Amy A Kirkham

Amy A Kirkham
University of Toronto | U of T · Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education

PhD

About

76
Publications
10,783
Reads
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905
Citations
Introduction
The overarching goal of my research program is to use a multi-disciplinary approach that leverages cutting-edge, non-invasive, imaging techniques to study precisely prescribed, mechanistically targeted, lifestyle interventions (exercise, intermittent fasting, multimodal rehabilitation) to prevent and ameliorate cardiovascular dysfunction and disease, with an emphasis on women. A primary focus is on cardiovascular toxicity in cancer populations, especially breast cancer.
Additional affiliations
April 2016 - present
University of Alberta
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2010 - September 2015
University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Position
  • Research Assistant
September 2010 - February 2016
University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Position
  • PhD Student
Education
September 2011 - February 2016
University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Field of study
  • Cardiac and exercise oncology
September 2008 - October 2010
University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Field of study
  • Exercise oncology
September 2004 - April 2007
York University
Field of study
  • Athletic Therapy

Publications

Publications (76)
Article
Background: The 49% decrease in breast cancer mortality since 1986 has increased the number of breast cancer survivors requiring survivorship care. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the 2022 prevalence of breast cancer survivors diagnosed within the past 15 years among Canadian women. Methods: We extracted the projected female breast...
Article
Purpose of review: Time-restricted eating (TRE) entails consuming energy intake within a 4- to 10-h window, with the remaining time spent fasting. Although studies have reported health benefits from TRE, little is known about the impact of TRE on common chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease. This review summar...
Article
Full-text available
Background: While cardiotoxic chemotherapy is known to negatively impact cardiac function and hemoglobin levels, the impact on skeletal muscle has been understudied among patients. The purpose was to longitudinally characterize myosteatosis (muscle fat), skeletal muscle metabolism, and oxygen (O2) consumption during cardiotoxic chemotherapy for br...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise is a commonly prescribed therapy for patients with established cardiovascular disease or those at high risk for de novo disease. Exercise-based, multidisciplinary programs have been associated with improved clinical outcomes post myocardial infarction and is now recommended for patients with cancer at elevated risk for cardiovascular compl...
Article
This commentary highlights the challenges of clinical trials, especially as related to trials on exercise for older adults with advanced cancer, and comments on the study by Mikkelsen et al.
Article
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Background An underlying cause of solid tumor resistance to chemotherapy treatment is diminished tumor blood supply, which leads to a hypoxic microenvironment, dependence on anaerobic energy metabolism, and impaired delivery of intravenous treatments. Preclinical data suggest that dietary strategies of caloric restriction and low-carbohydrate intak...
Article
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There is substantial overlap in risk factors for the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer (BC) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), including obesity, metabolic disturbances, and chronic inflammation. These unifying features remain prevalent after a BC diagnosis and are exacerbated by BC treatment, resulting in elevated CVD risk among survivo...
Article
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Exercise-based, multimodal rehabilitation programming similar to that used in the existing models of cardiac or pulmonary rehabilitation or prehabilitation is a holistic potential solution to address the range of physical, psychological, and existential (e.g., as their diagnosis relates to potential death) stressors associated with a cancer diagnos...
Article
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Consideration of sex, hormonal status, and pregnancy history must all be included in the CV risk assessment, and diagnosis and treatment of women with CVD. Menstruation onset and characteristics, hypertensive or diabetic pregnancy complications, and menopausal timing and treatments are all contributory to CV health and/or disease. An awareness of i...
Article
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This study aimed to characterize peak exercise cardiac function and thigh muscle fatty infiltration and their relationships with VO2peak among anthracycline-treated breast cancer survivors (BCS). BCS who received anthracycline chemotherapy ~ 1 year earlier (n = 16) and matched controls (matched-CON, n = 16) were enrolled. Resting and peak exercise...
Article
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We systematically reviewed and synthesized evidence on the impact of physical activity/exercise on cancer treatment efficacy. We included six preclinical and seven clinical studies. Exercise significantly enhanced the efficacy of chemotherapy and tamoxifen in seven of eight rodent models in either an additive, sensitizing, or synergistic manner. In...
Article
AIMS An improved understanding of the pathophysiology of trastuzumab-mediated cardiotoxicity is required to improve outcomes of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. We aimed to characterize the cardiac and cardiometabolic phenotype of trastuzumab-mediated toxicity and potential interactions with cardiac pharmacotherapy. METHODS AND RESULTS T...
Article
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The conventional approach to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) involving breath holds, electrocardiography-gating, and acquisition of a short-axis (SAX) image stack, introduces technical and logistical challenges for assessing exercise left ventricular (LV) function. Real-time, free-breathing CMR acquisition of long-axis (LAX) images overcomes these...
Article
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Background: Available preliminary evidence is conflicting on whether exercise can positively influence antineoplastic treatment tolerance and in turn improve survival. Patients and methods: This study compared chemotherapy treatment tolerance and survival among women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer who participated...
Article
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IntroductionPreclinical data demonstrate the potential for exercise training to protect against anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity, but this remains to be shown in humans.PurposeTo assess whether exercise training during anthracycline-based chemotherapy for treatment of breast cancer affects resting cardiac function and hemodynamics.Methods In th...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the perspectives and experiences of breast cancer patients and medical oncologists with regards to participation in a lifestyle intervention at a tertiary cancer treatment center. A thematic approach was used to understand the context within which a lifestyle intervention was recommended and experienced, to inform future lifesty...
Article
Adjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy for breast cancer is associated with cardiotoxicity and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak). Purpose: We evaluated the impact of anthracyclines on left ventricular (LV) function and tissue characteristics using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to determine their relationship with VO2peak....
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study compared the odds of self-reported and objectively measured cardiovascular (cv) risk factors in a sample of Canadian cancer survivors and individuals without cancer. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 45- to 85-year-old cancer survivors (n = 6288) in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging were compared with i...
Article
Background & Aims Preclinical evidence suggests that caloric restriction is an effective therapy for a number of cardiovascular insults. Whether caloric restriction has cardio-protective effects in humans is not well understood. The aim was to systematically review and meta-analyze human randomized control trials (RCTs) testing the effect of calori...
Chapter
Infusion therapy involves the administration of medication through a needle or catheter. In the context of cancer, infusion is a common delivery method for chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Exercise has been shown to improve several of the common side effects of chemotherapy, as well as help individuals to maintain their physical function and quality...
Article
Exercise can improve cancer-related fatigue, quality of life and physical fitness, but is understudied in less common cancers such as multiple myeloma. Studying less common cancers and the adoption of novel study designs and open-science practices would improve the generalisability, transparency, rigour, credibility and reproducibility of exercise...
Article
Objectives: To examine and summarize current international guidelines regarding cardiovascular risk reduction before and during cancer therapy, and to discuss the emerging role of cardio-oncology as a subspecialty in cancer care and the role of cardio-oncology rehabilitation. Data sources: Published articles and guidelines. Conclusion: With im...
Article
Background: Peak oxygen consumption (VO2 ) is reduced in women with a history of breast cancer (BC). We measured leg blood flow, oxygenation, bioenergetics, and muscle composition in women with BC treated with anthracycline chemotherapy (n = 16, mean age: 56 years) and age- and body mass index-matched controls (n = 16). Materials and methods: Wh...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide a rationale for 'chemotherapy-periodized' exercise by characterizing cyclical variations in fatigue and exercise response across a chemotherapy cycle and comparing exercise adherence during chemotherapy between a prescription that is periodized according to chemotherapy cycle length and a standard...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Overwhelming randomized controlled trial evidence demonstrates that exercise has positive health impacts during and after treatment for breast cancer. Yet, evidence generated by studies in which exercise programs are delivered outside a tightly controlled randomized trial setting is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the...
Article
Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting adverse effect of taxanes. We sought to evaluate the effect of exercise on taxane CIPN in women with breast cancer. Patients and methods: Women (n = 27) were randomized to immediate exercise (IE, during taxane chemotherapy) or delayed exercise (DE, after chemotherap...
Poster
Background: Cardiac dysfunction is a major concern for patients with breast cancer (BC) receiving adjuvant therapy. Retrospective, cross-sectional echocardiographic data suggests that patients with cancer have reduced myocardial strain prior to cancer therapy exposure. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold standard imaging modality for cardi...
Article
Due to advances in prevention, early detection and treatment, early breast cancer mortality has decreased by nearly 40% during the last four decades. Yet, the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is significantly elevated following a breast cancer diagnosis, and it is a leading cause of death in this population. This review will discuss t...
Article
Purpose To develop a correction method for the effects of the magnetic susceptibility of fat (χFat) on the calculation of venous oxygen saturation (SvO2). Theory The magnetic field shifts associated with the magnetic susceptibility of deoxyhemoglobin can be used to estimate SvO2, a measure of oxygen extraction and metabolism. However, the distinct...
Article
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Background: Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is an early marker for cardiovascular disease. Anthracycline chemotherapy and left-sided radiation for breast cancer are associated with negative autonomic function changes. This study's objectives were to characterize changes in, and the association of exercise training with, clinical indices of ca...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Anthracycline chemotherapy agents are commonly used to treat breast cancer, but also result in cardiac injury, and potentially detrimental effects to vascular and skeletal muscle. Preclinical evidence demonstrates that exercise and caloric restriction can independently reduce anthracycline-related injury to the heart as well as cancer...
Article
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Purpose: While exercise is associated with numerous benefits in women with breast cancer, adherence to exercise training concurrent to cancer treatment is challenging. We aimed to identify predictors of attendance to an oncologist-referred exercise program offered during and after adjuvant breast cancer treatment. Methods: Women with early-stage...
Article
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Purpose: In rodents, a single exercise bout performed 24 h prior to a single doxorubicin treatment provides cardio-protection. This study investigated whether performing this intervention prior to every doxorubicin treatment for breast cancer reduced subclinical cardiotoxicity and treatment symptoms. Methods: Twenty-four women with early stage b...
Article
Background: Randomized trials have established efficacy of supervised exercise training during chemotherapy for breast cancer for numerous health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess reach, effectiveness, maintenance, and implementation of an evidence-based exercise and healthy eating program offered within an adjuvant care setting....
Article
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Purpose: To prospectively assess adherence to oncologist-referred, exercise programming consistent with current recommendations for cancer survivors among women with early breast cancer across the trajectory of adjuvant treatment. Methods: Sixty-eight women participated in supervised, hour-long, moderate-intensity, aerobic and resistance exercis...
Article
Background Preclinical studies have reported that a single treadmill session performed 24 h prior to doxorubicin provides cardio-protection. We aimed to characterize the acute change in cardiac function following an initial doxorubicin treatment in humans and determine whether an exercise session performed 24 h prior to treatment changes this respo...
Article
Breast cancer treatment can result in significant and long-lasting reductions in aerobic fitness and strength. Reduced aerobic fitness among breast cancer survivors is associated with lower quality of life and an increased risk of future comorbidities and all-cause mortality. Supervised exercise training with adjuvant breast cancer therapy is a pro...
Article
Background: Change in cognitive ability is a commonly reported side effect by breast cancer survivors (BCS). The underlying etiology of cognitive complaints is unclear and to date there is limited evidence for effective intervention strategies. Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function in older adults and animal models treated with che...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although exercise has been widely established as an efficacious rehabilitative therapy for cancer survivors in rigorously designed research studies, demonstration of translation of this research into clinical oncology practice is needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a real-world cancer rehabilitation p...
Article
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Background: Rigorously applied exercise interventions undertaken in a research setting result in improved health-related quality of life (hrqol) in cancer survivors, but research to demonstrate effective translation of that research to practice is needed. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of fee-for-service cancer reha...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence is currently limited for the effect of exercise on breast cancer clinical outcomes. However, several of the reported physical benefits of exercise, including peak oxygen consumption, functional capacity, muscle strength and lean mass, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone health, have established associations with disability, cardiovascula...
Article
To determine the utility of equations that use the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) results to estimate peak oxygen uptake (VO2) and peak work rate with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in a clinical setting. This study included a systematic review to identify published equations estimating peak VO2 and peak work rate in watts in COPD...
Article
Full-text available
Thanks to increasingly effective treatment, breast cancer mortality rates have significantly declined over the past few decades. Following the increase in life expectancy of women diagnosed with breast cancer, it has been recognized that these women are at an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease due in part to the cardiotoxic side effects of tr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
PURPOSE: To 1) evaluate the changes in health-related physical fitness and quality of life (QoL) in 132 cancer survivors after completing a clinically-based, supervised, individualized cancer rehabilitation program and 2) determine whether these changes were influenced by age, time since diagnosis, cancer stage, or pre-diagnosis exercise frequency....
Article
Assessment of physical fitness is important in order to set goals, appropriately prescribe exercise, and monitor change over time. This study aimed to determine the utility of a standardized physical fitness assessment for use in cancer-specific, community-based exercise programs. Tests anticipated to be feasible and suitable for a community settin...
Article
Full-text available
Heart function tests performed with myocardial stress, or "cardiac stress tests", may be beneficial for detection of cardiovascular disease. Women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer are more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases than the general population, in part due to the direct toxic effects of cancer treatment on the cardiovascula...
Article
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Question: What are typical values of physical function for women diagnosed with breast cancer and how do these compare to normative data? Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis. Participants: Women diagnosed with breast cancer who were before, during or after treatment. Outcome measures: Physical function was divided into three categories: ae...