Amit Singh

Amit Singh
University of Dayton | UD · Centre for Tissue Regeneration and Engineering at Dayton (TREND), Department of Biology

PhD

About

92
Publications
22,652
Reads
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1,267
Citations
Citations since 2016
42 Research Items
850 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
Introduction
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, eye serves as an excellent model to address diverse biological processes like patterning cell proliferation, cell death, cell survival, polarity and genetic basis of human diseases. Singh lab study (i) the role of axial patterning in birth defects in eye and (ii) neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimers Disease.
Additional affiliations
June 2016 - present
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, United States
Position
  • Affiliate Member
Description
  • I have been invited as an Affiliate Member to the Center for Genomic Advocacy (TCGA), Indiana State University, Terre Haute, USA
August 2013 - present
University of Dayton
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2013 - present
University of Dayton
Position
  • Director, Graduate Progarm of Biology

Publications

Publications (92)
Chapter
RNA is an important connecting link between DNA and proteins. Levels of RNA within a cell or a tissue serve as the unique genetic signatures, which can help in correlating gene expression to the resultant phenotype(s) during development and disease. Transcriptomics is the study of all RNAs expressed/available in cells or tissues that allow study of...
Article
Full-text available
Cell death maintains tissue homeostasis by eliminating dispensable cells. Misregulation of cell death is seen in diseases like cancer, neurodegeneration, etc. Therefore, cell death assays like TUNEL have become reliable tools, where fragmented DNA of dying cells gets fluorescently labeled and can be detected under microscope. We used TUNEL assay in...
Chapter
A hallmark of development, aging, represents the changes in the body over a period of time. At cellular level, the basic unit of organization in multicellular organism, aging is associated with deterioration of cellular function(s) and replicative ability. These changes include accumulation of genetic damage, shortening of telomere length, metaboli...
Article
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), an age‐related progressive neurodegenerative disorder, exhibits reduced cognitive functions with no cure to date. One of the reasons for AD is the extracellular accumulation of Amyloid‐beta 42 (Aβ42) plaques. Misexpression of human Aβ42 in the developing retina of Drosophila exhibits AD‐like neuropathology. Accumulation of...
Article
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder with no cure and few treatments. AD causes profound cognitive deficits and memory impairments. Accumulation of the peptide amyloid beta plaque is one of the characteristics of the disease. To understand the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, studies often rely on ectopic express...
Article
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD), an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disorder, exhibits reduced cognitive functions with no cure to date. One of the reasons for AD is the extracellular accumulation of Amyloid-beta 42 (Aβ42) plaques. Misexpression of human Aβ42 in the developing retina of Drosophila exhibits AD-like neuropathology. Ac...
Article
Full-text available
Newts utilize their unique genes to restore missing parts by strategic regulation of conserved signaling pathways. Lack of genetic tools pose challenges to determine the function of such genes. Therefore, we used the Drosophila eye model to demonstrate the potential of 5 unique newt (Notophthalmus viridescens) gene(s), viropana1-viropana5 (vna1-vna...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous imaging modules are utilized to study changes that occur during cellular processes. Besides qualitative (immunohistochemical) or semiquantitative (Western blot) approaches, direct quantitation method(s) for detecting and analyzing signal intensities for disease(s) biomarkers are lacking. Thus, there is a need to develop method(s) to quanti...
Article
Full-text available
Presence of inflammatory factors in the tumor microenvironment is well-documented yet their specific role in tumorigenesis is elusive. The core inflammatory pathways like the Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) and the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) pathway are conserved in Drosophila. We induced GFP-marked epithelial tumors by expressing activated oncogenic for...
Preprint
Full-text available
A fundamental process of regeneration, which varies among animals, recruits conserved signaling pathways to restore missing parts. Only a few animals like newts can repeatedly regenerate lost body parts throughout their lifespan that can be attributed to strategic regulation of conserved signaling pathways by newt's regeneration tool-kit genes. Her...
Book
This fully updated edition provides selected mouse genetic techniques and their application in modeling varieties of human diseases. The chapters are mainly focused on the generation of different transgenic mice to accomplish the manipulation of genes of interest, tracing cell lineages, and modeling human diseases. Written for the highly successful...
Poster
Full-text available
The genetic underpinnings behind conversion of healthy neurons to those of AB-42 plaque-forming neurons
Article
Full-text available
To understand the progression of Alzheimer's disease, studies often rely on ectopic expression of amyloid-beta 42 (Aβ42) throughout an entire tissue. Uniform ectopic expression of Aβ42 may obscure cell-cell interactions that contribute to the progression of the disease. We developed a two-clone system to study the signaling cross talk between GFP-l...
Article
Full-text available
The phenomenon of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) pausing at transcription start site (TSS) is one of the key rate-limiting steps in regulating genome-wide gene expression. In Drosophila embryo, Pol II pausing is known to regulate the developmental control genes expression, however, the functional implication of Pol II pausing during later developmental...
Article
Full-text available
During development, regulation of organ size requires a balance between cell proliferation, growth and cell death. Dysregulation of these fundamental processes can cause a variety of diseases. Excessive cell proliferation results in cancer whereas excessive cell death results in neurodegenerative disorders. Many signaling pathways known-to-date hav...
Article
During organogenesis, cell proliferation is followed by the differentiation of specific cell types to form an organ. Any aberration in differentiation can result in developmental defects, which can result in a partial to a near-complete loss of an organ. We employ the Drosophila eye model to understand the genetic and molecular mechanisms involved...
Preprint
Full-text available
Presence of inflammatory factors in the tumor microenvironment is well known yet their specific role in tumorigenesis is elusive. The core inflammatory pathways are conserved in Drosophila, including the Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) and the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) pathway. We used Drosophila tumor models to study the role of inflammatory factors in...
Chapter
Axial patterning, a fundamental process during organogenesis, is required for transition of a single layer organ primordium to a three-dimensional organ in all multi-cellular organisms. Axial patterning involves delineation of antero-posterior (AP), dorsal-ventral (DV), and proximo-distal (PD) axes. Any deviation in this fundamental process of orga...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer's disease (AD, OMIM: 104300) is an age-related disorder that affects millions of people. One of the underlying causes of AD is generation of hydrophobic amyloid-beta 42 (Aβ42) peptides that accumulate to form amyloid plaques. These plaques induce oxidative stress and aberrant signaling, which result in the death of neurons and other patho...
Article
Full-text available
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of motor neurons in the central nervous system, has no known cure to-date. Disease causing mutations in human Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) leads to aggressive and juvenile onset of ALS. FUS is a well-conserved protein across different species, which pla...
Book
Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) is a highly versatile model with a genetic legacy of more than a century. It provides powerful genetic, cellular, biochemical and molecular biology tools to address many questions extending from basic biology to human diseases. One of the most important questions in biology is how a multi-cellular organism develo...
Chapter
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects people aged over 65 years. AD is marked by cognitive deficits and memory problems that worsen with age and ultimately results in death. Pathology of AD includes aggregation of the amyloid beta peptide into extracellular plaques and the presence of hyper...
Article
Full-text available
Cover illustration: The cover image is based on the Original Article Proximal fate marker homothorax marks the lateral extension of stalk‐eyed fly Cyrtodopsis whitei by Amit Singh et al., DOI: 10.1002/dvg.23309.
Article
Full-text available
Notophthalmus viridescens (Red-spotted Newt) possess amazing capabilities to regenerate their organs and other tissues. Previously, using a de novo assembly of the newt transcriptome combined with proteomic validation, our group identified a novel family of five protein members expressed in adult tissues during regeneration in Notophthalmus virides...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer’s disease (hereafter AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects the central nervous system. There are multiple factors that cause AD, viz., accumulation of extracellular Amyloid-beta 42 plaques, intracellular hyper-phosphorylated Tau tangles, generation of reactive oxygen species due to mitochondrial dysfunction and gene...
Article
Full-text available
The placement of eyes on insect head is an important evolutionary trait. The stalk‐eyed fly, Cyrtodopsis whitei, exhibits a hypercephaly phenotype where compound eyes are located on lateral extension from the head while the antennal segments are placed inwardly on this stalk. This stalk‐eyed phenotype is characteristic of the family Diopsidae in th...
Article
Full-text available
Hippo pathway was initially identified through genetic screens for genes regulating organ size in fruitflies. Recent studies have highlighted the role of Hippo signaling as a key regulator of homeostasis, and in tumorigenesis. Hippo pathway is comprised of genes that act as tumor suppressor genes like hippo (hpo) and warts (wts), and oncogenes like...
Article
For ages, regeneration has intrigued countless biologists, clinicians, and biomedical engineers. In recent years, significant progress made in identification and characterization of a regeneration tool kit has helped the scientific community to understand the mechanism(s) involved in regeneration across animal kingdom. These mechanistic insights re...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder, also results from accumulation of amyloid-beta 42 (Aβ42) plaques. These Aβ42 plaques trigger oxidative stress, abnormal signaling, which results in neuronal death by unknown mechanism(s). We misexpress high levels of human Aβ42 in the differentiating retinal neurons of the Dr...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to express a gene of interest in a spatio-temporal manner using Gal4-UAS system has allowed the use of Drosophila model to study various biological phenomenon. During Drosophila eye development, a synchronous wave of differentiation called Morphogenetic furrow (MF) initiates at the posterior margin resulting in differentiation of retina...
Data
Study of expression pattern of GMR lines carrying enhancer of dpp using GFP reporter in the developing eye imaginal disc. These GMR enhancer lines are carrying CRE sequences of dpp- gene (Table 1). Expression of (A) GMR18B08>GFP, (B) GMR18D08>GFP, (C) GMR19D09>GFP, (D) GMR16G02>GFP, (E) GMR17E04>GFP, (F) GMR17G08>GFP, (G) GMR19B04>GFP, (H) GMR19C03...
Data
Study of expression pattern of GMR lines carrying enhancer of dpp using GFP reporter in the developing leg imaginal disc. Expression of (A) GMR18B08>GFP, (B) GMR18D08>GFP, (C) GMR19D09>GFP, (D) GMR16G02>GFP, (E) GMR17E04>GFP, (F) GMR17G08>GFP, (G) GMR19B04>GFP, (H) GMR19C03>GFP in (A-H) leg imaginal disc. None of these lines exhibit GFP reporter ex...
Data
Study of expression pattern of GMR lines carrying enhancer of dpp using GFP reporter in the developing wing imaginal disc. Expression of (A) GMR18B08>GFP, (B) GMR18D08>GFP, (C) GMR19D09>GFP, (D) GMR16G02>GFP, (E) GMR17E04>GFP, (F) GMR17G08>GFP, (G) GMR19B04>GFP, (H) GMR19C03>GFP in (A-H) wing imaginal disc. None of these lines exhibit GFP reporter...
Data
Gain-of-function phenotype of reaper (rpr) using dpp-CRM lines exhibits ventral eye loss. (A, B)dpp>rpr, (C,D) GMR18D08>rpr, (E,F) GMR17E04>rpr. Note that dpp>rpr results in highly reduced eye as seen in (A) the eye imaginal disc and (B) the adult eye. (C, D) GMR18D08>rpr results in the reduced (C) eye imaginal disc and (D) the adult eye with prefe...
Data
Study of expression pattern of GMR lines carrying enhancer of dpp using GFP reporter in the developing haltere imaginal disc. Expression of (A) GMR18B08>GFP, (B) GMR18D08>GFP, (C) GMR19D09>GFP, (D) GMR16G02>GFP, (E) GMR17E04>GFP, (F) GMR17G08>GFP, (G) GMR19B04>GFP, (H) GMR19C03>GFP in (A-H) haltere imaginal disc. None of these lines exhibit GFP rep...
Data
Study of expression pattern of GMR lines carrying enhancer of dpp using GFP reporter in the developing third instar larval brain. Expression of (A) GMR18B08>GFP, (B) GMR18D08>GFP, (C) GMR19D09>GFP, (D) GMR16G02>GFP, (E) GMR17E04>GFP, (F) GMR17G08>GFP, (G) GMR19B04>GFP, (H) GMR19C03>GFP in (A-H) larval brain. Only GMR18B08 and GMR17E04 exhibits robu...
Article
Full-text available
We have developed an undergraduate laboratory to allow detection and localization of proteins in the compound eye of Drosophila melanogaster, a.k.a fruit fly. This lab was a part of the undergraduate curriculum of the cell biology laboratory course aimed to demonstrate the use of Western Blotting technique to study protein localization in the adult...
Article
Full-text available
In all multicellular organisms, the fundamental processes of cell proliferation and cell death are crucial for growth regulation during organogenesis. Strict regulation of cell death is important to maintain tissue homeostasis by affecting processes like regulation of cell number, and elimination of unwanted/unfit cells. The developing Drosophila e...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder, has no cure to date. One of the causes of AD is the accumulation of amyloid-beta 42 (Aβ42) plaques, which result in the onset of neurodegeneration. It is not known how these plaques trigger the onset of neurodegeneration. There are several animal models developed to (i) study...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The progressive neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) manifests as loss of cognitive functions, and finally leads to death of the affected individual. AD may result from accumulation of amyloid plaques. These amyloid plaques comprising of amyloid-beta 42 (Aβ42) polypeptides results from the improper cleavage of amyloid pr...
Article
The evolutionarily conserved Hippo signaling pathway is known to regulate cell proliferation and maintain tissue homeostasis during development. We found that activation of Yorkie (Yki), the effector of the Hippo signaling pathway, causes separable effects on growth and differentiation of the Drosophila eye. We present evidence supporting a role fo...
Article
Full-text available
The Drosophila eye-antenna imaginal disc (ead) is a flattened sac of two-layered epithelia, from which most head structures are derived. Secreted morphogens like Wingless (Wg), Hedgehog (Hh), and Decapentaplegic (Dpp) are important for early patterning of ead, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. To understand how these morphoge...
Article
The Hippo signaling pathway is involved in regulating tissue size by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. Aberrant Hippo pathway function is often detected in human cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. The Drosophila C-terminal Src kinase (d-Csk) is a genetic modifier of warts (wts), a tumor-suppressor gene in the Hippo pat...
Article
Developmental fields are subdivided into lineage-restricted cell populations, known as compartments. In the eye imaginal disc of Drosophila, dorso-ventral (DV) lineage restriction is the primary event, whereas antero-posterior compartment boundary is the first lineage restriction in other imaginal discs. The Iroquois complex (Iro-C) genes function...
Chapter
A fundamental feature of developing tissues and organs is generation of planar polarity of cells in an epithelium with respect to the body axis. The Drosophila compound eye shows two-tier dorsoventral (DV) planar polarity. At the individual ommatidium level, the eight photoreceptors in each unit eye form a dorsoventrally asymmetric cluster. At the...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating age related progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of cognition, and eventual death of the affected individual. One of the major causes of AD is the accumulation of Amyloid-beta 42 (Aβ42) polypeptides formed by the improper cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain....
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer's disease (AD, OMIM: 104300), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with no cure to date, is caused by the generation of amyloid-beta-42 (Aβ42) aggregates that trigger neuronal cell death by unknown mechanism(s). We have developed a transgenic Drosophila eye model where misexpression of human Aβ42 results in AD-like neuropathology in t...
Chapter
Full-text available
All multicellular organisms require axial patterning to transform a single-layer organ primordium to a three-dimensional organ. It involves delineation of anteroposterior (AP), dorsoventral (DV), and proximodistal (PD) axes. Any deviation in this fundamental process results in patterning and growth defects during organogenesis. The Drosophila eye i...
Book
Undoubtedly, Drosophila melanogaster, fruit fly, has proved to be one of the most popular invertebrate model organisms, and the work horse for modern day biologists. Drosophila, a highly versatile model with a genetic legacy of more than a century, provides powerful genetic, cellular, biochemical and molecular biology tools to address many question...
Article
Genetic mosaic approach is commonly employed in the Drosophila eye by completely abolishing or misexpressing a gene within a subset of cells to unravel its role during development. Classical genetic mosaic approach involves random clone generation in all developing fields. Consequently, a large sample size needs to be screened to generate and analy...
Article
During organogenesis in all multi-cellular organisms, axial patterning is required to transform a single layer organ primordium into a three-dimensional organ. The Drosophila eye model serves as an excellent model to study axial patterning. Dorso-ventral (DV) axis determination is the first lineage restriction event during axial patterning of the D...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age related progressive neurodegenerative disorder. One of the reasons for Alzheimer's neuropathology is the generation of large aggregates of Aß42 that are toxic in nature and induce oxidative stress, aberrant signaling and many other cellular alterations that trigger neuronal cell death. However, the exact mechanism...
Article
Patterning in multi-cellular organisms involves progressive restriction of cell fates by generation of boundaries to divide an organ primordium into smaller fields. We have employed the Drosophila eye model to understand the genetic circuitry responsible for defining the boundary between the eye and the head cuticle on the ventral margin. The defau...