Anders S.G. Andrae

Anders S.G. Andrae
Huawei Technologies · Sweden R&D Center

Ph.D.
Consequential LCA of ICT services, Circularity of mobility.

About

124
Publications
147,763
Reads
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1,711
Citations
Introduction
My current research interest is application of Life Cycle Assessment to ICT to better understand footprint evolution, supply chains and business models as far as: hazardous substance process management, waste minimization, and green indicators. Standards: IEC - calculation method for avoided emissions. ITU-T Circularity of mobility, Product Circularity Scoring. ETSI - material efficiency of ICT network infrastructure goods.
Additional affiliations
November 2014 - present
Huawei Technologies
Position
  • Principle Architect
April 2008 - October 2014
Huawei Technologies
Position
  • Senior Expert
March 2006 - March 2008
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (124)
Presentation
Full-text available
ICT/the Internet is an infrastructure just like lighting, air conditioning, water provisioning, and roads. ICT is thereby used in and by the main sectors of Agriculture, Buildings, Transport, Travel, Industry, Land use and Waste. ICT has a footprint (e.g. Electricity use, carbon, etc) and a handprint. ICTs handprint is ”digital services possibilit...
Conference Paper
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the internationally adopted tool to assess the environmental footprint. However, carrying out an LCA for ICT equipment is a challenging task due, for example, to the amount of data that should be collected to achieve accurate results. This paper describes how documents such as Full Materials Declarations can be used i...
Article
Full-text available
In this decade there will an unprecedented growth of generated data, computations, instructions, and operations. This growth may not compromise clean air, clean water and a sustainable energy and material usage, but rather facilitate these prerequisites for flora and fauna. There are many indications (expected trends and estimates) showing that the...
Conference Paper
A wide variety of products - which need packaging - exist in large ICT companies. The large amount of packaging waste - such as carton, wood, plywood, plastics, and paper - is notorious. Therefore, packaging is an important part of an ICT company's cost & emission reduction strategy. At present, traditional packaging (TP) technologies consume consi...
Article
Full-text available
International Journal of Green Technology; https://scientificarray.org/ijgt/ijgtv6a3/. Toxin-free materials may be a prerequisite for the circular economy. However, the integrated overall environmental impact induced by banning the use of certain harmful materials should be assessed beforehand. No comprehensive analysis of the environmental impact...
Article
Full-text available
The main problems with several existing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) power footprint investigations are: too limited (geographical and temporal) system boundary, overestimation of power saving potential in the next decade, assume that historical power use can predict future global power use in the next decade despite unprecedented...
Article
Full-text available
There is no doubt that the economic and computing activity related to the digital sector will ramp up faster in the present decade than in the last. Moreover, computing infrastructure is one of three major drivers of new electricity use alongsidefuture and current hydrogen production and battery electric vehicles charging. Here is proposed a trajec...
Article
Full-text available
http://www.ijarem.org/papers/v6-i1/1.IJAREM-D5113.pdf. This research contains a three-step methodology for identifying the design guidelines that need to be incorporated into an existing ICT good design in order to improve its product’s circularity in six dimensions. This research is intended to support ICT goods designers in determining the best c...
Article
Full-text available
http://www.ijarem.org/papers/v6-i1/2.IJAREM-D5114.pdf. Evaluation of substance hazardousness is of large interest. Here a method describing how the total hazards statement indicator (HSI) - associated with any substance - is used to estimate the HSI of CdS, Pb(CN)2, thallium(I) carbonate, several other compounds and a full life cycle inventory of a...
Presentation
Full-text available
http://www.lcaforum.ch/portals/0/df73/DF73-15_Andrae.pdf
Article
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International Journal of Green Technology 2019; 5(1): 50-63. Currently the global energy and electricity use of ICT networks and data centers are estimated and predicted by several different top-down approaches. It has not been investigated which prediction approach best answers to the 5G, Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things megatrends w...
Technical Report
https://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_tr/103600_103699/103679/01.01.01_60/tr_103679v010101p.pdf The present document investigates current approaches, concepts and metrics of LCA as proposed by PEF and their applicability for the smartphones. The present document: 1) searches to identify if Product Category Rules (PCR) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)...
Presentation
Full-text available
The linear paradigm for the economy generates a lot of waste, both upstream and downstream. Especially the mining waste is increasing. Furthermore, in certain nations it is generally possible to buy cheaper new products than repairing older ones. Moreover, the optimal lifetime of products – from the viewpoint of cost and environmental benefit rates...
Article
Full-text available
International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations (IJSEI), Vol. 8, Issue 86, pp. 27-33, 2019, http://www.ijsei.com/papers/ijsei-88619-04.pdf, peer-reviewed article, The electricity use of the information technology (IT) sector - consisting of demand from computing, transmission and production - is of large interest. Here a theoretica...
Preprint
Full-text available
The electricity use of the ICT sector-consisting of demand from computing, transmission and production-is of large interest. Here a theoretical framework describing how the total global electricity demand-associated with the computing instructions done in servers-is used to estimate the electricity use of computing and communication in 2030. The pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
The electricity use of the ICT sector-consisting of demand from computing, transmission and production-is of large interest. Here a theoretical framework describing how the total global electricity demand-associated with the computing instructions done in servers-is used to estimate the electricity use of computing and communication in 2030. The pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
It is not unlikely that we might enter the YottaByte (10 24 Byte) era in the next decade. If so, how can the effect on power consumption be understood? The main problems with several existing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) power footprint investigations are: too limited (geographical and temporal) system boundary, overestimation of...
Preprint
Full-text available
The electricity use of the ICT sector is of large interest. Here a theoretical framework describing how the total global electricity demand-associated with the computing instructions done in servers-is presented. The proposed theoretical framework is based on the following parameters: instructions per second, joules per transistor, and transistors...
Article
Full-text available
Current life cycle mid-point impact assessment practice uses several different mid-point indicators for terrestrial acidification (TA). More than a few methods use a mid-point category indicator of mole proton equivalents. The present research shows that the current mid-point TA indicators-the proton equivalents methods-are not precise as the acid...
Article
Full-text available
Improved material efficiency as a means of improving product sustainability scoring is of large interest. Here a theoretical idea of how collection rate, reliability and simple refurbishing affect the life cycle score is presented. There is some misconception that repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing would bring huge benefits in bringing down...
Article
Full-text available
Cooling of beverages is of large interest. Here a theoretical idea of how microwave ovens can be used for cooling beverages is presented. The proposed theoretical idea based on heat transfer features a microwave safe (isoprene rubber) torus shaped rubber ring (MWSR) holding a liquid (L) at room temperature. Fullerenol dissolved in acetone (L) insid...
Article
Full-text available
Actual commitments by suppliers—in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supply chain—to reduce their energy use are rare. The upstream supply chain is also very complex for electronic/ICT products and therefore challenging to control and measure for use by Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) of products and upstream Scope 3 footprints of co...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation outlines an estimation of the global electricity usage that can be ascribed to Communication Technology (CT) in the coming decade. The scope is two scenarios for use and production of consumer devices, communication networks and data centers. Two different scenarios— best and expected—are set up, which include annual numbers of so...
Article
Full-text available
There is a lack of prescribed databases and approaches in place for performing comparable Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) of smartphones and other electronic devices in a coherent manner. Hence there is a need within certain eco-rating initiatives for simplified, yet still precise enough, approaches that are expert independent. Here, five independent...
Article
Full-text available
Virtual reality (VR) is one of the strongest trends for future communication systems. Considering the amounts of VR devices expected to be produced in the coming years, it is relevant to estimate their potential environmental impacts under certain conditions. For the first time, screening life cycle assessment (LCA) single score results are present...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeThe production of cellulase enzymes (CE) has been identified as one major contributor towards the life cycle environmental and economic impacts of second-generation lignocellulosic bioethanol (LCB) production. Despite this knowledge, the literature lacks consistent and transparent life cycle assessments (LCA) which compare CE production base...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The present document aims to provide an overview of the most important existing aspects, parameters, indicators, metrics, results, and business models used for estimating the resource efficiency and CE characteristics of ICT infrastructure goods as input for further standardization.
Chapter
Full-text available
Currently the pilot phase of the European Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) tests the PEF method and develops PEF category rules (PEFCRs) for selected product categories. In the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) domain, only Information Technology (IT) storage equipment has been tested so far. Here the results from two studies are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The presentation contains several examples of Huawei’s approach for eco-design and eco-innovation. The examples include optical network terminals, mobile phones, etc. Especially a step-by-step method for integrating eco-innovation in the product development process, open eco rating for mobile phones and methodology for LCA of ICT goods are topics h...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work presents the latest trends for ICT electricity use from 2015 to 2030. ICT scope is client devices, fixed and wireless networks, data centers and production of all the previous.
Chapter
Full-text available
Cloud Computing (CloudC) is one of the most prominent recent trends in the digital communications sector and represents a paradigm shift within the ICT industry. The supply of popular applications, such as cloud storage and cloud video streaming, has caused a surge in the demand for CloudC services, which offer the advantages of low economic cost,...
Article
Full-text available
Annually, it is estimated that about 4 billion units of consumer electronics for mobile communications are produced worldwide. This could lead to various ecological imbalances unless the design and disposal of the products are handled optimally. To illustrate how industry looks at and responds to the increasing social awareness, this article descri...
Article
Because of unfolding ecological concerns, our society has begun to explore new solutions to mitigate damage to and restore our shared living space on planet earth. Products and services are essential to the market economy; however, their social benefits also come with broad ecoenvironmental loadings. In 2015, it has been estimated that at least 3.5...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As a summary of work in the project " Influence of bioethanol fuels treatment for operational performance, ecological properties and GHG emissions of spark ignition engines (Biotreth) " , evolving around the effects from bioethanol blending, this paper summarizes the findings from the 3-year long project. These are 1) attributional life cycle asses...
Article
Full-text available
The global energy usage driven by Information and Communication Technology (ICT) cloud services is set to soar, with the wireless cloud computing being at the core of the radio technology trend. At the same time the market for renewable energy supply is growing fast. In this context the aim of a new radio base station (RBS) site solution concept (i...
Chapter
Full-text available
As a summary of work in the project " Influence of bioethanol fuels treatment for operational performance, ecological properties and GHG emissions of spark ignition engines (Biotreth) " , evolving around the effects from bioethanol blending, this paper summarizes the findings from the 3-year long project. These are 1) attributional life cycle asses...
Poster
Full-text available
The eco-environmental impacts resulting from introducing biofuels, as alternatives to fossil fuels, are generally well understood via numerous attributional and consequential life cycle assessments (LCAs). Especially climate change and land use have gotten much attention, whereas other eco-environmental impacts are less understood. Ethanol-gasoline...
Article
Full-text available
This work presents an estimation of the global electricity usage that can be ascribed to Communication Technology (CT) between 2010 and 2030. The scope is three scenarios for use and production of consumer devices, communication networks and data centers. Three different scenarios, best, expected, and worst, are set up, which include annual numbers...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Current comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) studies claim to answer whether it is better or worse for the environment to change from old to new systems. Most commonly, the attributional LCA (ALCA) is practised despite its limitations to describe market effects. Hence, an attempt is done here to include market effects in the ALCA practi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In product development in the industry, it is important to estimate the environmental impact of each product in a logical and applicable way. However, the quantity of requirements can act as a barrier to introducing eco-design. Few methods have been presented that clearly describes how eco-design can really become a part of the traditional product...
Article
Full-text available
Here attributional life cycle assessments (LCAs) for the same smartphone model are presented by two different organizations (Orange, OGE and Huawei, HuW) and the effect of different modeling approach is analyzed. A difference of around 32% (29.6 kg and 39.2 kg) for CO2e baseline scores is found using same study object and sector specific LCA standa...
Article
Full-text available
A new photovoltaic silicon crystalline solar cell dry chemical etching process (DCEP) is developed. It is an alternative to the current State-of-the-Art (SoA) wet chemical etching process (WCEP), associated with relatively large environmental loadings in the form of high water consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases with high Global Warming P...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In product development in the industry, it is important to estimate the environmental impact of each product in a logical and applicable way. However, the quantity of requirements can act as a barrier to introducing eco-design. Few methods have been presented that clearly describes how eco-design can really become a part of the traditional product...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Life cycle assessments (LCA) of consumer electronics and beyond are usually performed and reported very differently. As a result it is often difficult to assess the robustness, variability and transparency of reported LCA case studies. The value of LCA for policy makers is in doubt if the present situation cannot be clarified and improved. As a par...
Patent
Full-text available
A system for conducting an LCA for a device includes a configuration engine that assists users to configure the scope of the device for the LCA study. The configuration engine is operably coupled to an LCA engine that is able to obtain information according to a standard of LCA for the device from the material content under the scope of the device...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cloud computing suggests that we can move many computational and data storage services from the desktop onto the network. New thin clients provide an excellent user interface for cloud services and also reduce both manufacturing electricity and lifetime electricity use by an order of magnitude. But do they really reduce overall electricity consumpt...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a methodology for assessing the environmental aspects and potential impacts throughout a product´s life cycle from raw materials and energy extraction, components manufacture, assembly, distribution and sale, use and final end-of-life treatment such as disposal, recycling and energy recovery (i.e. cradle-to-grave). Th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Experience of Huawei Introduction to energy consumption of ICT, Entertainment&Media and cloud Cloud computing micro implications macro perspectives Implications for energy saving – micro and macro Telepresence Telecommuting Summary Next steps
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Since 2009, several emerging technologies have initiated broad and disruptive impact across the ICT sector: cloud computing promises efficiency of scale both in terms of capital and operational costs; high-speed wireless networks promise near-ubiquitous network access and thin-client solutions (smart-phones and tablets) provide appropriate, low pow...
Article
Full-text available
The interest in cloud computing is overwhelming and the efficiency/cost gains are thought to be large. Here the potential electricity savings and CO2e emission are estimated for office usage of physical desktops (PD) and virtual desktops (VD) in a theoretical cloud network. For PD and VD the LCA results are 331–502 and 221–288 kg CO2e/user/year, re...
Article
Full-text available
The general trend for fixed broadband is that FTTx will overtake ADSL platforms and the number of FTTx subscribers is increasing exponentially. Moreover, it is likely that the ozone depletion potential (ODP) of dinitrogen oxide (N2O) and the aquatic acidification potential (AAP) of CO2 have been underestimated in LCA studies. The aim of this study...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of a new site solution concept (i-Site) has been to optimize energy costs, speed of deployment, and site equipment such as number of PV modules. The present study provides the first example of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) quantifying the future environmental benefit of i-Site for support of a radio base station in South African Vodafone ne...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of a new site solution concept (i-Site) has been to optimize energy costs, speed of deployment, and site equipment such as number of PV modules. The present study provides the first example of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) quantifying the future environmental benefit of i-Site for support of a radio base station in South African Vodafone ne...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For the first time streamlined life cycle assessments (LCA) were performed to estimate the carbon footprint/energy payback times of three types of RBS off-grid sites in Italian network. Most advantageous is to locate solar wind power system in Southern Italy. Annually between 14 and 19 tonnes of CO2e can be saved by replacing power supply system ba...
Chapter
Full-text available
Evidentially the lack of harmonisation and transparency for life cycle assessment (LCA) is a cause of concern in the information and communication technologies (ICT) sector. Building mainly on ISO 14040/44, several important stakeholders (network operators together with manufacturers of network equipment, end–user equipment, and parts) have jointly...
Article
Background, aim and scope Nanostructured polymer particles are produced to be used in ball grid array (BGA) and chip scale packaging (CSP). The technology could replace conventional BGA and CSP metal balls, and the hypothesis is that the shift could be eco-efficient as polymer core particles increase the reliability. For the first time, these part...
Article
Full-text available
Background, aim and scope Nanostructured polymer particles are produced to be used in ball grid array (BGA) and chip scale packaging (CSP). The technology could replace conventional BGA and CSP metal balls, and the hypothesis is that the shift could be eco-efficient as polymer core particles increase the reliability. For the first time, these parti...
Article
Full-text available
Background, aim, and scopeDuring the last decades, the electronics industry has undergone tremendous changes due to intense research leading to advanced technology development. Multiple life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have been performed on the environmental implications of consumer electronics. The aim of this review is to assess the consisten...