Amy Cohn

Amy Cohn
University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | ouhsc · Oklahoma Tobacco Research Center

Doctor of Philosophy

About

122
Publications
10,779
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2,315
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2014 - present
Georgetown University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (122)
Article
Background: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) adults are overrepresented in the population of individuals experiencing homelessness, and high rates of substance use are common in this group. Plausibly, poor mental health and discrimination may contribute to substance use among SGM adults experiencing homelessness. This study described participant c...
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Introduction: Although the Food and Drug Administration banned other characterising flavours in cigarettes, menthol cigarettes are still available to consumers. Young adult new smokers are initiating with menthol cigarettes, such that the prevalence of young adults menthol versus non-menthol smokers is increasing. Experimentation with menthol ciga...
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Little is known about the risks and benefits associated with medical cannabis legalization. The current study was an online panel survey of adult Oklahomans recruited between September and October 2020 (N=1898). Respondents with and without a medical cannabis license were compared on sociodemographic, substance use and health characteristics, and s...
Article
Background Sexual minority females have higher rates of cigarette smoking than heterosexual females. Additionally, menthol cigarette use disproportionately impacts minority smokers, including sexual minority individuals. This study examined differences between sexual minority and heterosexual females on several smoking variables, including initiati...
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Objective Morbidity and mortality from smoking-related diseases among people living with HIV (PLWH) in the U.S. surpasses that due to HIV itself. Conventional smoking cessation treatments have not demonstrated strong efficacy among PLWH. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate a tailored smoking cessation intervention bas...
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Introduction: Flavored tobacco products (FTPs) are disproportionately used among young people and racial/ethnic minority populations. However, few studies have examined the retail distribution of such product marketing beyond menthol cigarettes. This study created geographic-based predictions about marketing of FTPs (overall, cigarettes, cigars, e...
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Background: The current study examined how cannabis use status impacts cognitive and emotional reactions to public health campaigns about cannabis, and the degree to which these reactions influence message likeability and attitudes about cannabis-related harms. Methods: In a between-subjects design, 252 subjects recruited via Amazon Mechanical T...
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Objective Tobacco use remains disproportionately common among adults with internalizing problems. The rising prevalence of flavored tobacco use among this population may be a contributing factor. Using data from Wave 4 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study, this study examined differences across adult ever tobacco users reporting...
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Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of a combined Internet and text message intervention for smoking cessation compared with an Internet intervention alone. The text message intervention was optimized for engagement in an earlier Multiphase Optimization (MOST) screening phase. Design: A parallel, 2-group, individually randomized clinical trial (...
Article
Introduction Menthol cigarettes are popular among young adults and are disproportionately used by African American smokers. Menthol’s minty and cooling sensations have been hypothesized to enhance the appeal and reinforcement of smoking; however, differences in menthol’s subjective appeal across races have been inconsistent. This secondary data ana...
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Background: Exposure to tobacco product marketing increases tobacco use among young adults, especially those from vulnerable communities (VCs). Purpose: This study examined real-time tobacco marketing exposure among young adults from vulnerable and non-vulnerable communities using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). Methods: This study used...
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Background Little is known about the correlates of e-cigarette (EC) use among adults seeking smoking cessation treatment, and it is unclear how EC use affects smoking treatment outcomes. Methods Participants were 649 adult smokers enrolled in smoking cessation treatment. Participants completed a baseline (pre-quit) assessment with follow-up at 4-,...
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The current study investigated whether stressful life events and everyday discrimination experiences were associated with using one or more substances in the past 30-days and substance use disorder (SUD) among adults experiencing homelessness. We obtained survey data from adults (N = 501) seeking services at a day shelter. Participants self-reporte...
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Background Perceptions of risk of using marijuana have decreased significantly in the US over the last decade, while marijuana use has increased. In order to educate people on the risks associated with marijuana use, large-scale health messaging campaigns have been deployed to educate the public about the risks associated with marijuana use, partic...
Article
Introduction The prevalence of little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) use among young adults is high. Research shows there are racial/ethnic differences in this prevalence, with Black/African American users more likely to report current LCC use. Given these discrepancies in LCC use, the present study aimed to assess potential differences in reasons for L...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective Morbidity and mortality from smoking-related diseases among people living with HIV (PLWH) in the U.S. surpasses that due to HIV itself. Conventional smoking cessation treatments have not demonstrated strong efficacy among PLWH. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate a tailored smoking cessation intervention bas...
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Full-text available
Background: Heavy drinking (HD) is far more common among smokers compared with nonsmokers and interferes with successful smoking cessation. Alcohol-focused smoking cessation interventions delivered by counselors have shown promise, but digital versions of these interventions-which could have far greater population reach-have not yet been tested....
Article
Objectives: In this study, we measured the effects of cigarillo packaging colors and flavor descriptors on appeal and perceived risk among young adults. Methods: United States-based young adults (ages 18-24) recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk were randomized to view one of 7 images of cigarillo packages that varied in color (Black and White [B&W]...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Smoking remains a leading cause of preventable death and illness worldwide. Internet interventions for smoking cessation have the potential for enormous public health impact given their broad reach and proven effectiveness. Given the dose-response association between engagement and behavior change outcomes, identifying strategies to prom...
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Background: Smoking remains a leading cause of preventable death and illness. Internet interventions for smoking cessation have the potential to significantly impact public health, given their broad reach and proven effectiveness. Given the dose-response association between engagement and behavior change, identifying strategies to promote engageme...
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Background: Many risk factors for tobacco use among the general young adult population, such as tobacco advertising receptivity, have gone unexamined among those with internalizing problems, despite disproportionately high rates of tobacco use. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the interrelationship of internalizing problems, to...
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Objectives: Using the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study, this study examined whether pleasant and unpleasant subjective responses to the first cigarette smoked differed by initiation with a menthol versus non-menthol cigarette and whether subjective response was associated with current tobacco use behaviors, independent of, a...
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Background: Cigarette smoking is disproportionately high among adults with two or more psychiatric disorders (psychiatric comorbidities), yet research on non-cigarette tobacco use among this population is scant. Additionally, most studies on tobacco use this among this population rely on psychiatric diagnoses rather than individual symptoms, poten...
Article
Aims: The cooling and minty flavor of menthol in cigarettes has been hypothesized to mask the harshness of inhaled cigarette smoke, contributing to menthol's appeal and subjective reinforcement and linking menthol use to smoking initiation, progression, nicotine dependence, and difficulty quitting. This study examined differences between menthol a...
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Objective: Marijuana use is associated with negative cognitive and health outcomes and risky driving. Given the rapidly changing policies regarding legal recreational and medicinal marijuana use, it is important to examine what types of marijuana prevention messages may be effective in minimizing such outcomes. This study examined cognitive and af...
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Background: Past-month marijuana use has increased significantly among US young adults (aged 18-24) and marijuana use often overlaps with tobacco use. This study investigated the relative prevalence and correlates of individual tobacco product use among young adult marijuana and tobacco users to determine if unique typologies could be identified....
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Mental health problems like anxiety, depression, and substance use problems commonly co-occur with cigarette smoking and are linked to poor cessation outcomes. Although millions of smokers seek online quitting assistance each year, few studies have examined links between website utilization and cessation outcomes among smokers with mental health pr...
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Objective: To examine whether mental health problems predict incident use of 12 different tobacco products in a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. Method: This study analyzed Wave (W) 1 and W2 data from 10,533 12- to 24-year-old W1 never tobacco users in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Self-...
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Online smoking cessation communities help hundreds of thousands of smokers quit smoking and stay abstinent each year. Content shared by users of such communities may contain important information that could enable more effective and personally tailored cessation treatment recommendations. This study demonstrates a novel approach to determine indivi...
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Background Few Internet smoking cessation programs specifically address the impact of alcohol use during a quit attempt, despite its common role in relapse. This study used topic modeling to describe the most prevalent topics about alcohol in an online smoking cessation community, the prevalence of negative sentiment expressed about alcohol use in...
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Background and Objectives This study identified the most common patterns of current alcohol and marijuana use with the spectrum of tobacco products (cigarettes, hookah, e‐cigarettes, cigars/little cigars, and other products), among US young adults and older adults and examined associations of mental health and substance use problems with each patte...
Article
Background: Cannabis use is more common among tobacco users than nonusers, and co-use (i.e., use of both substances individually) may be increasing. Better understanding of patterns and correlates of co-use is needed. The current study aimed to compare rates and correlates of tobacco and cannabis co-use by tobacco product among youth. Methods: H...
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Background: While evidence suggests bidirectional associations between cigarette use and substance (alcohol or drug) use, how these associations are reflected across the range of currently available tobacco products is unknown. This study examined whether ever tobacco use predicted subsequent substance use, and ever substance use predicted subsequ...
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Background: Little is known about the influence of online peer interactions on health behavior change. This study examined the relationship between exposure to peer sentiment about nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in an online social network for smoking cessation and NRT use. Methods: Participants were 3297 current smokers who enrolled in an I...
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Introduction Interactive Voice Response (IVR) technology has become an increasingly popular and valid method for collecting Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data on a variety of health-risk behaviors, including daily alcohol use and cigarette smoking, and for stimulating behavior change. However, very little research has evaluated the paramete...
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Background This study examined whether young adult marijuana use increases risk of subsequent large cigar (LC) and little cigar/cigarillo (LCC) use among naïve users. Methods Data were from 8 waves of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort, a national sample of US young adults aged 18–34 assessed every 6 months. Discrete-time survival analyses ex...
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Objectives We examine adolescent receipt of tobacco coupons and subsequent tobacco use. Methods Data were from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study (2013–2015). We identified correlates of coupon receipt at Wave 1 (youth sample age 12–17 ; n = 13 651) including demographics, additional vulnerability factors that may place y...
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Perceived experiences of discrimination have been linked to negative health behaviors including tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use across various racial/ethnic groups. Tobacco and alcohol marketing exposure have also been linked with substance use. This study examined the independent and interacting effects of perceived experiences of discriminati...
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Introduction: In the United States, the prevalence of tobacco use among sexual and gender minorities (SGM) is higher compared to their non-SGM counterparts. Tobacco harm perceptions have gone largely unexamined as a potential mechanism supporting disproportionate tobacco use among this population. The purpose of this study was to examine differenc...
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Introduction: Harm perceptions of menthol cigarettes may contribute to their appeal and use. African-Americans, women, and younger smokers disproportionately use menthol cigarettes, and may misperceive harm of menthol cigarettes. Methods: Data were from Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Weighted analyses of...
Article
Introduction: User generated content (UGC) is a valuable but underutilized source of information about individuals who participate in online cessation interventions. This study represents a first effort to passively detect smoking status among members of an online cessation program using UGC. Methods: Secondary data analysis was performed on dat...
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Background Substance use and mental health are robustly associated with smoking and poor cessation outcomes, but not often examined in combination with menthol cigarette smoking, which is also associated with lower quit rates. This study identified classes of Black and White menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers based on demographics, alcohol,...
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Introduction Hookah prevalence has been increasing in U.S. adults. This study examines correlates and frequency of hookah use in a national sample of U.S. adults (18–44 years). Methods Data were drawn from Wave 10 (October 2016) respondents aged 18–44 years from the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study (n = 4085). Weighted bivariate analyses...
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Introduction Use of online social networks for smoking cessation has been associated with abstinence. Little is known about the mechanisms through which the formation of social ties in an online network may influence smoking behavior. Using dynamic social network analysis, we investigated how temporal changes of an individual’s number of social net...
Data
In-degree and out-degree-aware frequencies by social network utilization group. (DOCX)
Article
Purpose: Menthol has been hypothesized to ease the harshness of cigarette smoke. Thus, sensory experiences at first cigarette use may be one mechanism by which menthol facilitates progression to regular smoking. This study examined differences in subjective experiences to first use of a menthol vs. non-menthol cigarette among new young adult smoke...
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Background: Alcohol and other drug use disorders co-occur with cigarette smoking and negatively impact cessation outcomes. Objectives: This study examined the differential effects of current and lifetime DSM-IV drug diagnoses on the 6-month smoking outcomes of 84 untreated heavy drinking smokers who were motivated to quit smoking in the next 6-m...
Article
Background and aims: Cogent arguments have been made against the need for biochemical verification in population-based studies with low-demand characteristics. Despite this fact, studies involving digital interventions (low-demand) are often required in peer review to report biochemically verified abstinence. To address this discrepancy, we examin...
Article
Justice-involved individuals with alcohol and drug use problems reoffend at higher rates than their nonusing counterparts, with alcohol and drug use serving as an important vector to recidivism. At the daily level, exposure to stressors may exacerbate problematic alcohol and drug use; at the individual level, prior treatment experiences may mitigat...
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Cigarette smoking is common among patients in substance abuse treatment. Tobacco control programs have advocated for integrated tobacco dependence treatment into behavioral healthcare, including within substance abuse treatment facilities (SATFs) to reduce the public health burden of tobacco use. This study used data from seven waves (2006 to 2012)...
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Introduction: The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act banned characterizing flavors other than menthol in cigarettes but did not restrict their use in other forms of tobacco (e.g., smokeless, cigars, hookah, e-cigarettes). Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of Wave 1 data from 45,971 U.S. adults and youth, aged ≥12 years in t...
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Objective: Alcohol use and problem drinking are associated with smoking relapse and poor smoking-cessation success. User-generated content in online social networks for smoking cessation provides an opportunity to understand the challenges and treatment needs of smokers. This study used machine-learning text classification to identify the prevalen...
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Introduction This study estimated differences in cigarette harm perceptions among smokers of the Natural American Spirit (NAS) brand—marketed as ‘natural’, ‘organic’ and ‘additive-free’—compared to other smokers, and examined correlates of NAS use. Methods Data were drawn from wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study,...
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Background: Depression and anxiety are correlated with greater nicotine dependence, smoking persistence, and relapse back to smoking after a quit attempt. Menthol cigarette smoking, which is prevalent in young adults, is associated with nicotine dependence, progression to regular smoking, and worse cessation outcomes than non-menthol smoking. Few...
Article
Alcohol and smoking frequently co-occur and alcohol is a primary trigger for smoking behavior and relapse back to smoking. This study examined whether several indices of alcohol use behavior and consequences of use would be associated with changes in implicit alcohol-approach versus implicit cigarette-approach cognitions under cigarette deprived an...
Article
Hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) has been increasing, particularly among young adults and has similar health effects compared to cigarette smoking. The link between HTS and poly-tobacco use is well documented, but fewer show an association between HTS and alcohol use. It is essential to identify factors that increase the risk for or addictiveness and c...
Article
Background: As of 2015, more than half of U.S. states have legalized, medicalized, or decriminalized marijuana. Objective: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of support for marijuana legalization in a national sample of young adults and the intention to use marijuana more frequently if it were legalized. Methods: Data were from...
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Introduction: In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration issued warnings to three tobacco manufacturers who label their cigarettes as “additive-free” and/or “natural” on the grounds that they make unauthorized reduced risk claims. The goal of this study was to examine US adults’ perceptions of three American Spirit (AS) pack descriptors (“Made with...
Article
Background: Emerging tobacco product use is on the rise in young adults and has been linked to alcohol and marijuana use. Little is known about which patterns of alcohol, marijuana, and emerging tobacco product co-use are most popular in this age group. Objectives: This study examined the prevalence of a broad spectrum of marijuana, alcohol, and...
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Background: Online health communities (OHCs) provide a convenient and commonly used way for people to connect around shared health experiences, exchange information, and receive social support. Users often interact with peers via multiple communication methods, forming a multirelational social network. Use of OHCs is common among smokers, but to d...
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Introduction A challenge in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS) research is how to refer to these devices in ways that are meaningful to current or potential users. The objectives of this study were to: 1) describe the frequency of ENDS terms in a web-based smoking cessation intervention; and 2) determine whether terms vary by U.S. geographi...
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Background: Internet interventions may have an important role to play in helping self-quitters maintain an initial period of abstinence. Little is known about the characteristics and utilization patterns of former smokers who use Internet cessation programs. Objective: The overarching aim of this preliminary study was to establish the feasibilit...
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Objective: This study explored medication-assisted treatment (MAT), the combined use of medication and psychosocial treatment, as a strategy for reducing violent outcomes in community-based offenders. The primary aims were to: 1) examine associations between participant characteristics and treatment adherence; 2) examine associations between treat...
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Objective: Substance use disorders are common among persons with HIV/AIDS. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the provision of four HIV services in a national sample of substance abuse treatment facilities. Methods: Data were from the 2011 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services. Results: Prevalence estimates in...
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Introduction: Dual use of little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs) with cigarettes is becoming more popular; especially among men, but infrequently studied. Dual tobacco users show a higher prevalence of health-risk behaviors such as drug and alcohol use, are likely exposed to higher levels of nicotine and tobacco-related toxicants, and have greater diffic...
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Full-text available
Introduction Millions of smokers use the Internet for smoking cessation assistance each year; however, most smokers engage minimally with even the best designed websites. The ubiquity of mobile devices and their effectiveness in promoting adherence in other areas of health behaviour change make them a promising tool to address adherence in Internet...