Ana Paiva

Ana Paiva
Instituto Superior Técnico, Inesc-ID · Computer Science Department and GAIPS

PhD in Computer Science

About

565
Publications
158,211
Reads
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9,766
Citations
Introduction
Ana Maria Paiva is a Full Professor in the Department of Computer Engineering at IST (“Instituto Superior Técnico”) from the University of Lisbon and coordinator of GAIPS – “Group on AI for People and Society” at INESC-ID. Her main research interests are in the fields of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Affective Computing and Human-Robot Interaction.
Additional affiliations
January 2000 - present
Inesc-ID- Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores, Investigação e Desenvolvimento em Lisboa
Position
  • Group Leader
January 1997 - December 2008
Technical University of Lisbon
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 1987 - January 2018
Technical University of Lisbon
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (565)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Spatial understanding and communication are essential skills in human interaction. An adequate understanding of others’ spatial perspectives can increase the quality of the interaction, both perceptually and cognitively. In this paper, we take the first step towards understanding children’s perspective-taking abilities and their tendency to adapt t...
Article
Full-text available
Social robots have been shown to be promising tools for delivering therapeutic tasks for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, their efficacy is currently limited by a lack of flexibility of the robot’s social behavior to successfully meet therapeutic and interaction goals. Robot-assisted interventions are often based on structured...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While creativity has been previously studied in Child-Robot Interaction (cHRI), the effect of regulatory focus on creativity skills has not been investigated. This paper presents an exploratory study that, for the first time, uses the Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT) to assess children's creativity skills in an educational context with a social robot....
Preprint
ERIK is an expressive inverse kinematics technique that has been previously presented and evaluated both algorithmically and in a limited user-interaction scenario. It allows autonomous social robots to convey posture-based expressive information while gaze-tracking users. We have developed a new scenario aimed at further validating some of the uns...
Preprint
Full-text available
Learning representations of multimodal data that are both informative and robust to missing modalities at test time remains a challenging problem due to the inherent heterogeneity of data obtained from different channels. To address it, we present a novel Geometric Multimodal Contrastive (GMC) representation learning method comprised of two main co...
Article
Full-text available
Cheating has been extensively studied in Psychology and Economics, showing a variety of factors that can increase or decrease this behavior. Considering future human–robot interactions, where robots are being thought to be integrated in a variety of contexts, it is important to test which characteristics robots can have to prevent people from cheat...
Article
People's perception of social robots is essential in determining their responses and acceptance of this type of agent. Currently, there are few instruments validated for the European Portuguese population that measure the perception of social robots. Our goal was to translate, validate, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Robotic Social...
Article
This work addresses the problem of cross-modality inference (CMI), i.e., inferring missing data of unavailable perceptual modalities (e.g., sound) using data from available perceptual modalities (e.g., image). We overview single-modality variational autoencoder methods and discuss three problems of computational cross-modality inference, arising fr...
Preprint
Full-text available
This work addresses the problem of sensing the world: how to learn a multimodal representation of a reinforcement learning agent's environment that allows the execution of tasks under incomplete perceptual conditions. To address such problem, we argue for hierarchy in the design of representation models and contribute with a novel multimodal repres...
Article
Understanding the behavioral dynamics that underline human-robot interactions in groups remains one of the core challenges in social robotics research. However, despite a growing interest in this topic, there is still a lack of established and validated measures that allow researchers to analyze human-robot interactions in group scenarios; and very...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although creativity is an ability that can be developed if trained, most of the systems developed for creativity stimulation focused on individual interventions. This work presents the design, development, and evaluation of CUBUS, a digital tool developed to inspire social creativity in children through storytelling and emotionally expressive chara...
Chapter
In this work, we address the problem of symmetry transfer in human-robot collaborative tasks, i.e., how certain actions can be extended to their symmetrical by exploiting symmetries in their execution. We contribute an approach capable of considering the symmetry inherent to a given task, such as the human or robot’s lateral symmetry, abstracting t...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Humor is a pervasive feature of everyday social interactions that might be leveraged to improve Human-Robot Interactions (HRI). Goals: Our goal is to evaluate how the use of humor can improve HRI and enhance the user’s perception of the robot, as well as to derive implications for future research and development of humorous robots. Method:...
Article
Full-text available
In educational scenarios involving social robots, understanding the way robot behaviors affect children’s motivation to achieve their learning goals is of vital importance. It is crucial for the formation of a trust relationship between the child and the robot so that the robot can effectively fulfill its role as a learning companion. In this study...
Article
Creativity plays a central role in children’s development and well‐being, being considered a crucial skill to thrive in their personal and professional lives. Given its importance, researchers and educators highlighted the need to enhance creativity in individuals across the lifespan. However, it is crucial to understand how interventions and progr...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper presents a user-study with Emys social robot that aims to persuade subjects to select a less-desirable choice. In this study, within a game scenario, Emys attempts to use its social power resources, specifically reward power, to persuade the user to select an alternative such that the user indicates less interest in it. This persuasion a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
According to psychology research, emotional induction has positive implications in many domains such as therapy and education. Our aim in this paper was to manipulate the Regulatory Focus Theory to assess its impact on the induction of regulatory focus related emotions in children in a pretend play scenario with a social robot. The Regulatory Focus...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present the design process of the robot YOLO aimed at stimulating creativity in children. This robot was developed under a human-centered design approach with participatory design practices for two years and involving 142 children as active contributors at all design stages. The main contribution of this work is the development of methods and to...
Preprint
Full-text available
More than a decade has passed since the development of FearNot!, an application designed to help children deal with bullying through role-playing with virtual characters. It was also the application that led to the creation of FAtiMA, an affective agent architecture for creating autonomous characters that can evoke empathic responses. In this paper...
Article
The issue of how to make embodied agents explainable has experienced a surge of interest over the past 3 years, and there are many terms that refer to this concept, such as transparency and legibility. One reason for this high variance in terminology is the unique array of social cues that embodied agents can access in contrast to that accessed by...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Visually impaired children are increasingly educated in mainstream schools following an inclusive educational approach. However, even though visually impaired (VI) and sighted peers are side by side in the classroom, previous research showed a lack of participation of VI children in classroom dynamics and group activities. That leads to a reduced e...
Article
This study examined whether experiencing a multiplayer serious game could foster cognitive empathy in adolescent bystanders of cyberbullying, empathic concern for these situations and affective empathy towards those involved during game play. We also explored the players’ self-reflections about cyberbullying scenarios in the game. A quasi-experimen...
Article
Full-text available
We discuss the relationship between explainability and knowledge transfer in reinforcement learning. We argue that explainability methods, in particular methods that use counterfactuals, might help increasing sample efficiency. For this, we present a computational approach to optimize the learner’s performance using explanations of another agent an...
Conference Paper
As climate change and biodiversity loss are threatening the natural world’s equilibrium and survival, people’s concerns about these topics have increased significantly. The work presented in this paper lies at the cross-section between the areas of education, biodiversity and technologies. More specifically, this project builds on research in virtu...
Conference Paper
The behaviour of a person in a given situation can be explained understanding his personality traits. In this sense, the identification of these traits can be a great value to achieve personalised social influence. Although there are several models of persuasion, few of them take into account the person's personality traits. For this reason , this...
Chapter
Full-text available
Dishonest behavior is an issue in human-human interactions and the same might happen in human-robot interactions. To ascertain people’s perceptions of dishonesty, we asked participants to evaluate five different scenarios where someone was being dishonest towards a human or a robot, but we varied the level of autonomy the robot presented. We asked...
Chapter
In social robotics, user-personalised messages is a technique that can be used to persuade a person to do something. Those messages can be personalised according to the personality of whom will receive this message. So, it is essential to know the personality traits of the target. However, we have many traits, e.g., a person can be extroverted, ass...
Chapter
Revealing the internal workings of a robot can help a human better understand the robot’s behaviors. How to reveal such workings, e.g., via explanation generation, remains a significant challenge. This gets even more complex when these explanations are targeted towards children. Therefore, we propose a search-based approach to generate contrastive...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Visually impaired children are increasingly educated in mainstream schools rather than special schools. However, even though being included with their sighted peers, previous research reveals concerns with classroom participation, lack of collaborative learning, reduced social engagement, and potential for isolation. My dissertation explores design...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Future human-robot interactions will have to consider different human traits. One human feature that may be affected by the presence of virtual agents or robots is human honesty. Will people try to take advantage in the presence of a robot/virtual agent? Some previous studies have shown that the physical presence of a robot can decrease cheating in...
Article
Context: Increased attention has been placed on the role of technological artefacts in the promotion of prosocial behaviours. However, up to this date, there is still no systematic exploration of the effectiveness of robots and virtual agents as promoters of this type of behaviour. Goals: The goal of this paper is to map research on the effectiven...
Chapter
Full-text available
Robot animation is a new form of character animation that extends the traditional process by allowing the animated motion to become more interactive and adaptable during interaction with users in real-world settings. This paper reviews how this new type of character animation has evolved and been shaped from character animation principles and pract...
Article
Full-text available
As robots are entering into educational fields to enhance children’s learning, it becomes relevant to explore different methods of learning in the area of child–robot interaction. In this article, we present an autonomous educational system incorporating a social robot to enhance children’s handwriting skills. The system provides a one-to-one learn...
Chapter
Full-text available
Perspective taking is an important skill to have and learn, which can be applied in many different domains and disciplines. While the ability to recognize other’s perspective develops in humans from childhood and solidifies during school years, it needs to be developed in robotic and artificial agents’ cognitive framework. In our quest to develop a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Inclusion of vulnerable people in society is essential to grant human rights and equal opportunities for all. Our research goal is to mitigate the disparities in education and ensure access to all children, including pupils having a special educational need and disability (SEND) and promote inclusion among students using social robots. In schools i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Humans are able to create rich representations of their external reality. Their internal representations allow for cross-modality inference, where available perceptions can induce the perceptual experience of missing input modalities. In this paper, we contribute the Multimodal Hierarchical Variational Auto-encoder (MHVAE), a hierarchical multimoda...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how to design agents that sustain cooperation in multi-agent systems has been a long-lasting goal in distributed artificial intelligence. Proposed solutions rely on identifying free-riders and avoiding cooperating or interacting with them. These mechanisms of social control are traditionally studied in games with linear and determinis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Geometry and handwriting rely heavily on the visual representation of basic shapes. It can become challenging for students with visual impairments to perceive these shapes and understand complex spatial constructs. For instance, knowing how to draw is highly dependent on spatial and temporal components, which are often inaccessible to children with...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we aim to increase the understanding of human-robot interaction by considering the goal orientation displayed by the robot (i.e., competitive vs. cooperative) and the role displayed by each player (partner vs. opponent) in an entertainment group scenario. Sixty participants engaged in a card game called Sueca (two robots and two huma...
Data
a 2-minute video presentation of "Persuasive Social Robots using Reward/Coercion Strategies", presented at HRI'20.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Creativity is at the core of what it means to be human. It is an intrinsic ability that we all have and influences our well-being self-expression throughout life. However, a decline in creativity abilities occurs in children around the age of 7 years old. Our work aims to contribute to a re-balance of creative levels using social robots. In this vi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present a user-study designed to examine the effect of reward/coercion persuasive strategies inspired by social power. We ran the study with 90 participants in a persuasion scenario in which they were asked to make a real choice to select a lessdesirable option. The preliminary results indicated that the robot succeeded in persuad...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The technology of the future will bring an increasing number of robots into our daily life. This has motivated a number of researchers to explore diverse factors to promote social interaction with robots. This PhD project aims at investigating social power dynamics in Human-Robot Interaction. Social power is defined as one’s ability to influence ot...
Preprint
Full-text available
How to provide explanations has experienced a surge of interest in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) over the last three years. In HRI this is known as explainability, expressivity, transparency or sometimes legibility, and the challenge for embodied agents is that they offer a unique array of modalities to communicate this information thanks to their...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Creativity is an intrinsic human ability with multiple benefits across the lifespan. Despite its importance, societies not always are well equipped with contexts for creativity stimulation; as a consequence, a major decline in creative abilities occurs at the age of 7 years old. We investigated the effectiveness of using a robotic system named YOLO...
Article
Full-text available
YOLO is a social robot designed and developed to stimulate creativity in children through storytelling activities. Children use it as a character in their stories. This article details the artificial intelligence software developed for YOLO. The implemented software schedules through several Creativity Behaviors to find the ones that stimulate crea...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this work we explore the use of latent representations obtained from multiple input sensory modalities (such as images or sounds) in allowing an agent to learn and exploit policies over different subsets of input modalities. We propose a three-stage architecture that allows a reinforcement learning agent trained over a given sensory modality, to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
People are not perfect, and if given the chance, some will be dishonest with no regrets. Some people will cheat just a little to gain some advantage, and others will not do it at all. With the prospect of more human-robot interactions in the future, it will become very important to understand which kind of roles a robot can have in the regulation o...
Chapter
The display of different levels of assertiveness by a robot can be an essential factor in determining the way it is perceived and the extent to which it can influence its users. To explore the persuasive abilities of social robots, we devised an interactive storytelling scenario, in which users had to make several decisions while being persuaded by...
Preprint
We present the design and evaluation process of a robot aimed at stimulating creativity in humans in a collaborative drawing-oriented task. Collaboration towards a common goal is known to be one of the most influential factors for creativity nourishing. The social robot acted as a collaborative peer in a drawing activity, taking turns with the huma...
Conference Paper
Trust mechanisms are considered the logical protection of software systems, preventing malicious people from taking advantage or cheating others. Although these concepts are widely used, most applications in this field do not consider affective aspects to aid in trust computation. Researchers of Psychology, Neurology, Anthropology, and Computer Sci...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores how robotic teammates can enhance and promote cooperation in collaborative settings. It presents a user study in which participants engaged with two fully autonomous robotic partners to play a game together, named “For The Record”, a variation of a public goods game. The game is played for a total of five rounds and in each of t...