quality data from healthy and diseased subjects. Generative adversarial networks (GANs) is a deep learning method that has been developed for synthesizing data. GANs can thereby be used to generate more realistic training data, to improve classification pe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Methodological research rarely generates a broad interest, yet our work on the validity of cluster inference methods for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) created intense discussion on both the minutia of our approach and its implications for the discipline. In the present work, we take on various critiques of our work and further explor...
Article
Full-text available
Methodological research rarely generates a broad interest, yet our work on the validity of cluster inference methods for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) created intense discussion on both the minutia of our approach and its implications for the discipline. In the present work, we take on various critiques of our work and further explor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Estimation of noise-induced variability in MAP-MRI is needed to properly characterize the amount of uncertainty in quantities derived from the estimated MAP-MRI coefficients. Bootstrap metrics, such as the standard deviation, provides additional valuable diffusion information in addition to common MAP-MRI parameters, and can be incorporated in MAP-...
Article
Full-text available
Diffusion MRI (dMRI) is a valuable tool in the assessment of tissue microstructure. By fitting a model to the dMRI signal it is possible to derive various quantitative features and to perform white matter tractography. Several of the most popular dMRI signal models are expansions in an appropriately chosen basis, where the coefficients are determin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Inference from fMRI data faces the challenge that the hemodynamic system, that relates the underlying neural activity to the observed BOLD fMRI signal, is not known. We propose a new Bayesian model for task fMRI data with the following features: (i) joint estimation of brain activity and the underlying hemodynamics, (ii) the hemodynamics is modeled...
Article
Full-text available
It is well-known that data from diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) follow the Rician distribution. The Rician distribution is also relevant for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained at high temporal or spatial resolution. We propose a general regression model for non-central χ (NC-χ) distributed data, with the heteroscedastic Ric...
Article
Full-text available
Background Inference from fMRI data faces the challenge that the hemodynamic system that relates neural activity to the observed BOLD fMRI signal is unknown. New Method We propose a new Bayesian model for task fMRI data with the following features: (i) joint estimation of brain activity and the underlying hemodynamics, (ii) the hemodynamics is mod...
Article
Research on the rate at which people discount the value of future rewards has become increasingly prevalent as discount rate has been shown to be associated with many unhealthy patterns of behavior such as drug abuse, gambling, and overeating. fMRI research points to a fronto-parietal-limbic pathway that is active during decisions between smaller a...
Conference Paper
Spatial regularization is a technique that exploits the dependence between nearby regions to locally pool data, with the effect of reducing noise and implicitly smoothing the data. Most of the currently proposed methods are focused on minimizing a cost function, during which the regularization parameter must be tuned in order to find the optimal so...
Article
Full-text available
We are glad that our paper has generated intense discussions in the fMRI field, on how to analyze fMRI data and how to correct for multiple comparisons. The goal of the paper was not to disparage any specific fMRI software, but to point out that parametric statistical methods are based on a number of assumptions that are not always valid for fMRI d...
Preprint
Full-text available
We propose a voxel-wise general linear model with autoregressive noise and heteroscedastic noise innovations (GLMH) for analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The model is analyzed from a Bayesian perspective and has the benefit of automatically down-weighting time points close to motion spikes in a data-driven manner. We deve...
Article
Full-text available
The rate of progress in human neurosciences is limited by the inability to easily apply a wide range of analysis methods to the plethora of different datasets acquired in labs around the world. In this work, we introduce a framework for creating, testing, versioning and archiving portable applications for analyzing neuroimaging data organized and d...
Article
A recent Editorial by Slotnick (2017) reconsiders the findings of our paper on the accuracy of false positive rate control with cluster inference in fMRI (Eklund et al, 2016), in particular criticising our use of resting state fMRI data as a source for null data in the evaluation of task fMRI methods. We defend this use of resting fMRI data, as whi...
Preprint
Full-text available
The rate of progress in human neurosciences is limited by the inability to easily apply a wide range of analysis methods to the plethora of different datasets acquired in labs around the world. In this work, we introduce a framework for creating, testing, versioning and archiving portable applications for analyzing neuroimaging data organized and d...
Chapter
We propose a single-diffusion tensor model with heteroscedastic noise and a Bayesian approach via a highly eff