Ana I Fernandes

Ana I Fernandes
Cooperativa de Ensino Superior Egas Moniz · Instituto Universitário Egas Moniz

Doctor of Pharmacy

About

65
Publications
4,841
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693
Citations
Citations since 2016
36 Research Items
395 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
Introduction
Ana I Fernandes is a Professor and Head of the PharmSci Lab at Instituto Universitário Egas Moniz, Portugal. She holds a degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences (University of Lisbon) and a PhD in Drug Delivery (University of London). She has been involved in the study of polymers and polymeric systems with biomedical applications, namely in the delivery of therapeutic proteins, conventional drugs or delivery systems. Her research is currently related to Nutraceuticals and lifestyle drugs and to formulation in pediatrics, drug solubility enhancement and 3D-printing of pharmaceuticals. Over the years she has been the principal investigator, or collaborator, in several projects financed by FCT, scientific consultant and author of a number of papers in international journals with referees and oral and poster communications, some of which by invitation.
Additional affiliations
September 1996 - May 2015
Cooperativa de Ensino Superior Egas Moniz
Position
  • Professor (Associate); Vicedirector
December 1992 - July 1996
University of London
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (65)
Article
Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginase was conjugated via the epsilon-amino groups of its lysine residues with colominic acid (CA) (polysialic acid) of average molecular mass of 10 kDa by reductive amination in the presence of NaCNBH3. Polysialylation using 50-, 100- and 250-fold molar excess CA relative to the enzyme led to an increasing proportion of...
Article
A microparticulate protein delivery system was developed using collagen, from the medusa Catostylus tagi, as a polymeric matrix. Collagen microparticles (CMPs) were produced by an emulsification-gelation-solvent extraction method and a high loading efficiency was found for the entrapment of lysozyme and α-lactalbumin. CMPs were cross-linked with 1-...
Article
The work aims at evaluating the usefulness of powdered milk as a drug matrix for the production of minitablets specifically designed for children. Mixtures made of powdered milk, paracetamol, mannitol, sodium croscarmellose and magnesium stearate (evaluated for flow properties, cohesiveness and caking tendency) were compacted into beams (evaluated...
Article
Full-text available
Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers the greatest potential to revolutionize the future of pharmaceutical manufacturing by overcoming challenges of conventional pharmaceutical operations and focusing design and production of dosage forms on the patient’s needs. Of the many technologies available, fusion deposition modelling (FDM) is considered of...
Article
Amorphous and co-amorphous formulations have been used to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, during handling and/or storage amorphous solids present inherent instability and overtime recrystallize back into their crystalline counterpart. The development of tools capable of quantifying and monitoring t...
Article
Full-text available
In situ amorphization is a promising approach, considered in the present work, to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of olanzapine, while minimizing the exposure of the amorphous material to the stress conditions applied during conventional processing. The production of pellets by extrusion/spheronization and the coating of inert beads wer...
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A drug’s bioavailability, i.e., the extent to and rate at which it enters the systemic circulation, thus accessing the site of action, is largely determined by the properties of the drug [...]
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The preparation of amorphous and co-amorphous systems (CAMs) effectively addresses the solubility and bioavailability issues of poorly water-soluble chemical entities. However, stress conditions imposed during common pharmaceutical processing (e.g., tableting) may cause the recrystallization of the systems, warranting close stability monitoring thr...
Article
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This paper presents a sociological approach to coffee consumption as a performance management strategy in work contexts, particularly in professions with intense work rhythms and highly responsive demands. Focusing on the daily work of three professional groups (nurses, police officers, and journalists), we analyze the social expression of coffee a...
Article
Co-amorphization is a promising approach to stabilize drugs in the amorphous form. Olanzapine, a poorly water-soluble drug was used in this study. Sulfonic acids (saccharin, cyclamic acid and acesulfame), free and in salt forms, were used as co-formers and compared with carboxylic acids commonly used in the preparation of co-amorphous systems. Seve...
Article
Full-text available
The work evaluates the stability of amorphous and co-amorphous olanzapine (OLZ) in tablets manufactured by direct compression. The flowability and the compressibility of amorphous and co-amorphous OLZ with saccharin (SAC) and the properties of the tablets obtained were measured and compared to those of tablets made with crystalline OLZ. The flowabi...
Article
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Coffee is a socially rooted drink with pharmacological properties. It is embedded in different everyday rituals, including ‘coffee breaks’ during working hours. This paper analyzes the role of coffee at workplace. Focusing on three professional areas associated with high pressure and responsive demands, we explore the social expression of coffee us...
Article
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This work reports the preliminary development of paroxetine-containing formulations amenable to hot-melt extrusion coupled to fused deposition modelling-based 3D printing. Polymeric matrices were used alone, or added with processing enhancers (e.g., plasticizer and filler). The polymeric formulation containing paroxetine (30% w/w), hydroxypropylcel...
Article
Full-text available
Patient-centric therapy is especially important in pediatrics and may be attained by three-dimensional printing. Filaments containing 30% w/w of theophylline were produced by hot-melt extrusion and printed using fused deposition modelling to produce tablets. Here, preliminary results evaluating the effect of infill geometry (cross, star, grid) on d...
Article
Full-text available
Urinary tract infections constitute an important public health issue due to recurrence and antibiotic resistance. Currently, antibiotics are the standard therapy but non-antibiotic approaches, such as food supplements, could be beneficial and reduce bacterial resistance. This work aimed at a better understanding of the perception of health professi...
Article
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The evaluation of the processability of co-amorphous mixtures is of paramount importance since these systems are increasingly used to address the poor solubility presented by most of the drugs in research and development. This work shows that co-amorphous olanzapine powders present higher cohesiveness than their crystalline counterpart and resulted...
Article
Full-text available
The use of nutraceuticals as cognitive enhancers is on the rise and may be especially problematic in polymedicated older patients. The potential of interaction of these products with drugs commonly prescribed to this age group is evaluated in this work, by identification of mutual targets (enzymes, transporters and receptors).
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The production of amorphous and co-amorphous (CAM) materials has been used as a procedure to overcome the poor water solubility shown by most of the drugs currently under development [1]. Ball milling has been considered to convert the crystalline state of a substance into its amorphous counterpart [2,3]. At present, the impact of the...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Strategies to address the problem of poorly water-soluble drugs encompass the conversion of a crystalline drug into an amorphous form to promote its apparent solubility and dissolution. Co-amorphous systems (CAMs) incorporate low molecular mass molecules (co-formers), which are mixed with the drug to form one single phase [1 Blaabjerg...
Article
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Introduction Amorphous and co-amorphous (CAM) materials have recently been used to improve oral bioavailability of drugs, by enhancing water solubility and dissolution rate from solid dosage forms [1 Skieneh J, Rohani S. Screening new solid forms of pharmaceuticals to enhance solubility and dissolution rate. Austin Pharmacol Pharm. 2017;2(1):e1007....
Article
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Introduction Tooth discolouration is a common subject of aesthetic dissatisfaction for which patients seek dental care [1 Mortazavi H, Baharvand M, Khodadoustan A. Colors in tooth discoloration: a new classification and literature review. Int J Clin Dent. 2014;7(1):17–27. [Google Scholar],2 Thomas MS, Denny C. Medication-related tooth discoloration...
Article
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Introduction A large number of active pharmaceutical compounds currently under development are poorly water soluble, which can limit their bioavailability and results in formulation challenges [1 Blaabjerg LI, Lindenberg E, Rades T, et al. Influence of preparation pathway on the glass forming ability. Int J Pharm. 2017;521:232–239.[Crossref], [PubM...
Article
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Introduction Magistral formulas (MF) are prepared by the pharmacist for a given patient according to a prescription and following technical and scientific compounding standards. MF are often used in weight loss regimens and contain blends of drugs (D) and plant (P) extracts. Associations potentiate interactions and related adverse effects, compromi...
Article
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Late-life mild cognitive impairment and dementia represent a significant burden on healthcare systems and a unique challenge to medicine due to the currently limited treatment options. Plant phytochemicals have been considered in alternative, or complementary, prevention and treatment strategies. Herbals are consumed as such, or as food supplements...
Article
Wound care remains a challenge in healthcare. This work aimed to develop a new polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/chitosan (Ch) based wound dressing able to ensure protection, hydration and a controlled release of antiseptics, as alternative to actual treatments. Two distinct formulations (1:1 and 3:1, w/w) were prepared, sterilized by autoclaving and charact...
Article
Introduction: Nowadays a significant (app. 70%) number of drugs entering the market present low solubility in water [1 Thayer AM, Finding solutions, Chem Eng News. 2010;88:13–18.[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]]. To minimize this problem, which impacts on dissolution, absorption, and therapeutic efficacy of drugs in dosage forms, s...
Article
Introduction: Cellulite is characterized by lumpy, dimpled flesh on the thighs, hips, buttocks and abdomen, sometimes described as orange peel texture [1 Luebberding S, Krueger N, Sadick N. Cellulite: an evidence-based review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2015;16:243–256.[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]]. Although not a serious me...
Article
Introduction: Bioavailability is a milestone in drug development, since it reflects the amount of drug absorbed that reaches the site of action. About 70-90% of all drugs in R&D have problems regarding solubility in water, thus presenting low bioavailability [1 Rohani S, Skieneh JM. Screening new solid forms of pharmaceuticals to enhance solubility...
Article
Full-text available
A simple, accurate and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed, validated and applied to the determination of either theophylline or paracetamol in milk-based samples. The method allowed drug quantification in fresh and powdered milks with a relatively short run time of analysis and it was also successfully appl...
Article
Objective: This work evaluates the potential of using fresh milk to deliver theophylline to children. Methods: Theophylline-fresh milk systems were prepared using different solids ratios (0 : 1-1 : 0) and three fat contents in commercial milks (low, medium and high), which were spray-dried at different inlet air temperatures (Tinlet - 105, 130 a...
Article
Unlabelled: Background Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) are often found in high proportion among the elderly population. The STOPP criteria have been suggested to detect more PIMs in European elderly than the Beers criteria. Objective This study aimed to determine the prevalence of PIMs and potential prescribing omissions (PPOs) in a s...
Poster
Full-text available
Este poster descreve a metodologia empregue para avaliar quais as lacunas do plano curricular antigo do MICF, identificar oportunidades de melhoria e modelos a seguir, apresentando a nova estrutura curricular, a qual se enquadra mais adaptada às actuais necessidades do mercado de trabalho farmacêutico.
Article
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Background Currently, people live longer but often with poor quality of life. The decrease in healthy life-years is partly attributable to the institution of polypharmacy to treat various comorbidities. Objectives The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and nature of drug-related problems (DRPs) in polypharmacy elderly patients...
Poster
Full-text available
This poster focuses on the secondary analysis of a database of drug-related problems (DRP). Primary analysis was undertaken by community pharmacists engaged in elderly patients monitoring, focusing on potentially inappropriate medicines (PIM) and DRPs. Secondary analysis was undertaken by the research team, focusing on PIM and interactions. The res...
Poster
Full-text available
This poster describes the overall results of the ”SOS Pharma Idoso” project, which focused on medication review in the elderly. The component here presented refers to nursing homes results but combines the work developed focusing on drug-related problems (DRPs) and the work focusing on potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) and prescribing omis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background The elderly population is frequently polymedicated, including with potentially inappropriate medications (PIM). The use of explicit criteria can play an important role in the identification of areas for pharmaceutical interventions. Purpose This study aimed to characterize and to quantify the occurrence of PIM detected during medication...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background The numerous comorbidities associated with ageing often lead to treatment with multiple drugs. Pharmacist-led medication review of polymedicated patients may play an important role in the detection of Drug Related Problems (DRP), thus contributing to their prevention or solution. Purpose To determine the prevalence of real and potential...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Adherence in the polymedicated elderly is recognised to be suboptimal. The use of dose administration aid (DAA) systems has been proposed as an effective tool to reduce unintentional non-adherence, especially effective when combined with other enhanced services. Purpose To test the ability of students to be actively involved in the imple...
Poster
Full-text available
This poster describes the results of the project SOS Pharma idoso focusing on the detection of potentially inappropriate medicines in elderly polypharmacy residing in nursing homes. Only results obtained from the application of the Beers criteria (AGS, 2012) are presented.
Poster
Full-text available
This poster focuses on the component of the project ”SOS Pharma idoso” resorting to the Granada Consensus of Drug Related Problems to judge the necessity, effectiveness and safety of medicines prescribed to elderly polypharmacy patients residing in nursing homes.
Poster
Full-text available
This poster focuses on the component of the project of ”SOS Pharma Idoso” directed at autonomous elderly. The intervention developed by community pharmacists included medication review and the delivery of multicompartiment aids as a strategy of adherence improvement.
Article
The development of new ophthalmic drug delivery systems capable of increasing the residence time of drugs in the eye and improve its bioavailability relatively to eyedrops has been object of intense research in recent years. Several studies have shown that drug-loaded therapeutic soft contact lenses (SCLs) constitute a promising approach, with seve...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Elderly population is frequently polymedicated, including with potentially inappropriate medications (PIM), sometimes instead of preventive medication, designated as potentially prescribing omissions (POM). Objectives: This study aims to characterize and to quantify the occurrence of PIM and POM in a sample of institutionalized elderl...
Poster
Full-text available
This poster presents in detail the methods proposed for the project ”SOS Pharma Idoso”, a project aiming to improve the quality of use of medicines in elderly polypharmacy patients. This project subdivides into a component focusing on autonomous elderly and another one directed at dependent elderly.
Article
A preliminary biochemical approach to the study of collagen isolated from the medusa Catostylus tagi is reported and results are discussed in view of its use as a natural matrix for biomedical applications. Collagen from the jellyfish umbrella was isolated by pepsin digestion and purified by dialysis and salt precipitation. As expected, glycine rep...
Article
Naturally occurring polymers of N-acetylneuraminic acid (polysialic acids) are biodegradable, highly hydrophilic and have no known receptors in the body. Following intravenous injection, polysialic acids exhibit long half-lives in the blood circulation and have therefore been proposed as carriers of short-lived drugs and small peptides. In addition...
Article
Naturally occurring polymers of N-acetyl neurammlC acid (polysialic acids) are biodegradable, highly hydrophilic and have no known receptors in the body. Following intravenous injection, polysialic acids exhibit long halflives in the blood circulation and have therefore been proposed as carriers of short-lived drugs and small peptides. In addition,...
Chapter
Optimal use of drugs often requires their extended presence within the vascular system or in extravascular areas (Gregoriadis et al, 1994). For instance, some antibiotics and cytostatics and a variety of peptides and proteins including hormones, cytokines, enzymes, antibodies and haemoglobin (as a blood surrogate) are excreted or removed from the c...
Article
Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginase was coupled covalently to colominic acid, a low molecular mass polysialic acid, by reductive amination. Depending on the molar ratios of colominic acid-asparaginase (50:1, 100:1 and 250:1), polysialylated constructs contained 4.2-8.1 molecules of colominic acid per molecule of enzyme. Such constructs retained most...
Article
Colominic acid (CA), an alpha-(2-->8) N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid) polymer (average molecular weight of 10 kDa) was activated by periodate oxidation of carbon 7 at the non-reducing end of the saccharide. The oxidized CA was then coupled to catalase by reductive amination in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride. The extent of sialylation...

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Projects (7)
Project
Delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) requires the production of medicines with the right dose, according to a predefined rate of drug release, at the right location in the patient´s body, at the right moment. Medicines are thus complex products, which combine substances with therapeutic effect (APIs) with pharmacologically inert compounds (excipients) required for manufacturing purposes and/or to optimize delivery and targeting. Both APIs and excipients should be able to exert its function without toxic side effects to humans. The complexity derives from the large number and varied chemical entities represented by existing APIs and the possibility of complex interactions, not always identified and understood, with excipients. Medicines, are in turn required to be delivered to patients with specific individual needs and should therefore be designed having the patient in mind, i.e. patient-driven. At present, medicines are manufactured in large scale, for the average patient without taking into consideration patient’s individual characteristics, namely enzymatic immaturity (pediatrics), polymedication (geriatrics) or specific physio-pathological limitations (hepatic or renal failure) which impair the absorption, metabolism and elimination of APIs. Furthermore, the production of medicines is a global business with production facilities faraway from end-user patients, involving complex supply chains, many players in the manufacturing process, hence complicating quality assurance of the final product. Counterfeiting is nowadays a real and global problem potentially affecting patients who, in the limit, can have their lives threatened, adding further to the complexity of medicines. Medicines are also singular goods because the choice is made by the prescribing physician (from a list of medicines produced by a third party, for the average patient) and the consumer is the patient with specific needs. This suggests that the proximity of manufacture to the patient and that the design and development of medicines, according to individual patients' needs, would maximize therapeutic outcomes. Recently (2015), additive manufacture by 3D printing has been considered to the production of medicines but the technique still requires a long way until it becomes fully established. In fact, with 3D printing the information provided by the doctor would travel via web directly to a printer, enabling the manufacture of a personalized medicine, which can include nanotechnologies (e.g. added nanoparticles). This represents a change in the paradigm of medicines production, with extinction of supply chains and counterfeiting, thus requiring education of patients, pharmacists, manufacturers, physicians and nurses.
Archived project