Amita Kapoor

Amita Kapoor
University of Wisconsin–Madison | UW · Wisconsin National Primate Research Center

PhD

About

49
Publications
3,497
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,774
Citations
Citations since 2017
25 Research Items
740 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
Additional affiliations
September 2011 - August 2015
Wisconsin National Primate Research Center
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (49)
Article
The luteal-placental shift is an important milestone of mammalian pregnancy signifying when endocrine control of pregnancy shifts from the corpus luteum to the placenta. The corpus luteum is maintained by chorionic gonadotropin (CG). Upon sufficient placental maturation, CG production wanes, the corpus luteum involutes and control is shifted to the...
Article
Full-text available
Declining serum estradiol (E2) levels during the menopausal transition are associated with increased central adiposity and heightened risk for metabolic disease. Ovarian estradiol, E2, supports female metabolic function. While ovariectomy (OVX) in rodents enables obesity, OVX in nonhuman primates (NHPs) inconsistently alters weight gain. We therefo...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Ovarian estradiol supports female sexual behavior and metabolic function. While ovariectomy (OVX) in rodents abolishes sexual behavior and enables obesity, OVX in nonhuman primates decreases, but does not abolish, sexual behavior, and inconsistently alters weight gain. Objective: We hypothesize that extra-ovarian estradiol provides key...
Article
Insulin is a peptide hormone that is secreted by the β cells of the pancreas and is essential to the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body. The marmoset insulin peptide is not homologous with human insulin and therefore commonly available assays do not work for this species. Due to the increasing popularity of marmoset researc...
Preprint
Experience with enriched environments positively impacts the health and wellbeing of nonhuman animals ranging from rodents to primates. Little is known, however, about the specific effects of enhanced cognitive enrichment (ECE) on nonhuman primates. The study reported here used archival samples to provide preliminary analysis of ECE on hormones ass...
Preprint
Introduction: Insulin is a peptide hormone that is secreted by the β cells of the pancreas and is essential to the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body. The marmoset insulin peptide is not homologous with human insulin and therefore commonly available assays do not work for this species. Due to the increasing popularity of ma...
Article
To investigate genetic and environmental influences on cortisol levels, mothers of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were studied four times over a 7.5-year period. All participants (n=84) were carriers of the FMR1 “premutation”, a genetic condition associated with impaired HPA axis functioning. Genetic variation was indicated by expansions in...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is an almost universal, yet underappreciated, endocrinological complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The goal of this study was to determine whether the developmental hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment could reverse HH induced by a TBI. Methods Plasma samples were collected...
Article
U.S. jails see nearly 11 million annual admissions, rates that disproportionately affect men of color—more than half of whom are fathers. An estimated 7% of U.S. children experience the incarceration of a parent, increasing their risk for poor developmental and health outcomes. Although stress processes are often suggested as an underlying mechanis...
Preprint
Adolescence is an important developmental period during which anxiety-related behaviors differentiate in males and females. In humans anxiety prevalence increases to a greater degree in women than men after puberty, but the mechanism is unknown. We used social defeat stress to model anxiety behaviors in California mouse, a species in which aggressi...
Article
Background: While sex hormones are essential for normal cognitive health, those individuals with greater endocrine dyscrasia around menopause and with andropause are more likely to develop cognitive loss and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Objective: To assess whether circulating sex hormones may provide an etiologically significant, surrogate biomark...
Article
This study tests a group-based secular contemplative practice intervention, Cognitively-Based Compassion Training (CBCT), with parents of young children. We report on a randomized controlled preliminary efficacy study. Certified teachers administered CBCT for 20 hr across 8 to 10 weeks in two cohorts of parents with infants and young children. The...
Article
In female nonhuman primates, ovarian and extra-ovarian estradiol (E2) contribute components of negative and positive feedback regulation of pituitary gonadotropin, as well as sexually receptive behavior. Little is known, however, about accompanying changes in brain steroid hormone content, particularly at the level of the hypothalamus. As part of a...
Article
Full-text available
Vitamin D adequacy is essential for multiple physiologic processes. With limited exposure to sunlight for vitamin D3 synthesis, captive primates are supplemented with vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). Vitamin D metabolite data from wild primates living indigenously could suggest optimum levels. The purpose of this study was to: 1) to explore whether ba...
Article
Analysis of cortisol in hair has become a widespread tool for assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity because of its ease of collection and its ability to provide cumulative data over a period of months. In order to meaningfully interpret hair cortisol, however a direct validation by radio-metabolism is required to understa...
Article
Full-text available
Globally, women bear an uneven burden for sexual HIV acquisition. Results from two clinical trials evaluating intravaginal rings (IVRs) delivering the antiretroviral agent dapivirine have shown that protection from HIV infection can be achieved with this modality, but high adherence is essential. Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) can pote...
Data
Detailed method descriptions for all new bioanalysis assays. (DOCX)
Article
The lower reproductive tract of nonhuman primates is colonized with a diverse microbiota, resembling bacterial vaginosis (BV), a gynecological condition associated with negative reproductive outcomes in women. Our 4 aims were to: (i) assess the prevalence of low Lactobacilli and a BV-like profile in female rhesus monkeys; (ii) quantify cytokines in...
Article
Full-text available
Six laboratories associated with the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) participated in an interlaboratory comparison of LC with tandem MS (MS/MS) methods for the determination of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ [24,25(OH)₂D₃] in human serum. The laboratories analyzed two different serum-based Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) intended for use in...
Article
While the ovary produces the majority of estradiol (E2) in mature female primates, extra-ovarian sources contribute to E2 synthesis and action, including brain E2 regulating hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In ovary-intact female rodent models, aromatase inhibition (AI) induces a PCOS-like hypergonadotropic hyperandrogenism due t...
Article
Full-text available
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids like conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are required for normal neural development and cognitive function and have been ascribed various beneficial functions. Recently, oral CLA also has been shown to increase testosterone (T) biosynthesis, which is known to diminish traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced neuropath...
Article
Hormones present in hair provide summative information about endocrine activity while the hair was growing. Therefore, it can be collected from an infant after birth and still provide retrospective information about hormone exposure during prenatal development. We employed this approach to determine whether a delimited period of maternal stress dur...
Article
In primates, despite the fact that gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are mature at birth, a gonadal steroid independent "central inhibition" restrains the initiation of puberty. The neural substrates responsible for this central inhibition, however, are unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that neuroestradiol release in the...
Article
Vitamin D metabolites are widely studied for their roles in bone health, immune functions, and other potential physiologic roles in humans. However, the optimal blood levels of vitamin D metabolites are still unclear. Various methods for measuring vitamin D metabolites have been used and recently liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-M...
Article
Full-text available
Background It is established that maternal parity can affect infant growth and risk for several disorders, but the prenatal endocrine milieu that contributes to these outcomes is still largely unknown. Recently, it has been shown that hormones deposited in hair can provide a retrospective reflection of hormone levels while the hair was growing. Tak...
Article
Full-text available
Release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH)/median eminence region (S-ME) is essential for normal reproductive function. GnRH release is profoundly regulated by the negative and positive feedback effects of ovarian estradiol (E2). Here we report that neuroestradiol, released in the S-ME, also directly i...
Article
Dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a critical role in the regulation of motivational states. Recent studies in male rodents show that social defeat stress increases the activity of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons projecting to the NAc, and that this increased activity is necessary for stress-induced social withdrawal. Domest...
Article
Full-text available
Retention of substances from systemic circulation in the brain and testes are limited due to high levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the luminal membranes of brain and testes capillary endothelial cells. From a clinical perspective, P-gp rapidly extrudes lipophilic therapeutic agents, which then fail to reach efficacious levels. Recent studies have...
Article
Studies in humans have demonstrated a link between stress during pregnancy and altered behaviour and stress reactivity in children. In guinea pigs, we have previously shown that a short period of maternal stress during gestation leads to increased anxiety, elevated basal cortisol levels and decreased testosterone levels in adult males. We hypothesi...
Article
Preterm delivery occurs in approximately 10% of all pregnancies. Prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs) reduces the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in these babies. Therefore, administration of multiple courses of sGCs became common practice. Animal and human studies have demonstrated that multiple courses of sGCs ca...
Article
Glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and most mammals, and corticosterone in rats, mice, and other lower vertebrates) are essential for normal brain development. They exert a wide spectrum of effects in most regions of the developing brain, ranging from subcellular reorganization to neuron–neuron and neuron–glial interaction. However, sustained elev...
Article
Prenatal stress is associated with altered behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function postnatally. Recent studies suggest that these outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress. The majority of these studies have been carried out in male offspring. We hypothesized that a short period of prenatal stress would res...
Article
Impaired fetal development has been linked with deficits in behavioural and emotional development during postnatal life. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying this relationship, we studied the effect of acute stress at two different critical phases of pregnancy on cognitive function in adult guinea pig offspring. Pregnant guinea pigs we...
Article
Studies in humans and animals have demonstrated that maternal stress during fetal development can lead to altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and behaviour postnatally. We have previously shown adult male guinea pigs that were born to mothers exposed to a stressor during the phase of rapid fetal brain growth (gestational days...
Article
Reduced fetal growth has been closely associated with an increased risk for the development of chronic disease in later life. Accumulating evidence indicates that fetal exposure to excess glucocorticoids represents a critical mechanism underlying this association. Approximately 7% of pregnant women are at risk of preterm delivery and these women ar...
Article
Exposure to high cortisol concentration can injure the developing brain, possibly via an excitotoxic mechanism involving glutamate (Glu). The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic prenatal ethanol exposure (CPEE) activates the foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to produce high cortisol exposure in the foetal compartment and alter...
Article
Prenatal stress (PS) and maternal exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids can lead to permanent modification of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function and stress-related behaviour. Both of these manipulations lead to increased fetal exposure to glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids are essential for many aspects of normal brain development, but expo...
Article
Prenatal stress can have profound long-term influences on physiological function throughout the course of life. We hypothesized that focused periods of moderate prenatal stress at discrete time points in late gestation have differential effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in adult guinea pig offspring, and that changes in H...
Article
Pregnant guinea pigs were treated with dexamethasone (1 mg kg(-1)) or vehicle on days 40-41, 50-51 and 60-61 of gestation, after which animals delivered normally. Adult male offspring were catheterized at 145 days of age and subjected to tests of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in basal and activated states. Animals exposed to de...

Network

Cited By