Anant Madabhushi

Anant Madabhushi
Emory University | EU · Department of Biomedical Engineering

PhD

About

674
Publications
129,332
Reads
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21,552
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2014 - June 2016
Case Western Reserve University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 2012 - present
Case Western Reserve University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
June 2010 - August 2012
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (674)
Article
Background: Understanding biological differences between different racial groups of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) patients, who have differences in terms of incidence, survival, and tumor morphology, can facilitate accurate prognostic biomarkers, which can help develop personalized treatment st...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The combination of Cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors (CDKi) and endocrine therapy (ET) is the standard of care for hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Currently, there are no robust biomarkers that can predict response to CDKi, and so far, it is n...
Preprint
Full-text available
Prostate cancer treatment decisions are heavily reliant upon the subjective visual interpretation (assigning Gleason patterns, or ISUP grade groups) of limited numbers of 2D histology sections. Under this paradigm, inter-observer variance is high, with ISUP grades not correlating well with the outcomes of individual patients, which contributes to t...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Deep learning (DL) is a technique explored within ophthalmology that requires large datasets to distinguish feature representations with high diagnostic performance. There is a need for developing DL approaches to predict therapeutic response, but completed clinical trial datasets are limited in size. Predicting treatment response is more c...
Article
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Purpose: Tumor-associated vasculature is distinguished its convolutedness, leakiness, and chaotic architecture, which facilitates the creation of a treatment resistant tumor microenvironment. Measurable differences in these attributes might help stratify patients by potential benefit of systemic therapy. In this work, we present a new category of...
Article
The rapid clinical expansion of immune checkpoint blockers (ICB) has transformed the therapeutic arsenal for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, only a relatively small fraction of patients benefits from these treatments and those who respond can develop acquired resistance. This underlines the need to identify factors or biomarkers associ...
Article
Objective: Tissue slides from Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OC-SCC), particularly the epithelial regions, hold morphologic features that are both diagnostic and prognostic. Yet, previously developed approaches for automated epithelium segmentation in OC-SCC have not been independently tested in a multi-center setting. In this study, we aime...
Article
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) show prominent clinical activity across multiple advanced tumors. However, less than half of patients respond even after molecule-based selection. Thus, improved biomarkers are required. In this study, we use an image analysis to capture morphologic attributes relating to the spatial interaction and architecture...
Article
Background: Though immunotherapy (IO) has robust clinical efficacy, only a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients have shown to benefit from it. Collagen, a major component of the Tumor Microenvironment (TME), is involved in cancer fibrosis and collagen fiber organization has been shown to be associated with patient outcom...
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Background Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) reflect adaptive antitumor immune responses in cancer and are generally associated with favorable prognosis. However, the relationships between TILs subsets and their spatial arrangement with clinical benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains less e...
Article
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Despite known histological, biological, and clinical differences between lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), relatively little is known about the spatial differences in their corresponding immune contextures. Our study of over 1000 LUAD and LUSC tumors revealed that computationally derived patterns of tumor-infiltrating l...
Article
2662 Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are currently approved for use as therapy in advanced stage lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). ICIs can decrease risk of progression by up to 60% when compared to chemotherapy, but only about 20% of patients (pts) show response. Given that high levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been s...
Article
8555 Background: Recent changes to the standard of care for unresectable stage III NSCLC include chemoradiation followed by consolidative immunotherapy (IO). Pneumonitis is a well-known complication of radiotherapy (RT) and has been increasingly reported in association with IO. Although rare, pneumonitis can cause severe morbidity and possibly deat...
Article
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Objective The timing and nature of surgical intervention for semisolid abnormalities are dependent upon distinguishing between adenocarcinoma- in-situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and invasive adenocarcinoma (INV). We sought to develop and evaluate a quantitative imaging method to determine invasiveness of small, ground-glass les...
Article
PURPOSE Allogenic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HCT) is a curative therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Relapse post-HCT is the most common cause of treatment failure and is associated with a poor prognosis. Pathologist-based visual assessment of aspirate images and the manual myeloblast counting have s...
Article
Lung diseases carry a significant burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The advent of digital pathology (DP) and an increase in computational power have led to the development of artificial intelligence (AI) based tools that can assist pathologists and pulmonologists in improving clinical workflow and patient management. While previous works...
Article
Purpose Currently, there are no established biomarkers for therapeutic efficacy and durability of anti–vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). This study evaluated radiomic-based quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) biomarkers that may be predictive of anti-VEGF treatment...
Article
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Objective To derive and evaluate the association of prostate shape distension descriptors from T2-weighted MRI (T2WI) with prostate cancer (PCa) biochemical recurrence (BCR) post-radical prostatectomy (RP) independently and in conjunction with texture radiomics of PCa. Methods This retrospective study comprised 133 PCa patients from two institutio...
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Full-text available
Objective The disease COVID-19 has caused a widespread global pandemic with ~3. 93 million deaths worldwide. In this work, we present three models—radiomics (M RM ), clinical (M CM ), and combined clinical–radiomics (M RCM ) nomogram to predict COVID-19-positive patients who will end up needing invasive mechanical ventilation from the baseline CT s...
Article
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is cancer that originates from the liver's secondary ductal epithelium or branch. Due to the lack of early-stage clinical symptoms and very high mortality, the 5-year postoperative survival rate is only about 35%. A critical step to improve patients' survival is accurately predicting their survival status and g...
Article
Cancer therapeutics cause various treatment-related changes that may impact patient follow-up and disease monitoring. Although atypical responses such as pseudoprogression may be misinterpreted as treatment nonresponse, other changes, such as hyperprogressive disease seen with immunotherapy, must be recognized early for timely management. Radiation...
Article
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Background The landmark study of durvalumab as consolidation therapy in NSCLC patients (PACIFIC trial) demonstrated significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with locally advanced, unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with durvalumab (immunotherapy, IO) therapy after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). In clinical pra...
Article
Molecular subtypes of medulloblastoma [Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Wingless/INT (WNT), Group 3, and Group 4] are defined by common patterns of gene expression. These differential gene expression patterns appear to result in different histomorphology and prognosis. Quantitative histomorphometry is a well-known method of computer-aided pathology image anal...
Article
The concept of tumor field effect implies that cancer is a systemic disease with its impact way beyond the visible tumor confines. For instance, in Glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor, the increase in intracranial pressure due to tumor burden often leads to brain herniation and poor outcomes. Our work is based on the rationale that highly...
Article
Purpose Various pathways and cytokines are implicated in pathogenesis of diabetic macular edema (DME). Computational imaging biomarkers (CIBs) of vessel tortuosity from ultra-widefield angiography (UWFA) and texture patterns from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images have been associated with anti-VEGF therapy treatment response in DME. This pu...
Article
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Background: We present a computational approach (ArcTIL) for quantitative characterization of the architecture of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and their interplay with cancer cells from digitized H&E-stained histology whole slide images and evaluate its prognostic role in three different gynecological cancer (GC) types and across three di...
Article
Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), largely fueled by the human papillomavirus (HPV), has a complex biological and immunologic phenotype. Although HPV/p16 status can be used to stratify OPSCC patients as a function of survival, it remains unclear what drives an improved treatment response in HPV-associated OPSCC and whether targetable bi...
Article
Full-text available
Prostate cancer treatment planning is largely dependent upon examination of core-needle biopsies. The microscopic architecture of the prostate glands forms the basis for prognostic grading by pathologists. Interpretation of these convoluted three-dimensional (3D) glandular structures via visual inspection of a limited number of two-dimensional (2D)...
Article
We assessed the utility of quantitative features of colon cancer nuclei, extracted from digitized hematoxylin and eosin-stained whole slide images (WSIs), to distinguish between Stage II from Stage IV colon cancers. Our discovery cohort comprised 100 Stage II and Stage IV colon cancer cases sourced from the University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Ce...
Article
Full-text available
The convergence of digital pathology and computer vision is increasingly enabling computers to perform tasks performed by humans. As a result, artificial intelligence (AI) is having an astoundingly positive effect on the field of pathology, including breast pathology. Research using machine learning and the development of algorithms that learn patt...
Article
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Objective: To identify radiomic and clinical features associated with post-ablation recurrence of AF, given that cardiac morphologic changes are associated with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF), and initiating triggers of AF often arise from the pulmonary veins which are targeted in ablation. Methods: Subjects with pre-ablation contrast CT scans...
Article
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Existing tools for post-radical prostatectomy (RP) prostate cancer biochemical recurrence (BCR) prognosis rely on human pathologist-derived parameters such as tumor grade, with the resulting inter-reviewer variability. Genomic companion diagnostic tests such as Decipher tend to be tissue destructive, expensive, and not routinely available in most c...
Article
Full-text available
Collagen fiber organization has been found to be implicated in breast cancer prognosis. In this study, we evaluated whether computerized features of Collagen Fiber Orientation Disorder in Tumor-associated Stroma (CFOD-TS) on Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) slide images were prognostic of Disease Free Survival (DFS) in early stage Estrogen Receptor Positi...
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Background HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPCSCC) has excellent control rates compared to non-virally associated OPSCC. Multiple trials are actively testing whether de-escalation of treatment intensity for these patients can maintain oncologic equipoise while reducing treatment related toxicity. We have developed OP-TIL, a bi...
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Purpose: Validating artificial intelligence algorithms for clinical use in medical images is a challenging endeavor due to a lack of standard reference data (ground truth). This topic typically occupies a small portion of the discussion in research papers since most of the efforts are focused on developing novel algorithms. In this work, we presen...
Article
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The management of retinal diseases relies heavily on digital imaging data, including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography (FA). Targeted feature extraction and the objective quantification of features provide important opportunities in biomarker discovery, disease burden assessment, and predicting treatment response. Addit...
Article
Introduction Joint bleeding resulting in synovial hypertrophy and articular cartilage damage are the hallmarks of hemophilic arthropathy. Early prophylaxis with extended half-life factor products and non-factor replacement therapies reduce joint bleeds but do not provide complete protection from development of arthropathy. MRI is the gold standard...
Article
Background Anti-PD-1 immunotherapies (IOs) have robust clinical benefit in a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients and is considered as a standard of care option in the recurrent/metastatic setting. ¹ Previous studies showed association of higher number of lymphocytes and density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) w...
Article
Background Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have revolutionized the management of lung tumors decreasing mortality rates. However, the response rates to these ICI drugs are limited, and identifying those patients who are most likely to benefit remains a clinical challenge. Due to the complex nature of the host immune response, tissue-based biomar...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive malignancy characterized by initial chemosensitivity followed by resistance and rapid progression. Presently, there are no predictive biomarkers that can accurately guide the use of systemic therapy in SCLC patients. This study explores the role of radiomic features from both within and aro...
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Full-text available
The successful use of artificial intelligence (AI) for diagnostic purposes has prompted the application of AI-based cancer imaging analysis to address other, more complex, clinical needs. In this Perspective, we discuss the next generation of challenges in clinical decision-making that AI tools can solve using radiology images, such as prognosticat...
Chapter
In order to ensure that a radiomics-based machine learning model will robustly generalize to new, unseen data (which may harbor significant variations compared to the discovery cohort), radiomic features are often screened for stability via test/retest or cross-site evaluation. However, as stability screening is often conducted independent of the f...
Chapter
Full-text available
Although, recently convolutional neural networks (CNNs) based prognostic models have been developed for COVID-19 severity prediction, most of these studies have analyzed characteristics of lung infiltrates (ground-glass opacities and consolidations) on chest radiographs or CT. However, none of the studies have explored the possible lung deformation...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose There is a lack of biomarkers for accurately prognosticating outcome in both human papillomavirus-related (HPV+) and tobacco- and alcohol-related (HPV−) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). The aims of this study were to i) develop and evaluate radiomic features within (intratumoral) and around tumor (peritumoral) on CT scans to p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Prostate cancer treatment planning is largely dependent upon examination of core-needle biopsies. In current clinical practice, the microscopic architecture of the prostate glands is what forms the basis for prognostic grading by pathologists. Interpretation of these convoluted 3D glandular structures via visual inspection of a limited number of 2D...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Diabetic macular edema (DME) and retinal vein occlusion (RVO) are the leading causes of visual impairments across the world. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates breakdown of blood-retinal barrier that causes accumulation of fluid within macula. Anti-VEGF therapy is the first-line treatment for both the diseases; however...
Article
Full-text available
Background Biparametric MRI (comprising T2-weighted MRI and apparent diffusion coefficient maps) is increasingly being used to characterise prostate cancer. Although previous studies have combined Prostate Imaging–Reporting & Data System (PI-RADS)-based MRI findings with routinely available clinical variables and with deep learning-based imaging pr...
Article
Full-text available
Background We developed and validated a prognostic and predictive computational pathology risk score (CoRiS) using H&E stained tissue images from patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (ES-NSCLC). Methods 1330 patients with ES-NSCLC were acquired from 3 independent sources and divided into four cohorts D1-4. D1 comprised 100 surgery...
Article
Full-text available
Image‐based biomarker discovery typically requires accurate segmentation of histologic structures (e.g. cell nuclei, tubules, and epithelial regions) in digital pathology whole slide images (WSIs). Unfortunately, annotating each structure of interest is laborious and often intractable even in moderately sized cohorts. Here, we present an open‐sourc...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To determine the association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity and quantitative retinal vascular features. Design Retrospective image analysis study. Subjects Eyes with DR and eyes with no posterior segment disease (normal eyes) that had undergone ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (UWFA) imaging with associated color fund...
Article
Full-text available
Digital pathology provides a possibility for computational analysis of histological slides and automatization of routine pathological tasks. Histological slides are very heterogeneous concerning staining, sections' thickness, and artifacts arising during tissue processing, cutting, staining, and digitization. In this study, we digitally reproduce m...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to evaluate whether NIS radiomics can distinguish lung adenocarcinomas from granulomas on non-contrast CT scans, and also to improve the performance of Lung-RADS by reclassifying benign nodules that were initially assessed as suspicious. The screening or standard diagnostic non-contrast CT scans of 362 patients was divided...