Amy R Brooks-Kayal

Amy R Brooks-Kayal
Children's Hospital Colorado · Department of Neurology

About

85
Publications
6,222
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,777
Citations

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by the occurrence of recurrent spontaneous seizures. Behavioral disorders and altered cognition are frequent comorbidities affecting the quality of life of people with epilepsy. These impairments are undoubtedly multifactorial and the specific mechanisms underlying these comorbidities are largely unknown....
Article
Full-text available
Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent, spontaneous seizures and is a major contributor to the global burden of neurological disease. Although epilepsy can result from a variety of brain insults, in many cases the cause is unknown and, in a significant proportion of cases, seizures cannot be controlled by available treatments. Understanding the mol...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a major signaling molecule that the brain uses to control a vast network of intracellular cascades fundamental to properties of learning and memory, and cognition. While much is known about BDNF signaling in the healthy nervous system where it controls the mitogen activated protein kinase (MA...
Preprint
Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a major signaling molecule that the brain uses to control a vast network of intracellular cascades fundamental to properties of learning and memory, and cognition. While much is known about BDNF signaling in the healthy nervous system where it controls the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK...
Article
Precision medicine is the treatment of patients with therapy targeted to their specific pathophysiology. This lofty ideal currently has limited application in clinical practice. However, new technological advances in epilepsy models and genomics suggest that the precision medicine revolution is closer than ever before. We are gaining an improved un...
Article
Full-text available
While the exact role of β1 subunit-containing GABA-A receptors (GABARs) in brain function is not well understood, altered expression of the β1 subunit gene (GABRB1) is associated with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, down-regulation of β1 subunit levels is observed in brains of patients with epilepsy, autism, bipolar diso...
Preprint
While the exact role of β1 subunit-containing GABA-A receptors (GABARs) in brain function is not well understood, altered expression of the β1 subunit gene (GABRB1) is associated with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, down-regulation of β1 subunit levels is observed in brains of patients with epilepsy, autism, bipolar diso...
Chapter
Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABARs) mediate the majority of brain inhibition and alterations in GABARs are linked to recurrent seizures. Animal models of epilepsy demonstrate altered phasic and tonic inhibition that derives from a change in GABAR number, subunit composition, trafficking, and posttranslational modification. In particul...
Chapter
Epilepsy is a disease of complex etiology and mechanisms. Many types of brain injuries can lead to acquired epilepsy. Increasing evidence suggests that changes in GABAA Receptor (GABAR) subunit expression, specifically reduction in α1-and increase in α4-containing synaptic GABARs in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, produce a change in receptor...
Article
Full-text available
The most common forms of acquired epilepsies arise following acute brain insults such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, or central nervous system infections. Treatment is effective for only 60%-70% of patients and remains symptomatic despite decades of effort to develop epilepsy prevention therapies. Recent preclinical efforts are focused on likel...
Article
Current antiseizure therapy is ineffective in approximately one third of people with epilepsy and is often associated with substantial side effects. In addition, most current therapeutic paradigms offer treatment, but not cure, and no therapies are able to modify the underlying disease, that is, can prevent or halt the process of epileptogenesis or...
Article
Neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities are common in patients with epilepsy. Diagnostic, predictive, and pharmacodynamic biomarkers of such comorbidities do not exist. They may share pathogenetic mechanisms with epileptogenesis/ictogenesis, and as such are an unmet clinical need. The objectives of the subgroup on biomarkers of comorbidities at th...
Article
Full-text available
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are elevated after status epilepticus (SE), leading to activation of multiple signaling pathways, including the janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway that mediates a decrease in GABAA receptor α1 subunits in the hippocampus (Lund et al., 2008). While BDNF can signal via...
Article
Synaptic inhibition in the adult brain is primarily mediated by the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABAAR). The distribution, properties, and dynamics of these receptors are largely determined by their subunit composition. Alteration of subunit composition after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in abnormal increased synaptic f...
Article
In this study, we analyzed the impact that spontaneous seizures might have on the plasma membrane expression, composition and function of GABAA receptors (GABAARs). For this, tissue of chronically epileptic rats was collected within 3hours of seizure occurrence (≤3hours group) or at least 24hours after seizure occurrence (≥24hours group). A retrosp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the continuing goal to merge the fields of computational neuroscience with medical based neurodiagnostic clinical research this paper presents advancements on machine learning Big Electroencephalo-gram (EEG) Data. The authors' clinical decision-support systems (CDSS) presented in previous work was able to distinguish, within minutes, pathologica...
Article
Background The optimal position of academic child neurology programs between adult neurology versus pediatrics remains an open question. The Professors of Child Neurology (PCN), the national organization of child neurology department chairs, division chiefs, and training program directors was surveyed to evaluate the placement of child neurology pr...
Article
Translation of successful target and compound validation studies into clinically effective therapies is a major challenge, with potential for costly clinical trial failures. This situation holds true for the epilepsies—complex diseases with different causes and symptoms. Although the availability of predictive animal models has led to the developme...
Article
Numerous changes in GABAergic neurons, receptors, and inhibitory mechanisms have been described in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), either in humans or in animal models. Nevertheless, there remains a common assumption that epilepsy can be explained by simply an insufficiency of GABAergic inhibition. Alternatively, investigators have suggested that the...
Article
Full-text available
The JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway has been shown to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell survival, cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and angiogenesis in development and after cerebral insults. Until recently, little has been known about the effects of this pathway activation after cerebral insults and if blocking this pathway...
Article
Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), which results in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in rodents, activates the JAK/STAT pathway. In the current study, we evaluate whether brief exposure to a selective inhibitor of the JAK/STAT pathway (WP1066) early after the onset of SE effects the severity of SE or reduces later spontaneous seizure frequenc...
Article
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children, and early posttraumatic seizures (EPTS) are a contributing factor to ongoing acute damage. Continuous video-EEG monitoring (cEEG) was utilized to assess the burden of clinical and electrographic EPTS. Eighty-seven consecutive, unselected (mild - severe), acut...
Article
Several preclinical proof-of-concept studies have provided evidence for positive treatment effects on epileptogenesis. However, none of these hypothetical treatments has advanced to the clinic. The experience in other fields of neurology such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has indicated several problems in the desi...
Article
Full-text available
Many symptoms of neurologic or psychiatric illness-such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, attention deficits, and migraine-occur more frequently in people with epilepsy than in the general population. These diverse comorbidities present an underappreciated problem for people with epilepsy and their caregivers because they decrease quali...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When an exhaustive search is impractical in non-clinical en-virons, people tend to use heuristic methods to expedite their search. Conversely, clinicians trust exhaustive searches rather than heuristics such as clinical decision-support systems (CDSS), particularly when elec-troencephalography (EEG) sequences are used to search for pathologic oscil...
Article
Purpose: Epileptogenesis is the process by which a brain becomes hyperexcitable and capable of generating recurrent spontaneous seizures. In humans, it has been hypothesized that following a brain insult there are a number of molecular and cellular changes that underlie the development of spontaneous seizures. Studies in animal models have shown t...
Article
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions that affect people of all ages. Epilepsy is characterized by occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures. Currently available drugs are ineffective in controlling seizures in approximately one-third of patients with epilepsy. Moreover, these drugs are associated with adverse effects, and n...
Article
Abstract The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABA(A)R) is responsible for most fast synaptic inhibition in the adult brain. The GABA(A)R protein is composed of multiple subunits that determine the distribution, properties, and dynamics of the receptor. Several studies have shown that the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator...
Article
Neonatal seizures have unique properties that have proved challenging for both clinicians and basic science researchers. Clinical therapies aimed at neonatal seizures have proven only partially effective and new therapies are slow to develop. This article will discuss neonatal seizures within the framework of the barriers that exist to the developm...
Article
Full-text available
J. Neurochem. (2012) 120, 210–219. Regulation of gene expression via brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical to the development of the nervous system and may well underlie cognitive performance throughout life. We now describe a mechanism by which BDNF can exert its effects on postsynaptic receptor populations that may have relevance t...
Article
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABA(A) receptors are heteropentamers formed by assembly of multiple subunits that generate a wide array of receptors with particular distribution and pharmacological profiles. Malfunction of these receptors has been associated with the pathophysiology of epilepsy and...
Article
Intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) such as autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) and epilepsies are heterogeneous disorders that have diverse etiologies and pathophysiologies. The high rate of co-occurrence of these disorders, however, suggests potentially shared underlying mechanisms. A number of well-known genetic disorders share epi...
Article
Full-text available
Because epilepsy often occurs during development, understanding the mechanisms by which this process takes place (epileptogenesis) is important. In addition, the age-specificity of seizures and epilepsies of the neonatal, infancy, and childhood periods suggests that the processes and mechanisms that culminate in epilepsy might be age specific as we...
Chapter
Epileptogenesis, is associated with changes in the expression of a multitude of genes, including those related to inhibitory neurotransmission, and alterations in many of these genes and their gene products may be critical contributors to hyperexcitability. The GABAA receptor (GABAR) mediates most fast synaptic inhibition in brain, and changes in G...
Article
Full-text available
To analyze the spectrum of neurological manifestations in children hospitalized with pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus of 2009 (pH1N1). Retrospective case series of children hospitalized from May 1, 2009, through November 30, 2009. Tertiary-care children's hospital in Colorado. All hospitalized patients with pH1N1 with neurological consult or diagnos...
Article
Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsies are heterogeneous disorders that have diverse etiologies and pathophysiologies. The high rate of co-occurrence of these disorders suggest potentially shared underlying mechanisms. A number of well-known genetic disorders share epilepsy and autism as prominent phenotypic features, including tuberous s...
Article
The perineuronal net (PN), a component of the neural extracellular matrix (ECM), is a dynamic structure whose expression decreases following diminished physiological activity. Here, we analyzed the effects of increased neuronal activity on the development of aggrecan, a component of the PN, in the hippocampus. We show aggrecan expression to be prom...
Article
When seizures, abnormal electrical discharges in the brain, occur during infancy or early childhood, there is a belief amongst child neurologists and pediatricians that the seizures are harmful to a child’s brain development. Anti-epileptic drugs are used to treat these seizures, yet these drugs may have an impact on brain development as well. Anim...
Chapter
Theoretically, gene therapy offers an attractive alternative for the treatment of focal epilepsies, and recently, studies have established the basic viability of anti-seizure gene therapy by employing a number of diverse approaches. Using recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, significant seizure suppression has been obtained in vivo by...
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in the X-linked aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX) have been linked to structural brain anomalies as well as multiple neurocognitive deficits. The generation of Arx-deficient mice revealed several morphological anomalies, resembling those observed in patients and an interneuron migration defect but perinatal lethality precluded analys...
Article
Retrospective studies suggest that precipitating events such as prolonged seizures, stroke, or head trauma increase the risk of developing epilepsy later in life. The process of epilepsy development, known as epileptogenesis, is associated with changes in the expression of a myriad of genes. One of the major challenges for the epilepsy research com...
Article
During the past decade, substantial progress has been made in delineating clinical features of the epilepsies and the basic mechanisms responsible for these disorders. Eleven human epilepsy genes have been identified and many more are now known from animal models. Candidate targets for cures are now based upon newly identified cellular and molecula...
Article
Neonatal seizures occur frequently, are often refractory to anticonvulsants, and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Genetic and electrophysiological evidence indicates that KCNQ voltage-gated potassium channels are critical regulators of neonatal brain excitability. This study tests the hypothesis that selective openers of KC...
Article
Full-text available
The regulated expression of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor (GABA(A)R) subunit genes plays a critical role in neuronal maturation and synaptogenesis. It is also associated with a variety of neurological diseases. Changes in GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit gene (GABRA1) expression have been reported in animal models of epilepsy, alcoh...
Article
Cortical interneuron dysfunction has been implicated in multiple human disorders including forms of epilepsy, mental retardation, and autism. Although significant advances have been made, understanding the biologic basis of these disorders will require a level of anatomic, molecular, and genetic detail of interneuron development that currently does...
Article
Full-text available
The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABA(A)R) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptor in the brain. Its multiple subunits show regional, developmental, and disease-related plasticity of expression; however, the regulatory networks controlling GABA(A)R subunit expression remain poorly understood. We report that the seizure-...
Article
Seizures and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) affect brain development and have long-term neurological consequences. The specific molecular and cellular changes, the precise timing of their influence during brain development, and the full extent of the long-term consequences of seizures and AEDs exposure have not been established. This review critically...
Article
Differential expression of GABA(A) receptor (GABR) subunits has been demonstrated in hippocampus from patients and animals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but whether these changes are important for epileptogenesis remains unknown. Previous studies in the adult rat pilocarpine model of TLE found reduced expression of GABR alpha1 subunits and inc...
Article
Previous studies in neonatal (postnatal day 10) and adult rats suggest that status epilepticus (SE) induces changes in the alpha1 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor (GABRA1) in dentate granule neurons (DGNs) that are age dependent and vary inversely with the likelihood of epilepsy development. In the present study, we examined GABRA1 expression after...
Article
Full-text available
Altered function of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) in dentate granule cells of the hippocampus has been associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in humans and in animal models of TLE. Such altered receptor function (including increased inhibition by zinc and lack of modulation by benzodiazepines) is related, in part, to changes...
Article
There is an increase in the birth of dentate granule neurons after status epilepticus (SE) and there are concurrent alterations in neurotransmitter receptor expression that may contribute to the development of spontaneous seizures. To determine whether newborn and/or mature dentate granule neurons have altered neurotransmitter receptor expression a...
Article
Full-text available
The progesterone metabolite 5alpha-pregnane-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP) is an important modulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and stress-induced corticosterone response. Typically, 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels are increased in response to acute stress, which may then reduce corticosterone release from the adrenals. Early postnat...
Article
Full-text available
GABA is the major inhibitory transmitter at CNS synapses. Changes in subunit composition of the pentameric GABAA receptor, including increased levels of α4 subunit in dentate granule cells and associated functional alterations such as increased zinc blockade of GABA currents, are hypothesized to be critical components of epileptogenesis. Here, we r...
Article
The gamma-amino-butyric acid type A receptors (GABAAR) are a heteropentameric receptor complex, composed of 16 possible subunits in various combinations, forming a ligand-gated ion channel. Subunit composition is the primary determinant of GABAAR physiology and pharmacology. Here we have measured mRNA levels for 16 GABAAR subunits in isolated denta...
Article
The immature brain is highly susceptible to seizures. The heightened susceptibility to seizures appears to be due, at least in part, to developmental changes that skew the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems in the brain in favor of a state of excitation. Multiple factors, including changes in GABAergic and glutaminer...
Article
Diazepam (DZ) and phenobarbital (PH) are commonly used to treat early-life seizures and act on GABAA receptors (GABAR). The developing GABAergic system is highly plastic, and the long-term effects of postnatal treatment with these drugs on the GABAergic system has not been extensively examined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of p...
Article
Many neurologic abnormalities have been identified in patients with a deletion of chromosome region 22q11.2, including recurrent, apparently unprovoked seizures. We reviewed the database of patients with a 22q11.2 deletion at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia to assess the prevalence of idiopathic epilepsy in this population. The records of 3...
Article
Long-term GABA(A) receptor alterations occur in hippocampal dentate granule neurons of rats that develop epilepsy after status epilepticus in adulthood. Hippocampal GABA(A) receptor expression undergoes marked reorganization during the postnatal period, however, and the effects of neonatal status epilepticus on subsequent GABA(A) receptor developme...
Article
To determine the fate of newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs) after lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in an immature rat. Postnatal day 20 (P20) rats were injected with lithium and pilocarpine to induce SE, and then with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) 4, 6, and 8 days later (P24, 26, and 28), and killed 1 day (P29), 1 week (P34), and 3...
Article
Prolonged seizures in early childhood are associated with an increased risk of development of epilepsy in later life. The mechanism(s) behind this susceptibility to later development of epilepsy is unclear. Increased synaptic activity during development has been shown to permanently alter excitatory neurotransmission and could be one of the mechani...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing evidence suggests that postnatal events, such as handling or maternal separation, can produce long-term changes in brain function. These are often expressed as changes in the profile of endocrine or behavioral responses to stress. Changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABARs), which mediate the majority of fast synaptic in...
Article
Prolonged early-life seizures are considered potential risk factors for later epilepsy development, but mediators of this process remain largely unknown. Seizure-induced structural damage in hippocampus, including cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting, is thought to contribute to the hyperexcitability characterizing epilepsy, but a causative role has...
Article
To define the changes in gene and protein expression of the neuronal glutamate transporter (EAAT3/EAAC1) in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy as well as in human hippocampal and neocortical epilepsy. The expression of EAAT3/EAAC1 mRNA was measured by reverse Northern blotting in single dissociated hippocampal dentate granule cells from rats wit...
Article
There has been an impressive increase in our ability to identify and categorize patients with cortical development lesions over the past decade. The clinical features associated with disorders of cortical development (DCD) have been described, and epilepsy has been shown to be a frequent symptom. In this review, we categorize DCD based on their str...
Article
Purpose: To define the changes in gene and protein expression of the neuronal glutamate transporter (EAAT3/EAAC1) in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy as well as in human hippocampal and neocortical epilepsy. Methods: The expression of EAAT3/EAAC1 mRNA was measured by reverse Northern blotting in single dissociated hippocampal dentate granul...
Article
Profound alterations in the function of GABA occur over the course of postnatal development. Changes in GABAA receptor expression are thought to contribute to these differences in GABAergic function, but how subunit changes correlate with receptor function in individual developing neurons has not been defined precisely. In the current study, we cor...
Article
Altered excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmission, mediated primarily by glutamate, is a major cause of the imbalance of excitation and inhibition which characterizes both early development and epileptogenesis. Glutamate's actions are mediated by three classes of receptors: NMDA, non-NMDA (AMPA and kainate), and metabotropic. Several features o...
Article
Acquired epileptic aphasia remains a poorly understood entity, which is frequently difficult to treat. Previously described treatment modalities have included antiepileptic drugs, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and multiple subpial transections. We describe three patients with acquired epileptic aphasia refractory to traditional treat...
Article
Full-text available
gamma-Aminobutyric acid(A) receptors (GABARs) are heteromeric proteins composed of multiple subunits. Numerous subunit subtypes are expressed in individual neurons, which assemble in specific preferred GABAR configurations. Little is known, however, about the coordination of subunit expression within individual neurons or the impact this may have o...