Amy Hagopian

Amy Hagopian
University of Washington Seattle | UW · Department of Health Services

PhD

About

149
Publications
52,044
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2,813
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1983 - present
University of Washington Seattle
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (149)
Article
Full-text available
Objective This analysis examines governorate-level disease incidence as well as the relationship between incidence and the number of persons of concern for three vaccine-preventable diseases—measles, mumps, and rubella—between 2001 and 2016. Methods Using Iraqi Ministry of Health and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) data, we p...
Article
Objective: To analyze disparities in causes of mortality between unhoused people in King County, Washington and the general population in Washington. Methods: We built a database from the King County Medical Examiner’s list of presumed homeless decedents, 2009–2019, and worked with a homeless advocacy organization to gather detailed cause and mode...
Article
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Background Previous research has focused on the mortality associated with armed conflict as the primary measure of the population health effects of war. However, mortality only demonstrates part of the burden placed on a population by conflict. Injuries and resultant disabilities also have long-term effects on a population and are not accounted for...
Article
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Social support is known to protect against homelessness and improve the wellbeing of people experiencing homelessness, but the role of professional versus informal advocates has not been studied in relation to the duration of homelessness and quality of life. We measured the effect of the presence and quality of formal (professional) and informal (...
Article
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Research in assessing the global and asymmetric flows of health workers in general, and international medical graduates in particular, is fraught with controversy. The complex goal of improving health status of the citizens of home nations while ensuring the right of health workers to migrate generates policy discussions and decisions that often ar...
Article
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Although medical debt has been associated with housing instability, almost no research has connected homelessness to medical debt. We interviewed 60 individuals experiencing homelessness in Seattle, selected from those participating in self-governed encampments organized by a homeless advocacy organization. Most respondents reported having at least...
Article
Background: Recently, United States life expectancy has stagnated or declined for the poor and working class and risen for the middle and upper classes. Declining labor-union density-the percent of workers who are unionized-has precipitated burgeoning income inequity. We examined whether it has also exacerbated racial and educational mortality ine...
Technical Report
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Health worker unemployment in countries with shortage is a paradox and a growing concern to global health stakeholders. We sought to document the evidence by reviewing the literature on unemployment among nurses and midwives, dentists, pharmacists, and physicians from low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) with alleged critical shortage. We...
Article
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Introduction Although health labour migration is a global phenomenon, studies have neglected the flow of health workers into low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). In compliance with the data-monitoring recommendation of the WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel (Code), we estimated post-Code phys...
Article
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Background: The 2003 invasion of Iraq significantly undermined population health. However, there is a lack of understanding of how it has undermined communicable disease control. We assessed incidence trend of 32 communicable diseases in post-conflict Iraq. Methods: Reported incidence data for 32 communicable diseases (2004-2016) were harvested...
Article
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Background: Legal system involvement is a policy-driven risk factor for homelessness. Legal financial obligations (LFOs), such as court fees, fines and restitution, can endanger the financial security of those ensnared in the criminal justice system. In this study we measured the effect of incarceration and LFOs on duration of homelessness in Seat...
Article
Background Low-income countries suffer chronic problems in producing, employing and distributing their health workers. The World Health Organization advocates for upgrading the number and quality of nursing professionals. As nurses and midwives comprise more than 60% of the health workforce in Uganda, the country's goal to improve nursing education...
Article
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In February 2018, the Supreme Court heard oral arguments in Janus v. AFSCME, a case poised to make right-to-work (or, as some call it, right-to-work-for-less) the law in the public sector. At issue is the constitutionality of requiring non-union members, who benefit from collective bargaining, to pay fees that support contract negotiations on the t...
Article
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Background: The environment for medical education in Iraq has been difficult for many years. The 2003 invasion of Iraq accelerated a steady emigration of faculty and graduates. Kidnappings and deaths of doctors became commonplace. To understand current career plans, expectations and perceptions of medical students, three Baghdad medical schools we...
Article
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Stijn van Weezel and Michael Spagat (2017) have critiqued our 2011 report of mortality in Iraq following the 2003 US-led invasion in this issue of Research & Politics. In this response, we make our case for reporting both direct and indirect excess war-related deaths (while distinguishing the difference), defend our efforts to account for survival...
Article
We report on the implementation experience of carrying out data collection and other activities for a public health evaluation study on whether U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) investment improved utilization of health services and health system strengthening in Uganda. The retrospective study period focused on the PEPFAR sc...
Article
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Background: Gay men and other men who have sex with men are disproportionately burdened by HIV infection. Laws that penalize same-sex intercourse contribute to a cycle of stigma, homonegativity and discrimination. In many African nations, laws criminalizing homosexuality may be fueling the epidemic, as they dissuade key populations from seeking tre...
Article
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Objectives We estimated war-related Iraqi mortality for the period 1980 through 1993. Method To test our hypothesis that deaths reported by siblings (even dating back several decades) would correspond with war events, we compared sibling mortality reports with the frequency of independent news reports about violent historic events. We used data fr...
Data
Survey questionnaire. (DOCX)
Article
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Background: Vertically oriented global health initiatives (GHIs) addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic, including the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), have successfully contributed to reducing HIV/AIDS related morbidity and mortality. However, there is still debate about whether these disease-specific programs have improved or harmed...
Article
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We sought to portray how collective bargaining contracts promote public health, beyond their known effect on individual, family, and community well-being. In November 2014, we created an abstraction tool to identify health-related elements in 16 union contracts from industries in the Pacific Northwest. After enumerating the contract-protected benef...
Article
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Objectives PEPFAR’s initial rapid scale-up approach was largely a vertical effort focused fairly exclusively on AIDS. The purpose of our research was to identify spill-over health system effects, if any, of investments intended to stem the HIV epidemic over a 6-year period with evidence from Uganda. The test of whether there were health system expa...
Article
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Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the...
Data
Workshop Evaluation Module 1C. (DOCX)
Data
Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. (DOCX)
Data
Policy Reforms in the Partnership Frameworks. (XLS)
Data
Workshop Evaluation Module 1B. (DOCX)
Data
Workshop Evaluation Module 1A. (DOCX)
Data
Workshop Evaluation Module 3-Month Follow-up. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Around 50 million people are killed or left disabled on the world's roads each year; most are in middle-income cities. In addition to this background risk, Baghdad has been plagued by decades of insecurity that undermine injury prevention strategies. This study aimed to determine death and disability and household consequences of roa...
Article
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Purpose: Civilians living amid conflict are at high-risk of burns. However, the epidemiology of burns among this vulnerable group is poorly understood, yet vital for health policy and relief planning. To address this gap, we aimed to determine the death and disability, healthcare needs and household financial consequences of burns in post-invasion...
Article
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Background: Whereas accreditation is widely used as a tool to improve quality of healthcare in the developed world, it is a concept not well adapted in most developing countries for a host of reasons, including insufficient incentives, insufficient training and a shortage of human and material resources. The purpose of this paper is to describe re...
Article
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Background: The objective of this study was to characterize injuries, deaths, and disabilities arising during 11 years of conflict in Baghdad. Methods: Using satellite imagery and administrative population estimated size for Baghdad, 30 clusters were selected, proportionate to population size estimates. Interviews were conducted during April and...
Article
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We wholeheartedly concur with your recent Editorial, "The CDC Clearance Process: An Obstacle to Progress in Public Health."(1) Furthermore, we admire the courage of the authors who speak so frankly about a public donor. The three of us are based at the University of Washington and entered into a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Co...
Article
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We explored the effects on health of both household asset inequality and political armed conflict in Sudan. Using the 2010 Sudan household survey, we evaluated the role of both household asset distribution (measured by the Gini coefficient) and armed conflict status at the state level. We measured associations with six health-related outcomes: life...
Article
Full-text available
Patriarchal traditions and a history of armed conflict in Timor-Leste provide a context that facilitates violence against women. More than a third of ever-married Timorese women report physical and/or sexual domestic violence (DV) perpetrated by their most recent partner. DV violates women's rights and may threaten their reproductive health. Marita...
Conference Paper
Background Within the United States, there is a strong tradition of public health advocacy to address the social determinants of health, including in settings of political conflict. Since 2008, a series of resolutions has been proposed to express this advocacy in regard to the Israeli occupation of Palestine. And since 2009, APHA has been working...
Conference Paper
The Lancet Palestinian Health Alliance represents a five-year effort organized by The Lancet, one of the world’s most prominent and respected medical journals. The Alliance has conducted four scientific conferences on the issues involved in health in the occupied Palestinian territory, and in 2009 published a series of five reports that cited more...
Article
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Objective: Following national trends, Washington State relies heavily on foreign-born workers to provide long-term care. Our study assesses state nursing facility characteristics, quality ratings, and the views of facility administrators about the implications of an increasing number of foreign-born employees. Methods: We used independently availab...
Article
Full-text available
We explored the effects on health of both household asset inequality and political armed conflict in Sudan. Using the 2010 Sudan household survey, we evaluated the role of both household asset distribution (measured by the Gini coefficient) and armed conflict status at the state level. We measured associations with six health-related outcomes: life...
Article
Full-text available
We explored the effects on health of both household asset inequality and political armed conflict in Sudan. Using the 2010 Sudan household survey, we evaluated the role of both household asset distribution (measured by the Gini coefficient) and armed conflict status at the state level. We measured associations with six health-related outcomes: life...
Article
http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673614613040.pdf?id=aaaKrEem-N4wGh0uBG_Fu
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Attracting and retaining a stable and motivated home care workforce has become a top policy priority. We surveyed 402 former home care workers in Washington State. We compared these "leavers" to current home care workers recently surveyed. Those who left the profession were more highly educated, had higher household income, and were more l...
Article
Full-text available
In 2009 the American Public Health Association approved the policy statement, "The Role of Public Health Practitioners, Academics, and Advocates in Relation to Armed Conflict and War." Despite the known health effects of war, the development of competencies to prevent war has received little attention. Public health's ethical principles of practice...
Article
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Background: We organised a four-university collaboration to estimate mortality attributable to the 2003 invasion and occupation of Iraq, including both direct and indirect deaths. The 12 researchers involved were all volunteers, crossing boundaries of three nations to participate in the study. Methods: We did a survey of 2000 randomly-selected hous...
Article
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Little is available in scholarly literature about how HIV-positive prisoners, especially in low-income countries, access antiretroviral therapy (ART) medication. We interviewed 18 prisoners at a large prison in Namibia to identify barriers to medication adherence. The lead nurse researcher was a long-standing clinic employee at the prison, which af...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Patriarchal traditions and a history of armed conflict in Timor-Leste contribute to widespread violence against women. Thirty-five percent of Timorese women report physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner (IPV). IPV violates women's human rights and can threaten their physical, mental, and reproductive health. We examined...
Article
Full-text available
Previous estimates of mortality in Iraq attributable to the 2003 invasion have been heterogeneous and controversial, and none were produced after 2006. The purpose of this research was to estimate direct and indirect deaths attributable to the war in Iraq between 2003 and 2011. We conducted a survey of 2,000 randomly selected households throughout...
Article
Full-text available
The shortage and mal-distribution of surgical specialists in sub-Saharan African countries is born out of shortage of individuals choosing a surgical career, limited training capacity, inadequate remuneration, and reluctance on the part of professionals to work in rural and remote areas, among other reasons. This study set out to assess the views o...
Data
Full-text available
Background: The shortage and mal-distribution of surgical specialists in sub-Saharan African countries is born out of shortage of individuals choosing a surgical career, limited training capacity, inadequate remuneration, and reluctance on the part of professionals to work in rural and remote areas, among other reasons. This study set out to assess...
Article
Full-text available
Background While PEPFAR investments were associated with HIV-related survival, it has been less clear what the effects of this investment in HIV care have been for health-care use generally, especially in maternal care. Understanding of these effects could have implications for how to organise future global health initiatives for major health probl...