# Ana María CettoUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México | UNAM · Institute of Physics UNAM

Ana María Cetto

Doctor of Philosophy

## About

178

Publications

25,739

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1,761

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Citations since 2017

Introduction

**Skills and Expertise**

## Publications

Publications (178)

This paper provides elements in support of the random zero-point radiation field (zpf) as an essential ontological ingredient needed to explain distinctive properties of quantum-mechanical systems. We show that when an otherwise classical particle is connected to the zpf, a drastic, qualitative change in the dynamics takes place, leading eventually...

This paper provides elements in support of the random zero-point radiation field (zpf) as an essential ontological ingredient needed to explain distinctive properties of quantum-mechanical systems. We show that when an otherwise classical particle is connected to the zpf, a drastic, qualitative change in the dynamics takes place, leading eventually...

We revisit the nonrelativistic problem of a bound, charged particle subject to the random zero-point radiation field (zpf), with the purpose of revealing the mechanism that takes it from the initially classical description to the final quantum-mechanical one. The combined effect of the zpf and the radiation reaction force results, after a character...

This text begins with a series of critical considerations on the initial interpretation of quantum phenomena observed in atomic systems. The bewildering explanations advanced during the construction of quantum mechanics are shown to have distanced the new theory from the rest of scientific knowledge, by introducing indeterminism, acausality, nonloc...

We revisit the nonrelativistic problem of a bound, charged particle subject to the random zero-point radiation field (ZPF), with the purpose of revealing the mechanism that takes it from the initially classical description to the final quantum-mechanical one. The combined effect of the ZPF and the radiation reaction force results, after a character...

Existe una creciente presión sobre las revistas científicas, por parte del paradigma internacional de calidad usando indicadores de impacto de citas, con fuerte influencia de empresas comerciales que producen las bases de datos bibliográficas, y de las oficinas de fomento a la investigación, que actúan como organismos evaluadores y determinan crite...

We present a simple algebraic procedure that can be applied to solve a range of quantum eigenvalue problems without the need to know the solution of the Schr\"odinger equation. The procedure, presented with a pedagogical purpose, is based on algebraic consistency conditions that must be satisfied by the eigenvalues of a couple of operators proper o...

The theories of stochastic quantum mechanics and stochastic electrodynamics bring to light important aspects of the quantum dynamics that are concealed in the standard formalism. Here, we take further previous work regarding the connection between the two theories, to exhibit the role of stochasticity and diffusion in the process leading from the o...

Se presenta un análisis del perfil y la calidad editorial de 72 revistas iberoamericanas disponibles en línea especializadas en Derecho y Jurisprudencia, que han ingresado al Catálogo 2.0 de Latindex. El Catálogo acredita el cumplimiento de 38 características organizadas en cinco grupos, donde se evidencia el apego de estas revistas a diferentes no...

We offer a clear physical explanation for the emergence of the quantum operator formalism, by revisiting the role of the vacuum field in quantum mechanics. The vacuum or random zero-point radiation field has been shown previously—using the tools of stochastic electrodynamics—to be central in allowing a particle subject to a conservative binding for...

A proposal is put forward for an estimate of the duration of a transition between atomic states. The proposal rests on the consideration that a resonance of the atomic electron with modes of the zero-point radiation field of Compton's frequency is at the core of the phenomenon. The theoretical result, given essentially by the expression (αωC)−1, wh...

We offer a clear physical explanation for the emergence of the quantum operator formalism, by revisiting the role of the vacuum field in quantum mechanics. The vacuum or random zero-point radiation field has been shown previously, using the tools of stochastic electrodynamics, to be central in allowing a particle subject to a conservative binding f...

The theories of stochastic quantum mechanics and stochastic electrodynamics bring to light important aspects of the quantum dynamics that are concealed in the standard formalism. Here we take further previous work regarding the connection between the two theories, to exhibit the role of stochasticity and diffusion in the process leading from the or...

A proposal is put forward for an estimate of the duration of a transition between atomic states. The proposal rests on the consideration that a resonance of the atomic electron with modes of the zero-point radiation field of Compton's frequency is at the core of the phenomenon. The theoretical result, given essentially by the expression (\alpha\ome...

The connection is established between two theories that have developed independently with the aim to describe quantum mechanics as a stochastic process, namely stochastic quantum mechanics (sqm) and stochastic electrodynamics (sed). Important commonalities and complementarities between the two theories are identified, notwithstanding their dissimil...

The connection is established between two theories that have developed independently with the aim to describe quantum mechanics as a stochastic process, namely stochastic quantum mechanics (sqm) and stochastic electrodynamics (sed). Important commonalities and complementarities between the two theories are identified, notwithstanding their dissimil...

The Lagrangian formulation of the equations of motion for point particles isusually presented in classical mechanics as the outcome of a series ofinsightful algebraic transformations or, in more advanced treatments, as theresult of applying a variational principle. In this paper we stress two mainreasons for considering the Lagrange equations as a...

Spin is a fundamental and distinctive property of the electron, having far-reaching implications. Yet its purely formal treatment often blurs the physical content and meaning of the spin operator and associated observables. In this work we propose to advance in disclosing the meaning behind the formalism, by first recalling some basic facts about t...

Spin is a fundamental and distinctive property of the electron, having far-reaching consequences in wide areas of physics. Yet, further to its association with an angular momentum, the physics underpinning its formal treatment remains obscure. In this work we propose to advance in disclosing the meaning behind the formalism, by first recalling some...

The correlation of projections of the momentum operators of two particles is used to derive a quantum inequality for continuous variables, which must be satisfied by any bipartite system in a pure state. This inequality resembles a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH)-type inequality except for additional terms related to the imaginary component of th...

The problem of a charged particle enclosed in an infinite square potential well is analysed from the point of view of classical theory with the addition of the electromagnetic zero-point radiation field, with the aim to explore the extent to which such an analysis can contribute to enhance our understanding of the quantum behavior. First a proper t...

In recent years weak values have been used to explore interesting quantum features in novel ways. In particular, the real part of the weak value of the momentum operator has been widely studied, mainly in connection with Bohmian trajectories. Here we focus on the imaginary part and its role in relation with the entanglement of a bipartite system. W...

In recent years weak values have been used to explore interesting quantum features in novel ways. In particular, the real part of the weak value of the momentum operator has been widely studied, mainly in connection with (nonlocal) Bohmian trajectories. Here we focus on the imaginary part and its role in relation with the entanglement of a bipartit...

We propose that the stability of the two projections of the electron spin along the direction of an applied magnetic field, is an effect of high-frequency vibrations acting on the spin magnetic moment. The source of the high-frequency vibrations is to be found in the zero-point radiation field.

We offer a possible physical explanation for the origin of the electron spin and the related antisymmetry of the wave function for a two-electron system, in the framework of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics as provided by linear stochastic electrodynamics. A consideration of the separate coupling of the electron to circularly polarized modes of th...

We present a possible physical explanation for the origin of both the electron spin and the related antisymmetry of the wave function, in the framework of (nonrelativistic) quantum mechanics as provided by linear stochastic electrodynamics. A separate consideration of the coupling of the electron with circularly polarized modes of the electromagnet...

A straightforward dynamical and statistical analysis of the blackbody radiation field, including the zero-point component, serves to disclose the key elements leading to Planck's spectral distribution formula. A clear physical sense is assigned to the vacuum fluctuations —which are formally equivalent to those of quantum electrodynamics— in terms o...

Which is the physical agent behind the antisymmetry of the electron state vectors? With the purpose to find an answer to this key question, we analyze the stationary states of a system containing two noninteracting electrons, using the tools of stochastic electrodynamics. In previous work, the resonant response of two particles to common modes of t...

A set of basic evolution equations for the mean values of dynamical variables is obtained from the Fokker–Planck equation applied to the general problem of a particle subject to a random force. The specific case of stochastic electrodynamics is then considered, in which the random force is due to the zero-point radiation field. Elsewhere it has bee...

Are we to accept quantization as a fundamental property of nature, the origin of which does not require or admit further investigation? To get an insight into this question we consider atomic systems as open systems, since they are by necessity in contact with the electromagnetic radiation field. This includes not only photonic radiation, but, more...

As discussed in the first part of this paper, a key problem shared by some of the most well-known phenomenological derivations of Schrödinger-like equations is the (arbitrary) choice of the free parameters involved. Specifically, the (universal) constant \(\hbar \) that makes the behavior of quantum systems so distinctive is normally introduced int...

The historical problem of the spectral distributionDistribution of the radiation field in equilibrium at a given temperature is revisited in this chapter. Taking into account the inescapable presence of the fluctuatingFluctuations!zero-point zero-point radiation field, a derivation of Planck’s formula is presented that does not introduce any quantu...

This chapter takes us into the domains of quantum nonlocality. The journey starts with a brief introduction to Bohm’s causal theory of quantum mechanics, which serves to further discuss the nonlocality contained in the Schrödinger descriptionQuantum regime!and Schrödinger description. A critical discussion of this causal and deterministic approach...

This chapter takes us through an alternative itinerary to quantum mechanics, on this occasion to the Heisenberg formulation of the theory. Our starting point is again the stochastic Abraham-Lorentz equationAbraham-Lorentz!equation for the particle embedded in the zero-point field. A detailed analysis of the stationary solutions of this equation exh...

This initial chapter is devoted to a brief, critical review of the major conceptual difficulties that permeate the whole of quantum mechanics, especially when it is interpreted within the framework of the (mainstream or orthodox) Copenhagen school. The text is written for a reader who is interested in these issues and ready to accept that no interp...

Before our journey comes to an end, we propose to look at one more trace of the zero-point field on matter. In previous chapters, most important aspects of the behavior of quantum systems have been shown to carry the signature of this field. However, one feature that has been left aside so far is the de BroglieDe Broglie, L. wave, just the creature...

What is the physical agent that causes noninteracting particles to get entangled? The theory developed in previous chapters is applied in the present one to give due response to this key question. For this purpose, the one-particle treatment presented in Chap. 5 is extendedExtended charge to systems of two particlesExtended particle that are embedd...

In preparation for the chapters that follow, this one offers an introduction to the study of quantum mechanics as a stochastic process, in the form of a basic phenomenological theory knownNelson theory as stochastic (or Nelson) mechanics, or Stochastic quantum mechanicsstochastic quantum mechanics. The kinematics of the process is developed first,...

This chapter marks the beginning of an itinerary that will take us to the quantum theory of matter. All along this exciting journey we will be accompanied by the zero-point radiation field introduced in Chap. 3, considered as a real, fluctuating field in permanent interaction with matter. Our point of departure is the (nonrelativistic) Abraham-Lore...

El movimiento Acceso Abierto (AA) conocido en inglés como Open Access, es un movimiento que se dio apenas hace poco más de 10 años, con la firma de la primera declaración en Budapest, seguida en 2003 por las de Bethesda y Berlín. El surgimiento de este movimiento en Europa y Norte América se debe fundamentalmente al incremento en el costo de las re...

This monograph presents the latest findings from a long-term research project intended to identify the physics behind Quantum Mechanics. A fundamental theory for quantum mechanics is constructed from first physical principles, revealing quantization as an emergent phenomenon arising from a deeper stochastic process. As such, it offers the vibrant c...

In this chapter we exploit the possibilities of stochastic electrodynamics to carry the theory beyond the usual limits of Schrödinger’s quantum mechanics and enter the province of (nonrelativistic) quantum electrodynamics. The equation of evolution for the mean energy, derived in Chap. 4, is employed to obtain the formulas for the radiative lifetim...

We are near the end of our journey—though the theory is still far from the finish line, as is only the case with any scientific theory. The time has come, therefore, to recapitulate; recapture the most relevant points of the material presented in previous chapters, summarize some of the answers afforded by present stochastic electrodynamics to the...

This article begins with a recollection of the background for the creation of Latindex. The objectives of the system are then described, as well as its organizational and working model and the impact it has had since its creation. Detailed information is provided about the services and products offered by Latindex. The concluding section contains a...

A new way of arriving at the quantum formalism is presented, based on the recognition of the reality of the random zero-point radiation field (ZPF). The quantization of both matter and radiation field is shown to emerge as a result of the permanent interaction of matter with the ZPF. Quantum mechanics (QM) is obtained both in its Schrodinger and it...

This book was prepared with materials used by the Latin American Council of Social Sciences (CLACSO) for training social science editors and librarians within its network of 175 affiliated institutions in 21 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. In the first section of the book Peter Suber, responsible for the SPARC Open Access Newsletter (...

In previous papers, the quantum behavior of matter has been shown to emerge as a result of its permanent interaction with the random zero-point radiation field. Fundamental results, such as the Schrödinger and the Heisenberg formalism, have been derived within this framework. Further, the theory has been shown to provide the basic QED formulas for...

A new way of arriving at the quantum formalism is presented, based on the recognition of the reality of the random zero-point radiation field (ZPF). The quantization of both matter and radiation field is shown to emerge as a result of the permanent interaction of matter with the ZPF. Quantum mechanics is obtained both in its Schrödinger and its Hei...

The current competition regime that characterizes international science is often presented as a quest for excellence. It diversely affects research in Latin America and research in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. This article asks how this competition regime may orient the direction of research in Latin...

Andrew Brown, Keeper of the nuclear conscience: the life and work of Joseph Rotblat. Oxford University Press, 2012. Pp. xviii + 356. £18.99 (hardback). ISBN 978-0-19-958658-5.
The future belongs to those who see a future.J. Rotblat, 1994
There is perhaps no other international top award that

We derive the atomic radiative corrections predicted by QED using an
alternative approach that offers the advantage of physical clarity and
transparency. The element that gives rise to these corrections is the
fluctuating zero-point radiation field (ZPF) of average energy (hbar \omega)/2
per mode, which - in contrast with QED - is taken here as a p...

We study the behavior of the atomic matter immersed in a zero-point
radiation field, which is taken as the source of the endless stochastic
motion of electrons. The starting point is a statistical phase-space
equation for a particle in interaction with the field. Under certain
natural approximations, the system reaches a stationary condition; the
c...

Schrödinger quantum mechanics has been shown in previous work to
emerge as a consequence of matter-zeropoint field interaction, in the
time-asymptotic regime where an energy balance has been achieved and the
radiationless approximation can be taken. In this paper, we show that
Planck's constant enters the quantum description precisely through the
c...

Quantization is derived as an emergent phenomenon, resulting from the permanent interaction between matter and radiation field. The starting point for the derivation is the existence of the (continuous) random zero-point electromagnetic radiation field (zpf) of mean energy ω/2 per normal mode. A thermodynamic and statistical analysis leads unequivo...

Quantum nonlocality is revisited from a novel point of view by studying the
problem of an originally classical particle immersed in the stochastic
zero-point radiation field (zpf). The entire system is left to evolve until it
reaches a state in which the radiative terms cancel each other in the mean in a
first approximation. The ensuing approximate...

This paper deals with an (otherwise classical) two-(non-interacting) particle system immersed in a common stochastic zero-point
radiation field. The treatment is an extension of the one-particle case for which it has been shown that the quantum properties
of the particle emerge from its interaction with the background field under stationary and erg...

We revisit the problem of an otherwise classical particle immersed in the zero-point radiation field, with the purpose of tracing the origin of the nonlocality characteristic of Schrödingerʼs equation. The Fokker–Planck-type equation in the particleʼs phase-space leads to an infinite hierarchy of equations in configuration space. In the radiationle...

A vast amount of scholarly journals are edited in Ibero-America, providing altogether a rich picture of the scientific production in this region. However, these journals have traditionally not been part of the international scientific mainstream. Different solutions have been sought to increase their access and visibility, using existing informatio...

The assumption of a zero-point energy to derive Planck’s law within a continuous (non-quantum) perspective and a thermodynamic context has been studied previously. However, some of the arguments involved in such derivations, even though physically sustained, lack of a demonstrative character. In this paper we address these deficiencies. In doing so...

This paper is intended to disclose a possible physical mechanism underlying entanglement, by allowing an (otherwise classical) system of two non-interacting particles to interact with the stochastic background zero-point radiation field. The present analysis is made in the framework of linear stochastic electrodynamics (LSED), a theory that has bee...

Se repasan esquemáticamente algunos hitos de la riquísima historia antigua del número, desde el paleolítico hasta la época actual.

The present paper reveals (non-relativistic) quantum mechanics as an emergent property of otherwise classical ergodic systems
embedded in a stochastic vacuum or zero-point radiation field (zpf). This result provides a theoretical basis for understanding
recent numerical experiments in which a statistical analysis of an atomic electron interacting w...

Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.

In a recent thermodynamic analysis of the harmonic oscillator and using an
interpolation procedure, Boyer has shown that the existence of a zero-point
energy leads to the Planck spectrum. Here we avoid the interpolation by adding
a statistical argument to arrive at Planck's law as an inescapable result of
the presence of the zero-point energy. No e...

We study anew the behaviour of an otherwise classical bound particle immersed in a radiation field that includes the zero-point field component of average energy (1/2)homega per mode. The presence of this field introduces an essential stochasticity into the dynamics of the particle, characterized by Planck's constant h this has been the basis for s...

This is a transcript of the round table discussion, moderated by G. 't
Hooft, that took place at the end of the workshop "Beyond The Quantum"
in the Lorentz Center of the University of Leiden, the Netherlands, 29
May - 2 June 2006.
It displays current views on foundations of quantum mechanics.

In the late 1980s, a Mexican physicist doing graduate work in the UK was contacted by members of the British Pugwash Group and subsequently invited to the 1988 Annual Pugwash Conference in Dagomys, USSR. On his return to Mexico, this young physicist brought together a small group of colleagues to share his enthusiasm about that conference at which...

The environmental effects on the rate of radiative transitions, the Lamb shift and mass renormalization, produced by external modifications of the electromagnetic vacuum, are studied from the point of view of stochastic electrodynamics (SED), using the harmonic oscillator as an atomic model. The vacuum can be modified by adding external radiation t...

An analysis is briefly presented of the possible causes of the failure of stochastic electrodynamics (SED) when applied to systems with nonlinear forces, on the basis that the main principles of the theory are correct. In light of this analysis, an alternative approach to the theory is discussed, whose postulates allow to establish contact with qua...

Radioactive materials and sources makes more sources available to more people, thereby increasing the probability of accidents. Human beings are in a higher risk zone of being exposed to the harmful effects of ionizing radiation as they derive greater benefit from it. It must be confronted the associated challenges for the peaceful purposes of radi...

The authors make an attempt to understand the wave aspects of quantum mechanics within the framework of stochastic electrodynamics. The electron, considered originally as a point particle, is seen to perform a fine vibration of wave-number k
c
= mc/ sustained by the zeropoint radiation field; its interaction with the field waves of frequencies clo...

A detailed analysis of stochastic electrodynamics (SED) as a foundation for quantum mechanics has shown that the reasons for its failure in the case of nonlinear forces are not to be ascribed to the founding principles of the theory but to the approximation methods introduced, particularly the use of the Fokker‐Planck approximation and perturbation...

Globalization by whom, for whom Globalization is a powerful change mechanism without clear definition, explicit objectives or an agreed operational framework. Yet while complex and disorderly, it is increasingly clear that nothing about globalization is arbitrary because the changes it produces are the results of commercial, political and economic...

The role of IAEA in planning and implementing multilateral cooperation stipulated in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is discussed. It encourages and assists research, development and application of atomic energy and builds strategic partnerships to increase the leverage of the limited resources available. IAEA has its own resources and p...

During the last decades there has been a relatively extensive attempt to develop the theory of stochastic electrodynamics (SED) with a view to establishing it as the foundation for quantum mechanics. The theory had several important successes, but failed when applied to the study of particles subject to nonlinear forces. An analysis of the failure...

A broadly defined scientific Capacity Building (CB) for Sustainable Development (SD) is needed all around the world, and the development of innovative capacities in the developing countries is a priority. For this, first we need to know how this concept is applied in some developing countries. In this paper we present some Mexican experiences in th...

In this paper we show that a strong link exists between Planck's blackbody radiation formula and the zeropoint field. Specifically, the hypothesis that the equilibrium field (including the zeropoint term) follows a canonical distribution, in combination with the requirements that its specific heat remain finite as the temperature T → 0 and that it...

We discuss the main results of Linear Stochastic Electrodynamics, starting from a reformulation of its basic assumptions. This theory shares with Stochastic Electrodynamics the core assumption that quantization comes about from the permanent interaction between matter and the vacuum radiation field, but it departs from it when it comes to consideri...

The Technical Cooperation Programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the capacity to link scientific research and technical innovation to national, regional and global development priorities. The programme therefore provides a unique case study for science and technology-based organizations seeking to move from technology-driven...

Since their early beginnings, electronic information and communication technologies have promised to revolutionize the way scientists communi-cate and publish their findings. And indeed, these tech-nologies are having some significant impacts, and are themselves experiencing changes that could hardly be foreseen by the science fiction authors of re...

## Projects

Project (1)

The spin of the electron can be explained as a consequence of the interaction between the particle and circularly polarized modes of the zero-point field. Within the same framework we are now studying the connection between spin and statistics.