Anamika Barman-Adhikari

Anamika Barman-Adhikari
University of Denver · Graduate School of Social Work

PhD

About

90
Publications
11,752
Reads
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1,195
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Introduction
Anamika Barman-Adhikari currently works at the Graduate School of Social Work, University of Denver. Anamika Barman-Adhikari’s research interests are broadly centered on understanding the social-contextual determinants of risk and protective behaviors among vulnerable youth populations, such as homeless and minority youth. Utilizing an ecological approach, her work aims to assess how family, peers, community and the society at large define the contexts within which vulnerable youth function and how these contexts help to explicate the patterns of risk and protective behaviors that these youth engage in. The goal of Barman-Adhikari’s research is to create prevention interventions that acknowledge these contextual environments and utilize social network methodology to determine how these ne
Additional affiliations
September 2014 - present
University of Denver
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
August 2013 - June 2014
California State University, Fresno
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
August 2009 - December 2013
University of Southern California
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (90)
Article
Young adults experiencing homelessness (YAEH) with pregnancy history are at higher depression risk. Receiving social support is protective for depression in pregnancy. This study differentiates social support sources associated with depression by pregnancy history among YAEH. Using a subsample of data collected from YAEH in seven US cities that wer...
Article
Objective: This study examines the association between public assistance use and depressive symptoms among young adults experiencing homelessness (YAEH). Method: A purposive sample of 1,342 YAEH (ages 18-26) residing in seven U.S. cities (i.e., Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Phoenix, San Jose and St. Louis) were asked whether they received...
Article
Full-text available
Building upon literature that considers social network influences on health attitudes and behaviors among youth experiencing homelessness, this study assessed associations regarding social norms of pregnancy, perceived by youth experiencing homelessness (ages 13–25; N = 304) as endorsed by their network members, and youths’ pregnancy attitudes. Mul...
Article
Young adults experiencing homelessness (YAEH) are at high risk for discrimination. Limited research has documented the extent of discrimination experiences and their relationship to mental health outcomes among this group. This study used data from YAEH who completed self-administered surveys across seven U.S. cities (N = 1,426) to examine the rate...
Article
Young adults experiencing homelessness (YAEH) are up to 12 times more likely to contract HIV than their housed peers. One important HIV prevention tool is pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), though few studies examine YAEH PrEP use, particularly among those who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB). This study surveyed 160 YAEH about sexual risk...
Article
Young adults experiencing homelessness (YAEH) face discrimination experiences placing them at risk for negative health outcomes. Prior research demonstrates discrimination and perceived stress among YAEH, yet few studies examine the protective role of online health information-seeking (OHIS) behaviors for YAEH. This study investigated the relations...
Article
Introduction: Young adults experiencing homelessness are vulnerable to firearm violence. This study aims to explore the correlates of firearm violence involvement among this vulnerable population, which may inform firearm violence reduction intervention development. Methods: Between 2016 and 2017, young adults experiencing homelessness aged 18-2...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the challenges formerly homeless young adults (FHYAs) face after they transition out of homelessness. Considering the adversities FHYAs face, it is unclear how transitioning to stable housing may affect their mental well-being or what types of stressors they may experience once housed. This study investigates the social environment young...
Article
Limited research has explored whether young adults that experience homelessness and housing instability (YAEH) self-identify as homeless. This study uses the Homeless Youth Risk and Resilience Survey (HYRRS) dataset, a seven-city sample of 1426 YAEH, to examine the relationship between the type of place a young adult stayed the night before their i...
Article
Background Although young adults experiencing homelessness (YEH) are at particular risk for lower educational attainment compared to their housed peers, limited research has explored the demographic and psychological factors associated with earning key educational milestones among YEH. Objective This study aims to answer the following research que...
Article
Background: Young adults experiencing homelessness (YAEH) report high rates of suicidal crises. Having access to firearms during suicidal crises elevates risk of death by suicide. Yet, no known information exists about firearm access among YAEH. Aims: We aimed to examine the proportion of participants who had firearm access, as well as the associat...
Article
Disclosure of one’s suicidal thoughts is a pivotal but under-investigated mechanism for preventing suicide among young adults experiencing homelessness (YAEH). In a sample of 527 YAEH, we adopted a multi-level perspective to assess patterns and correlates of disclosure in their friendship networks. Less than one-third of YAEH disclosed their suicid...
Conference Paper
This paper presents CORTA, a software agent that designs personalized rehabilitation programs for homeless youth suffering from opioid addiction. Many rehabilitation centers treat opioid addiction in homeless youth by prescribing rehabilitation programs that are tailored to the underlying causes of addiction. To date, rehabilitation centers have re...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake among youth experiencing homelessness (YEH), who may be at higher risk for HPV than their housed counterparts. We examined the prevalence and associations of HPV vaccination initiation and completion among YEH. Guided by the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, we analyzed...
Article
Purpose This study aimed to explore the association between direct exposure, indirect exposure, and perpetration of gun violence and suicidal ideation among young adults experiencing homelessness (YAEH). Methods YAEH (n = 1,426) in seven cities across the U.S. were surveyed. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association be...
Article
Youth experiencing homelessness demonstrate high rates of pregnancy and pregnancy involvement. Many homeless youth view pregnancies positively; some extant research has depicted this group’s pro-pregnancy attitudes as a function of youth being in desperate need of resources, such as money, food, clothing, housing, and healthcare. Several studies re...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the potential for sexual health communication to be leveraged for HIV prevention among youth experiencing homelessness (YEH), there has yet to be a rigorous examination of individual and network or relational characteristics associated with sexual health communication in this group of young people. Cross-sectional survey and social network...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Young adults experiencing homelessness are at increased risk for sexual assault. Receiving a post-sexual assault examination has important implications for HIV and unintended pregnancy prevention; yet, utilization is not well understood. In a population at elevated risk for HIV, unintended pregnancy, and sexual violence, identifying...
Article
Young adults experiencing homelessness (YAEH) have been found to have high rates of prior involvement with foster care and juvenile justice, but little is known about whether YAEH differ in their risk behaviors based on exposure to different systems. This study used a dataset of 1426 YAEH from 7 different US cities to examine the historical risk an...
Article
Youth experiencing homelessness are a vulnerable population with increased behavioural health risks. Social networks are a consistent correlate of youths’ substance use behaviours. However, less is known about the reciprocal relationships among these constructs. This study classified youth experiencing homelessness according to their social support...
Article
Background Nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is an urgent public health concern facing the United States. Young adults experiencing homelessness (YEH) are at increased risk of NMUPD; however, community estimates of NMUPD among YEH are sparse. This current study sought to understand patterns and correlates of NMUPD in a geographically he...
Article
This study used Photovoice methods with young adults experiencing homelessness to collaboratively identify issues that are of greatest importance in an open‐ended, exploratory, and inductive manner. Participants selected two concepts to focus their inquiry: freedom and prosperity. Within these concepts, participants discussed nature as a source of...
Article
Youth experiencing homelessness (YEH) have a high risk of contracting HIV; however, they remain relatively unreached by pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)-based HIV prevention initiatives. We used a cross-sectional mixed-methods study to explore PrEP knowledge, interest, facilitators, and barriers among YEH. Young adults were recruited from agencies s...
Preprint
Substance use and abuse is a significant public health problem in the United States. Group-based intervention programs offer a promising means of preventing and reducing substance abuse. While effective, unfortunately, inappropriate intervention groups can result in an increase in deviant behaviors among participants, a process known as deviancy tr...
Article
Full-text available
Research demonstrates the challenges faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) young adult(s) (YA) experiencing homelessness, including preliminary evidence regarding the unique barriers and circumstances of the subpopulations within the broader category of LGBTQ. Few research efforts have investigated the differe...
Article
Purpose: Evidence suggests that young adults experiencing homelessness (YEH) are at elevated risk of HIV compared to housed youth. Given the limited research on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness among YEH, this study examined their PrEP knowledge and attitudes. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional survey among YEH (ages 18-26) (n = 1,427...
Article
Substance use and abuse is a significant public health problem in the United States. Group-based intervention programs offer a promising means of reducing substance abuse. While effective, inappropriate intervention groups can result in an increase in deviant behaviors among participants, a process known as deviancy training. In this paper, we pres...
Article
Evidence suggests that young adults experiencing homelessness are at elevated risk of HIV compared to their housed peers. Given the limited research on PrEP awareness among this population, this study examined knowledge and attitudes regarding PrEP. Methods: Data come from a cross-sectional survey among young adults (ages 18-26) experiencing homel...
Article
The current study assessed the relative influence of both injunctive and descriptive norms in the context of different referent groups (i.e., family, street peers, home-based peers, and staff members) on past 30-day methamphetamine, heroin, and injection drug use behaviors of homeless youth. Cross-sectional data (N = 911) were collected from three...
Article
Photovoice is a participatory action research method that empowers participants to photograph their everyday lives as a means of documenting and advocating for their needs; it has rarely been utilized with young people experiencing homelessness. The current study examined the feasibility, accessibility, and preliminary outcomes associated with part...
Article
Cisgender lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer/questioning (LGBQ) homeless youths are more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors relative to cisgender heterosexual homeless youths. Homeless youths (N = 1,046) were recruited and surveyed from three drop-in centers in Los Angeles, California. This study assessed differences in demographics, backgrou...
Article
Full-text available
Most studies of condomless sex among homeless youth have focused on peer norms, while excluding other potentially pertinent influences. This study explored how different types of relationships contributed to norms about condomless sex and whether such norms were associated with engagement in condomless sex among homeless youth. Additionally, becaus...
Article
Full-text available
Background The ability of homeless youth to accumulate resources through their personal relationships with others (i.e. social capital) is often associated with improved outcomes across multiple domains. Despite growing evidence documenting the heterogeneity of homeless youths’ relationships, many youth still experience adversities or lack access t...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) among youth and young adults is being increasingly recognized as a significant public health problem. Homeless youth in particular are more likely to engage in NMUPD compared to housed youth. Studies suggest that network norms are strongly associated with a range of substance use behaviors....
Article
Homeless youth experience elevated rates of victimization, yet few studies have identified malleable intervention targets that could mitigate risk for such adverse experiences. Building on a prior study that used latent class analysis to identify 3 victimization profiles among homeless youth (low-victimization class, high-victimization class, and w...
Article
Full-text available
Preliminary studies with homeless youth have found surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest that youth's online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A...
Article
Homeless youth frequently meet diagnosis criteria for depressive and/or substance use disorder(s). Although prior research has established that both social connectedness and self-efficacy buffer vulnerable youth’s adverse health outcomes, few studies have compared the potential of these protective factors on homeless youth’s mental well-being. The...
Article
Little is known about rates and correlates of service use or the role that social context plays in service engagement among homeless youth. This study compares two distinct service areas and uses a social network approach to examine how environmental factors (e.g., neighborhood), social factors (e.g., social capital and network engagement) and indi...
Article
Full-text available
Homeless youths’ social networks are consistently linked with their substance use. Social networks influence behavior through several mechanisms, especially social norms. This study used sociometric analyses to understand whether social norms of drug use behaviors are clustered in network structures and whether these perceived norms (descriptive an...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging evidence suggests that food insecurity is a significant public health concern among people who are homeless or marginally housed. The present study assessed prevalence of food insecurity and its covariates among a group of marginally housed individuals living in single-room occupancy (SRO) dwellings, a population for which there is little...
Article
Objective: Peer influence is one the most consistent correlates of drug use among youth. However, beyond the dyadic level, there is the possibility that peer influence also functions at a more macro or group level, which calls for a better understanding of how positioning within larger social networks affects youth behaviors. Yet, whereas extant re...
Chapter
Full-text available
Social Welfare Policy and Advocacy: Advancing Social Justice through 8 Policy Sectors provides the first framework that links micro, mezzo, and macro policy advocacy, demonstrating how each type can be used to promote social justice in health, gerontology, safety net, child welfare, education, immigrants/global, mental health, and criminal justice...
Article
Geosocial networking applications (GSN apps) have become increasingly popular among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Our study sought to understand whether inclusion of individuals met via GSN apps in participants' social networks was associated with increased HIV risk behaviors among a probability sample of GSN app using MS...
Article
Full-text available
While studies have examined factors associated with condom use behaviors, few have assessed risk perception and condom use among SSA adolescents. This work sought to fill this gap. Data for this study are derived from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004-2005), a survey of 12-19 year olds in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. Latent class...
Article
Parental role modeling has a major influence on adolescent alcohol use. Our study examined maternal factors associated with daughters' alcohol use among inner-city racial minority adolescents of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers. A nonprobability sample of 176 mothers (37% with HIV) and their adolescent daughters completed self-administered s...
Conference Paper
Background: Homeless youth are at high risk of substance abuse. Youths’ perceptions of social norms can influence their substance use behaviors. This study used a socio-metric network approach to explore correlates of a match between homeless youths’ perceived social norms and their network members’ actual substance use. Method: This study used f...
Article
Full-text available
Peer and family influences are interconnected in complex ways. These influences shape adolescent decision-making regarding engagement in sexual behaviors. Evidence indicates the more proximal (and direct) a process is to an individual, the more likely it is to affect his/her development and behavior. Therefore, family factors (e.g., parenting pract...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing interest in examining network processes with a mix of qualitative and quantitative network data. Research has consistently shown that free recall name generators entail recall bias and result in missing data that affects the quality of social network data. This study describes a mixed methods approach for collecting social networ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Family communication provides the foundation through which children acquire skills and competencies related to substance use negotiation; parent-child communication about alcohol and parent-child relationship satisfaction are therefore considered critical in managing adolescent substance use. Here we explored the extent to which materna...
Article
Little is known about the factors associated with use of employment services among homeless youth. Social network characteristics have been known to be influential in motivating people's decision to seek services. Traditional theoretical frameworks applied to studies of service use emphasize individual factors over social contexts and interactions....
Conference Paper
Background: Studies have demonstrated that drug use does not typically happen in isolation, but is initiated and reinforced through social-interactions and influence. Conceptually, network-structure and ensuing norms are especially salient in explaining drug use. Network analyses can be approached at two levels: egocentric (the direct ties of an in...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Internet and social media (ISM) have collectively revolutionized the ways in which people choose to communicate and obtain information. Homeless youth have fewer personal and social resources compared to their housed peers, which contribute to their marginalization. The “social capital” framework suggests that ISM might be avenues thr...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Among 12-17 year olds, an estimated 7% spend at least one night homeless, be it in a shelter, on the streets, or in a stranger's home. Recent high school studies show that lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning or transgender youth have a higher annual incidence of homeless experiences than their heterosexual peers. To the best of our kn...
Article
This study aims to understand the associations of contraceptive service utilization (ie, accessing condoms or birth control), pregnancy attitudes, and lifetime pregnancy history among male and female homeless youth in relation to use of effective contraception and withdrawal. Between October 2011 and February 2012, homeless youth (14-27 years old)...
Conference Paper
Objective: Homeless youth are at great risk for sex and drug-related HIV risk-taking behaviors. Almost all available information on homeless youth HIV risk behaviors is derived from personal network studies, not from sociometric data. The latter approach to data collection allows one to examine the interconnections among a population of at-risk ind...
Conference Paper
Family environment, social influence, and individual characteristics are all factors associated with adolescent alcohol use. This study examined specific family factors associated with alcohol use among racial minority adolescent daughters of HIV-positive mothers living in selected inner cities in the United States. A nonprobability sample of 176 m...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Social-capital theory suggests that Internet and Social Media (ISM) might be avenues through which homeless-youth can bolster their otherwise limited access to resources, information, and non-street relationships (e.g. family, caseworkers, and prosocial peers). The first goal of this study is to determine if youth in different social-...
Conference Paper
Background: Little research has been conducted in understanding male and female homeless youths' attitudes toward pregnancy and lifetime history of pregnancy/impregnating someone in relation to using effective contraception. Methods: As a part of a longitudinal study of Los Angeles area homeless youth, drop-in service seeking youth completed a self...
Article
Little is known about internet and social media use among homeless youth. Consistent with typologies prevalent among housed youth, we found that homeless youth were using internet and social media for entertainment, sociability, and instrumental purposes. Using Haythornwaite's (2001) premise that it is important to look at the types of ties accesse...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Prior studies reported homeless adolescents engage in more sexual risk than their housed peers. However, these comparisons are typically made post hoc by comparing homeless adolescent community-based samples with high school probability samples. This study uses a random sample of high school students to examine homelessness experiences an...
Conference Paper
Background and Purpose: Homeless youth are at increased risk of engaging in unprotected sex, thereby amplifying their pregnancy likelihood. However, it is unknown whether female and male homeless youth want to become pregnant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess homeless youths’ attitudes toward pregnancy. Methods: Hom...
Conference Paper
Introduction: An estimated 1.5 million youth experience homelessness in the U.S. each year. Homeless youth engage in higher rates of sexual risk taking than their housed-peers, however, these comparisons are largely made post-hoc by contrasting community-based samples of homeless youth, to school-based, probability samples of teens, like the CDC’s...
Conference Paper
Background: Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) remain at high risk for HIV infection. Grindr is a popular smartphone application among YMSM, allowing users to chat, exchange photos, and meet other YMSM for sexual encounters, using geo-locating technology. The present research describes the HIV knowledge seeking and testing behavior among YMSM G...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Homeless youth are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors than domiciled youth. However, comparisons are largely made post-hoc by contrasting community-based samples of homeless youth, to school-based, probability samples of teens, such as the CDC's Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). We surveyed a random sample of Los Angeles...
Conference Paper
Background: Smartphone geosocial networking applications, like Grindr, have become a new venue through which young men who have sex with men (YMSM) can meet potential sex partners. To date, no data on HIV risk behaviors from a probability sample of men using such technologies has been reported. Methods: Utilizing the geo-locating feature of Grind...