Amy Kim

Amy Kim
University of Washington Seattle | UW

Doctor of Philosophy
Full time @ WA State Dept. of Enterprise Services: Project Manager, Legislative Campus Modernization

About

70
Publications
12,850
Reads
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330
Citations
Introduction
My work focuses on the interactions between healthy building design, occupants, and building operations. I am interested in assessing the impact of occupant behavior and expectation on building energy use, monitoring the indoor environmental qualities, and building commissioning and management strategies.
Additional affiliations
June 2014 - June 2021
University of Washington Seattle
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • Research scholar and educator focused on designing and managing the built infrastructure that optimizes human well-being while minimizing the adverse impact on the environment.
August 2009 - December 2013
Texas A&M University
Position
  • Researcher
Description
  • Research analyst responsible for supporting research activities related to two major National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) projects.
Education
August 2009 - May 2014
Texas A&M University
Field of study
  • Civil Engineering
June 2006 - December 2008
Illinois Institute of Technology
Field of study
  • Civil, Architectural & Environmental Engineering
August 1997 - May 2001

Publications

Publications (70)
Article
Purpose The paper aims to develop a particle matter (PM 2.5 ) prediction model for open-plan office space using a variety of data sources. Monitoring of PM 2.5 levels is not widely applied in indoor settings. Many reliable methods of monitoring PM 2.5 require either time-consuming or expensive equipment, thus making PM 2.5 monitoring impractical fo...
Article
Full-text available
Since people living in developed nations across Europe, North America, and Australia spend most of their lives indoors, protecting indoor environmental quality is critical for protecting human health. As stressors such as COVID-19 and climate change further complicate living conditions, conflicting system priorities underscore the need for resilien...
Article
The increased energy consumption in office building led to stakeholders’ renewed interests in optimizing office buildings’ energy performances, such as indoor comfort, energy efficiency, and life cycle costs. One of the most effective solutions to hedging against building operation optimization is incorporating energy efficiency measures and archit...
Article
Improvements to building energy efficiency are critical to a more sustainable future. In this paper, an analytic hierarchy process method was applied to systematically highlight how experts prioritize various factors and contexts in their decisions to implement energy efficiency retrofit. This study surveyed 236 facility management experts in the U...
Article
Although the exposure to PM2.5 has serious health implications, indoor PM2.5 monitoring is not a widely applied practice. Regulations on the indoor PM2.5 level and measurement schemes are not well established. Compared to other indoor settings, PM2.5 prediction models for large office buildings are particularly lacking. In response to these challen...
Conference Paper
Renovating existing buildings to become more energy efficient is critical not only for energy sustainability but it also provides financial benefits and can improve the well-being of occupants. Nevertheless, the current energy efficiency efforts in the building sector are insufficient for decision making in a portfolio of buildings. Despite the gro...
Conference Paper
Green and healthy building certification systems increasingly motivate stakeholder decision making and serve as influential guides for sustainable design and construction. These codes promote water-use efficiency through measures such as low-flow features and rainwater reuse. Health-oriented guidelines like WELL particularly emphasize water quality...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of multiple design strategies seeking energy efficiency in buildings can offer a wide range of opportunities to improve energy and thermal performance. While thermal resistance is typically considered of high importance, to achieve energy efficiency and prolong the durability of buildings, hygrothermal conditions must also be taken into acc...
Article
Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) plays a key role in determining occupants’ productivity at work; however, the analyses in the interconnected factors among building physical, attitudinal, social and demographic components in one study are lacking. To link this research gap, this study investigates these interconnected factors’ influence on occupa...
Article
Full-text available
A case study was undertaken on one floor of a multi-floor office building in Seattle, WA. Its aim was to offer a straight-forward example for facilities managers, administrators, and researchers alike wishing to perform systematic, naturalistic, mixed-methods research in office spaces that have recently been retrofitted. Changes were made to the fl...
Article
Full-text available
A case study was undertaken on one floor of a multi-floor office building in Seattle, WA. Its aim was to offer a straight-forward example for facilities managers, administrators, and researchers alike wishing to perform systematic, naturalistic, mixed-methods research in office spaces that have recently been retrofitted. Changes were made to the fl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Weatherization Plus Health (Wx+H), a pilot program introduced by the Washington State Department of Commerce, has proposed a new scope to improve the indoor environment quality (IEQ) for low-income housing residents – one that extends beyond energy benefits. Typical interventions include the distribution of green cleaning kits, walk-off mats, venti...
Article
Full-text available
The air quality inside airport terminal buildings is a lesser studied area compared to ambient air quality at the airport. The contribution of outdoor particulate matter (PM), aircraft traffic, and passenger traffic to indoor PM concentration is not well understood. Using the largest airport in Southeast Asia as the study site (extends 17.9 square...
Article
Full-text available
It is estimated that in the United States, people spend 90% of their time in buildings. In order to ensure quality of life for communities, we propose a human‐centric design approach to building “functionality.” “Functionality” is defined as the set of “essential services” to meet occupant needs for safety and well‐being. These services include lig...
Presentation
Full-text available
We presented our research at the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE) Conference and Expo on October 28th, 2019 in Spokane, Washington. This session was intended to share the research findings to the sustainability professionals in the educational sector on how various considerations to implement energy effi...
Presentation
Full-text available
The air quality inside airport terminal buildings is a lesser studied area compared to ambient air quality at the airport. The contribution of outdoor particles, aircraft traffic, and passenger traffic to indoor particle concentration is not well understood. The objective of this paper is to conduct a preliminary analysis to examine the mass concen...
Article
Full-text available
In order to meet renewable energy goals in the near future, the deployment of photovoltaic (PV) panels on buildings will dramatically increase. The objective of this paper is to introduce an improved design for PV cladding systems that will greatly contribute to meeting these renewable energy goals. Typically, building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV...
Article
Full-text available
Recent disruptions of communities due to natural hazard events such as hurricanes and earthquakes have led to increased calls for improved resiliency of the built environment. The "built environment" denotes constructed facilities such as buildings and bridges, as well as infrastructure systems such as power delivery, transportation roadways, and w...
Article
Full-text available
Healthy building design guides are cogent and necessary. While elements that contribute to healthy buildings are multifactorial, the perception of sound versus noise is subjective and difficult to operationalize. To inform the commissioning process, the acoustics in an open office was examined following the first international building certificatio...
Article
This paper demonstrates how a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches following the scenario planning methodology can be used to identify driving forces (drivers) that might influence the future of the transportation system over a 30-year period. A case study of the highway transportation industry in the United States is presented. A...
Article
Education buildings, as the third highest consumer of energy in the United States, provide significant opportunities to lower greenhouse gas emissions by increasing energy efficiency (EE). Higher education institutions (HEIs) campuses exhibit multiple favorable but unique attributes, including access to capital, multiple stakeholders involved with...
Article
Full-text available
Programs to improve the sustainability of building infrastructures often consist of project portfolios that need to be prioritized in an appropriate chronological fashion to maximize the program’s benefits. This is particularly important when a revolving-fund approach is used to leverage savings from the initial projects to pay for later improvemen...
Article
Full-text available
In moderate climates, the operation of windows is the most common way to control for thermal comfort. Window-opening behavior (WOB) is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, yet only simple bi-variate analyses between variables obtained from longitudinal datasets have been examined. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of...
Article
Full-text available
Existing buildings have a huge opportunity in terms of energy and water savings potential in Indonesia. In Jakarta alone, it is estimated that least 90 percent of total buildings were built before 2014. The general perception of having a more energy-efficient existing building is associated with a higher upfront cost and how to finance it. To overc...
Poster
Full-text available
A preliminary literature and policy review of the key water quality concerns in premise plumbing, particularly low-flow systems, and a comparison the respective influence of sustainable and healthy building certification systems on water usage and quality. We suggest areas for further research and technology development and identify industry releva...
Article
Today, new lighting technologies are rapidly changing energy savings goals and the ways in which those savings are identified and captured. As occupant expectations concerning indoor comfort and well-being are transforming lighting design and engineering solutions, research concerning systems that afford more interaction between occupants, overhead...
Article
Full-text available
Existing buildings have a huge opportunity in terms of energy and water savings potential in Indonesia. In Jakarta alone, it is estimated that least 90 percent of total buildings were built before 2014. The general perception of having a more energy-efficient existing building is associated with a higher upfront cost and how to finance it. To overc...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation is a preliminary work for identifying possibilities in financing energy-efficient retrofits for existing buildings in Indonesia cities.
Article
Full-text available
Large‐scale population displacement can overwhelm wastewater treatment facilities and increase environmental pollution in the host communities. Academic research has discussed features that improve wastewater treatment systems' resiliency toward other types of disasters and rapidly changing operation conditions. Concepts that contribute to successf...
Poster
Full-text available
The poster shows the implementation of the widespread use of a proposed building cladding panel comprised of a single unit PV module (exterior) coupled with a storage battery (interior). The implementation of this "building perma-power link" (BPPL) cladding will provide reliable power permanently and continuously for essential systems within buildi...
Article
Using self-reported data from over 12,000 students, staff, and faculty members, this study aims to quantify the effectiveness of various sustainability information sources on the awareness and behavioral changes of participants. Exploratory factor analysis of 12 communication sources resulted in three clusters: news sources, blogs and social media...
Poster
Full-text available
The poster shows systematic reviews of state-of-the-art guidelines from existing building wellness rating systems with lessons-learned from case studies and exploratory ethnographic data.
Poster
Full-text available
Preliminary observations of IEQ, including records of occupant window opening behavior are described and compared with previous studies.
Poster
Full-text available
The overall goal of this three-phase project at the University of Washington Tower (UW Tower) was to address and advocate the importance of providing satisfactory IEQ, sustainable renovated workspaces, and shared IAQ strategies that could be implemented during indoor construction and renovation projects.
Poster
Full-text available
This study aims to identify the awareness and perception about healthy building standards in the context of developing countries.
Article
The proper management of water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services is critical in serving displaced populations. In 2015, the Azraq refugee camp in Jordan serving the displaced Syrian populations became one of the first in the world to have an on-site advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Although there exist guidelines and best practices...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Concerns regarding the environmental impacts of hospitals have made the healthcare sector one of the most prominent settings for the green building movement. Despite these environmental concerns, the number of studies that document the benefits of sustainable healthcare facilities is limited. In this study, the authors used national cost report dat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to demonstrate how scenario planning can be used for identifying forces and drivers that could influence the future of transportation system over a 30 year period. The researchers also used qualitative and quantitative methods to develop key implications for state transportation agencies for addressing underlying chal...
Article
This paper explores the adoption, character, and impact of adaptive-management strategies used in energy retrofitting of an administrative office building in Seattle, Washington. A multilevel qualitative research design informed data collection from pre-retrofit surveys and focus group interviews with three key stakeholder groups. An exploratory an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Skanska USA Building Inc. has the goal of utilizing past safety data to reduce the number of fatalities, injuries, illnesses and near misses on construction sites in keeping with their Injury Free Environment (IFE) initiative. To this end, following any safety incident, data is collected and stored subsequent to a full incident review that exceeds...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Rainwater collection is an environmentally sustainable way to reduce the demand on public water supplies and to mitigate the impacts of storm water runoff. While untreated and treated rainwater is used for a number of purposes ranging from garden irrigation to toilet flushing, a more extensive use of rainwater resources is currently hindered by the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The civil war in Syria has caused the displacement of an estimated 11.7 million people, of which over 5 million are seeking asylum or protection abroad. While the large-scale movement has been mainly directed towards the bordering countries, such as Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey, in summer 2015, the number of people seeking for asylum in the EU explod...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Prioritizing energy efficiency retrofit efforts in buildings is ideally based on the rational objective of generating trade-offs between maximum benefit and minimum cost. However, current practices have demonstrated stakeholders' tendency to inconsistently adopt mental shortcuts that are built upon personal intuition, limited empirical studies, or...
Poster
Full-text available
Objective is to understand how FMs perceive, evaluate, and select energy efficiency retrofits in buildings.
Article
Plug load monitoring and associated occupant behavior interventions can play a critical role in reducing commercial building energy consumption. This study investigates whether the reduction in building energy consumption justify the added cost of plug load monitoring and occupant energy saving interventions. The objective of this study is to condu...
Article
This paper explores the adoption, character, and impact of adaptive-management strategies used in energy retrofitting of an administrative office building in Seattle, Washington. A multilevel qualitative research design informed data collection from pre-retrofit surveys and focus group interviews with three key stakeholder groups. An exploratory an...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose. The objective of this paper is to identify opportunities, barriers, and guidelines for future research in behavioral energy interventions in commercial buildings. Originality. Research on assessing the effectiveness of occupant behavior interventions has increased considerably over the last decade. This review includes a structured analysi...
Article
Recent disruptions of communities due to natural hazard events such as hurricanes and earthquakes have led to increased calls for improved resiliency of the built environment. The “built environment” denotes constructed facilities such as buildings and bridges, as well as infrastructure systems such as power delivery, transportation roadways and wa...
Article
The objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework that explains the implications and corresponding strategies of changes for state transportation agencies (STAs) to ensure long-term satisfactory performance in the area of construction. The researchers used their collective knowledge to identify key drivers of change using the systems...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Commercial buildings account for 18% of the total annual energy use in the United States, which makes energy conservation efforts in office environments crucial to meeting future energy-reduction goals. As existing building stock renews and future buildings become “smarter,” occupant-driven loads such as plug loads become more important in regulati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Human behavior has been well recognized to have a significant influence on energy consumption both indoors and outdoors. Traditionally, these behaviors have been investigated separately as occupant behavior and travel behavior. However, as human activity patterns are interconnected and our choices as travelers or occupants vary spatially and tempor...
Article
The authors studied Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), which recently completed a 17-month project for implementing an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. The authors used self-reported data from 3,294 staff members collected over 11 months throughout the project and employed logistic regression to compare responses from three role...
Article
The use of energy service performance contracts (ESPCs) has become a popular method for financing energy conservation upgrades. To date, the use of the stipulated savings approach, often expressed as tables and equations, has been a popular method for calculating energy savings in ESPCs. However, no studies to date have confirmed or denied the lite...
Article
Different techniques and guidelines are available to select and quantify the savings from energy service projects. In this article, a comparison is presented between the engineering algorithms supported by energy service performance contract technical reference manuals and an as-built, calibrated whole-building energy simulation model. A lighting e...
Article
State transportation agencies have implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) for real-time access to financial and human resource information across divisions and districts. In 2013, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) started the transition of 22 mainframe and legacy applications to an enterprise-wide computing environment, compris...
Technical Report
Transportation agencies have significantly improved many aspects of project delivery, yet they continue to be challenged by cost increases and time delays that occur after a project is programmed and funded. Increasing or changing the scope of a project to improve facility performance is a common source of cost increases and schedule delays, as is...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper introduces the risks for nuclear power plant construction. The relative risks of the nuclear plant projects are investigated using content analysis. The determined risk elements are organized by the types of resources such as Material, Money, Manpower, and Machinery. These terms are called '4M' in the construction industry. This paper ad...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The University of Washington (UW) is aiming to reduce the overall electricity consumption on campus as part of its Climate Action Plan launched in 2009. To achieve this goal, UW installed 216 smart grid meters and automatic heating, ventilation, and cooling control systems across the entire campus and acquired over 200 sets of plug-load monitoring...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Reductions in electric power consumption at the University of Washington are an established sustainability performance target. In order to meet this target, Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) certification of buildings on campus is part of a long term plan for the University. It has been assumed that LEED certification will result i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The impacts on energy generation and use on sustainability, increasing energy demand, and declining natural resources have made energy improvements a top priority for many organizations. But adequate financing for sustainability improvement projects for built infrastructures is not available. The Paid-From-Savings approach can leverage savings to p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The professional skill set needs of the construction industry continues to mature. Construction industry employers increasingly tend to hire university graduates for supervisory and management appointments and most entry-level professional positions are filled by employees with degrees in construction science/management, or civil engineering. A cor...
Article
The preferential selection of minority firms in federally assisted contracts, state contracts and large metropolitan contracts has been in effect in the US for the purpose of meeting affirmative action goals, but this practice has also raised questions about the quality of contract performance. A survey of 93 firms was conducted for a comparative i...
Article
The goal of this research is to conduct a comparative investigation of the performance of minority/disadvantaged/women business enterprise (MBE/DBE/WBE) versus non-MBE/DBE/WBE companies in transportation projects. A performance assessment model was developed in a survey format following review of contemporary performance measurement tools. The surv...

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Projects

Projects (6)
Project
Green and Healthy Building certification systems increasingly motivate stakeholder decision making and serve as influential guides for sustainable design and construction. These codes promote water-use efficiency through measures such as low-flow features and rainwater reuse. Health-oriented guidelines such as WELL particularly emphasize water quality. However, reduced flow and increased water age can produce a variety of negative water quality outcomes, posing occupant health risks including increased opportunistic pathogen growth in premise plumbing systems. The goal of this project is to: assess the standing research and assessment of water age/quality and microbial concerns in low-flow systems; compare the current and potential role of Green/Healthy Building codes and certification programs in effecting in-building water quality outcomes; and summarize recent studies and efforts toward policy assessment and effective planning to improve coordination and close design-quality outcome gaps, assessed for their applicability toward in-building water quality and safety.
Project
To design, fabricate and field test a building cladding element that couples solar power with embedded small-scale storage batteries. The cladding will provide permanent continuous power that is supplemental to the power grid and will enhance the energy resilience of the building.
Project
The goal of this project is to develop insights into how stakeholders make building energy efficiency investment decisions. Associated green investment strategies are assessed along with project ROIs.