Amy Fw Mikhail

Amy Fw Mikhail
Independent consultant

BSc, MSc EUPHEM alum

About

32
Publications
6,611
Reads
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1,778
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2020 - February 2021
Médecins Sans Frontières - OCBA
Position
  • Mobile laboratory implementation specialist
September 2012 - September 2014
Public Health England
Position
  • European Public Health Microbiology (EUPHEM) fellow
September 2012 - September 2014
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
Position
  • European Public Health Microbiology Fellow (EPIET / EUPHEM)

Publications

Publications (32)
Article
Full-text available
Recurrent outbreaks of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O55:H7 occurred in England between 2014 and 2018. We reviewed the epidemiological evidence to identify potential source(s) and transmission routes of the pathogen, and to assess the on-going risk to public health. Over the 5-yea...
Article
Full-text available
In April 2018, Public Health England was notified of cases of Shigella sonnei who had eaten food from three different catering outlets in England. The outbreaks were initially investigated as separate events, but whole-genome sequencing (WGS) showed they were caused by the same strain. The investigation included analyses of epidemiological data, th...
Article
Full-text available
In December 2015, six cases of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 stx2a/stx2c phage type (PT) 24 were identified by the national gastrointestinal disease surveillance system at Public Health England (PHE). Frozen grated coconut imported from India was implicated as the vehicle of infection. Short and long read sequencing da...
Article
Full-text available
Background Chemsex, the use of select psychoactive drugs to enhance sexual experience, typically among men who have sex with men (MSM), is associated with sexual behaviours with higher STI risk. Understanding patterns of chemsex among MSM as well as the characteristics and sexual health service engagement of chemsex participants is important for de...
Article
Whole genome sequencing has enhanced surveillance and facilitated detailed monitoring of transmission of Shigella species in England. We undertook an epidemiological and phylogenetic analysis of isolates from all cases of shigellosis referred to Public Health England between 2015 to 2018 to explore recent strain characteristics and transmission dyn...
Article
Background: Shigella is a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide; however, data on clinical outcomes amongst adults are lacking. Methods: All adult cases (>16 years) of Shigella gastroenteritis diagnosed between January 2014 to December 2017 at an East London NHS Trust in the United Kingdom were included. Demographic, clinical, microbiologica...
Article
Since the 1970s, shigellosis has been reported as a sexually transmissible infection, and in recent years, genomic data have revealed the breadth of Shigella spp. transmission among global networks of men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2015, Public Health England (PHE) introduced routine whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of Shigella spp. to identify t...
Article
Full-text available
The use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) as a method for supporting outbreak investigations, studying Salmonella microbial populations and improving understanding of pathogenicity has been well-described (1–3). However, performing WGS on a discrete dataset does not pose the same challenges as implementing WGS as a routine, reference microbiology se...
Preprint
Background Whole genome sequencing has enhanced surveillance and facilitated detailed monitoring of transmission of Shigella species in England. Methods We undertook an epidemiological and phylogenetic analysis of isolates from all cases of shigellosis referred to Public Health England between 2015 to 2018 to explore recent strain characteristics...
Conference Paper
Background In 2015, routine whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of Shigella spp. was introduced by Public Health England (PHE) to identify transmission clusters, but limited behavioural information hampers interpretation. We investigated whether WGS can distinguish between clusters of sexual transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) and other mo...
Conference Paper
Background Chemsex, the use of select psychoactive drugs to enhance sexual experience, typically among men who have sex with men (MSM), is associated with STI risk behaviours. Understanding characteristics of MSM who engage in chemsex and their use of STI clinics is important for developing interventions. Methods Between 5/2016-5/2017, 3,358 MSM (...
Poster
Full-text available
Background: Shigella is a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, with significant associated morbidity and mortality, however data on clinical outcomes amongst adults is lacking. We describe a retrospective cohort review of 169 adult cases of Shigella infection in an East London teaching hospital. Materials/methods: All adult cases (>16 years)...
Article
Full-text available
We used whole-genome sequencing to investigate the evolutionary context of an emerging highly pathogenic strain of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 in England and Wales. A timed phylogeny of sublineage IIb revealed that the emerging clone evolved from a STEC O157:H7 stx-negative ancestor ≈10 years ago after acquisition of a bac...
Article
An outbreak of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 associated with contaminated salad leaves: epidemiological, genomic and food trace back investigations – CORRIGENDUM - A. F. W. Mikhail, C. Jenkins, T. J. Dallman, T. Inns, A. Douglas, A. I. C. Martín, A. Fox, P. Cleary, R. Elson, J. Hawker
Article
Full-text available
We investigated a large outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 in the United Kingdom (UK) with 165 cases between 31 May and 29 July 2016. No linked cases were reported in other countries. Cases were predominately female (n = 128) and adult (n = 150), 66 attended hospital and nine had features of haemorrhagic uraemic syndrome. A series of epidemiological...
Article
In August 2015, Public Health England detected an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O157:H7 caused by contaminated salad leaves in a mixed leaf prepacked salad product from a national retailer. The implicated leaves were cultivated at five different farms and the zoonotic source of the outbreak strain was not determ...
Article
Full-text available
The first documented British outbreak of Shiga toxinproducing Escherichia coli (STEC) O55:H7 began in the county of Dorset, England, in July 2014. Since then, there have been a total of 31 cases of which 13 presented with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The outbreak strain had Shiga toxin (Stx) subtype 2a associated with an elevated risk of HUS....
Article
Full-text available
Background: The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends parasitological diagnosis of malaria before treatment, but use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) by community health workers (CHWs) has not been fully tested within health services in south and central Asia. mRDTs could allow CHWs to diagnose malaria accurately, improving treatment...
Article
Full-text available
In England in 2015, Shigella sonnei isolates from men who have sex with men produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and exhibited macrolide resistance. Whole-genome sequencing showed a close relationship among the isolates, which harbored a plasmid that was previously identified in a shigellosis outbreak among this population but has acquired a mob...
Data
Detailed methods for whole genome sequencing of Shigella sonnei isolates and plasmid elucidation.
Article
Full-text available
In England in 2015, Shigella sonnei isolates from men who have sex with men produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and exhibited macrolide resistance. Whole-genome sequencing showed a close relationship among the isolates, which harbored a plasmid that was previously identified in a shigellosis outbreak among this population but has acquired a mob...
Article
Objective: To measure prevalence of prior/current Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum (PV and PF), Brucella spp. (BR), dengue virus (DENV), Leishmania donovani (visceral leishmaniasis; VL), and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus exposure among Afghan National Army (ANA) recruits. Methods: Randomly chosen, nationally representati...
Article
Full-text available
The Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa is the largest on record, responsible for over 28,599 cases and more than 11,299 deaths1. Genome sequencing in viral outbreaks is desirable to characterize the infectious agent and determine its evolutionary rate. Genome sequencing also allows the identification of signatures of host adaptation, ident...
Article
Full-text available
The Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa is the largest on record, responsible for over 28,599 cases and more than 11,299 deaths1. Genome sequencing in viral outbreaks is desirable to characterize the infectious agent and determine its evolutionary rate. Genome sequencing also allows the identification of signatures of host adaptation, ident...
Article
In 2012, an ongoing outbreak of diphtheria in Indonesia was focused in the province of East Java. There was a need to assess vaccine coverage and immunity gaps in children. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence and vaccine coverage survey of children 1-15 years of age in two districts of East Java: one of high incidence (on the island of Ma...
Article
Full-text available
Improving access to parasitological diagnosis of malaria is a central strategy for control and elimination of the disease. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are relatively easy to perform and could be used in primary level clinics to increase coverage of diagnostics and improve treatment of malaria. A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To assess the impact of rapid diagnostic tests on the diagnostic accuracy and treatment of malaria and non-severe fever in an Asian setting. Design Patient randomised trial in primary level clinics. Setting Two areas of Afghanistan where Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are endemic; one area with moderate transmission (eastern r...
Article
Full-text available
In many malaria-endemic areas, including Afghanistan, overdiagnosis of malaria is common. Even when using parasite-based diagnostic tests prior to treatment, clinicians commonly prescribe antimalarial treatment following negative test results. This practice neglects alternative causes of fever, uses drugs unnecessarily, and might contribute to anti...
Article
Full-text available
To assess the accuracy of malaria diagnosis and treatment at primary level clinics in Afghanistan. Prospective observational study. 22 clinics in two Afghan provinces, one in the north (adjoining Tajikistan) and one in the east (adjoining Pakistan); areas with seasonal transmission of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. 2357 patients of all...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate parasitological diagnosis of malaria is essential for targeting treatment where more than one species coexist. In this study, three rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) (AccessBio CareStart (CSPfPan), CareStart PfPv (CSPfPv) and Standard Diagnostics Bioline (SDBPfPv)) were evaluated for their ability to detect natural Plasmodium vivax infections...

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