Ameet Singh

Ameet Singh
University of Guelph | UOGuelph · Department of Clinical Studies

BSc, DVM, DVSc, Diplomate ACVS

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190
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Publications

Publications (190)
Article
Objective: To describe complications and outcomes of dogs undergoing thoracoscopic-assisted (TA) lung lobectomy. Study design: Multi-institutional, retrospective study. Animals: Client-owned dogs (n = 30). Methods: Medical records of dogs that underwent TA lung lobectomy were reviewed. Signalment, bodyweight, clinical signs, imaging findings...
Article
Objective: To evaluate pneumoperitoneal volumes (laparoscopic working space) in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) undergoing pneumoperitoneum via carbon dioxide insufflation at different intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs) (4, 6, and 8 mm Hg) and recumbencies (dorsal, right lateral, and left lateral). Animals: Six 3- to 4-month-old sexually intact fema...
Article
Objective: To report the outcomes of dogs that underwent primary repair of gastroduodenal perforations associated with the administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). A secondary objective was to identify clinicopathological findings that predisposed dogs to postoperative death. Study design: Retrospective study. Animals: E...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Canine intrarenal cystic lesions (ICLs) are infrequently reported in the veterinary literature. Several treatment options have been described including cyst fenestration (partial nephrectomy/deroofing) +/- omentalization, sclerotherapy using alcohol as a sclerosing agent, percutaneous cyst drainage (PCD), and ureteronephrectomy. Informat...
Article
Objective: To determine the influence of the staple line configuration on the leakage of small intestinal functional end-to-end stapled anastomosis (FEESA). Study design: Experimental, ex vivo, randomized study. Sample population: Jejunal segments (N = 72) from 10 mature, canine cadavers. Methods: Jejunal segments (10 cm) were randomly assig...
Article
OBJECTIVE To report the perioperative characteristics and outcomes of dogs undergoing laparoscopic-assisted splenectomy (LAS). ANIMALS 136 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Multicentric retrospective study. Medical records of dogs undergoing LAS for treatment of naturally occurring splenic disease from January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2020, were reviewed...
Article
Laparoscopic surgery has many benefits over open surgery including lower complication rates, and shorter duration and lower cost of hospitalization. However, recent human literature suggests laparoscopy and carbon dioxide insufflation can result in intracranial hypertension. Invasive monitoring of intracranial pressure is not routinely performed in...
Article
Local recurrence after surgical excision of canine massive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been poorly studied in veterinary medicine with scant information published regarding risk factors for and outcome following recurrence. The aim of this case‐control study was to describe the time to recurrence, evaluate potential risk factors for recurren...
Chapter
Indications for liver biopsy are numerous and may include elevated hepatic enzyme activities for more than 30 days, investigation of ultrasonographically identified lesions, abnormal liver size, and staging for neoplastic disease. Percutaneous cutting needle biopsy, with or without ultrasound guidance, is also a minimally invasive technique for liv...
Chapter
Persistent right aortic arch (PRAA) with left ligamentum arteriosum accounts for greater than 90% of vascular ring anomalies in dogs. German shepherds, Irish setters, and Boston terriers are thought to be at increased risk for development of a vascular ring anomaly. Continued medical management with semiliquid diets and upright feeding may be neces...
Chapter
Minimally invasive splenectomy may provide improved patient outcomes compared to open splenectomy for a subset of patients with certain forms of splenic disease. Total laparoscopic splenectomy (TLS) is most commonly indicated for hematologic conditions, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura and lymphoproliferative, hemolytic and myeloprolifer...
Chapter
This chapter discusses minimally invasive treatment of idiopathic chylothorax. Idiopathic chylothorax affects cats, but surgical outcomes seem worse in cats than in dogs. The thoracic duct has many anatomic variations, including multiple branches to a plexiform structure, but generally lies dorsal to the aorta on the right in dogs, left in cats, an...
Chapter
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) was first introduced into the armamentarium of human hepatobiliary surgeons by the German surgeon Erich Muhe in 1985. Improvements in patient outcomes were one of the major drivers of the paradigm shift towards LC for the treatment of gallbladder disease in people. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is less invasive than...
Chapter
Transperitoneal laparoscopic ureteronephrectomy (TLU) is a complex minimally invasive technique that should only be attempted by surgeons experienced in laparoscopic as well as open ureteronephrectomy. Despite the many advantages seen in patient morbidity rates with retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureteronephrectomy and TLU, surgical time is often lon...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics, perioperative protocols, and outcomes in dogs diagnosed with ventricular fibrillation (VF) while undergoing pericardiectomy. Study design: Retrospective, multi-institutional study. Animals: Sixteen client-owned dogs. Methods: Cases were accrued through a listserve request posted to 3 subsp...
Article
OBJECTIVE To determine the outcome in dogs diagnosed with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS) at ≥ 5 years of age treated with medical management only (M) or with surgical attenuation (S). The hypothesis was that dogs undergoing surgical attenuation would have a longer survival time than dogs undergoing medical management only. AN...
Article
The use of radiation for the diagnosis of various medical conditions is ubiquitous in veterinary medicine, and manual restraint of a patient during X‐ray exposure has become commonplace. Many prospective veterinary students have been involved with radiographs in general practice prior to veterinary school. Their experiences and level of safety trai...
Article
OBJECTIVE To compare the long-term outcomes of a ventral versus lateral surgical approach for mandibular and sublingual sialoadenectomy in dogs with a unilateral sialocele. ANIMALS 46 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs that underwent unilateral sialoadenectomy between 1999 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed, and information...
Preprint
Background Canine intrarenal cystic lesions (ICLs) are infrequently reported in the veterinary literature. Several treatment options have been described including cyst fenestration (partial nephrectomy/deroofing) +/- omentalization, sclerotherapy using alcohol as a sclerosing agent, percutaneous cyst drainage (PCD), and ureteronephrectomy. Informat...
Article
Case description: A 5.5-year-old 0.929-kg spayed female domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) underwent serial abdominal ultrasonographic and clinicopathologic examinations after multiple renal cysts were detected bilaterally during a routine examination. Clinical findings: The ferret was apparently healthy at the start of the monitoring perio...
Article
OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes in cats undergoing subtotal colectomy for the treatment of idiopathic megacolon and to determine whether removal versus nonremoval of the ileocecocolic junction (ICJ) was associated with differences in outcome. ANIMALS 166 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES For this retrospective cohort study, medical records databases o...
Article
An 11-year-old neutered male Border Terrier presented for pericardectomy following a nine-month history of tricavitary effusion, dyspnea, and lethargy. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a fluid-filled structure at the heart base, starting at the mid-right ventricle and extending to the middle of the right atrium. Almost complete compression o...
Article
Objective: To determine survival time and quality of life of dogs that developed postattenuation neurologic signs (PANS) after surgical treatment of a single congenital portosystemic shunt and survived at least 30 days and identify whether neurologic signs present at the time of discharge would resolve or reoccur. Animals: 50 client-owned dogs. P...
Article
Full-text available
Background: To develop a digital algorithm for quantitative assessment of surface methylene blue staining in whole lymph nodes and validate a semi-quantitative visual scoring method for patient-side use. Methods: Lymph nodes from canine patients with spontaneous tumors undergoing sentinel lymph node mapping were prospectively assessed ex vivo and p...
Chapter
The reported incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in companion animal veterinary medicine ranges from 3% to 18.1%, with increasing risk of SSI development associated with increasing classification of the surgical procedure. Environmental factors include the number of personnel in the surgical suite and potential for bacterial contamination...
Chapter
This chapter presents the information on identification, addressing, and following up on surgical site infection after cranial cruciate ligament stabilization. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of surgical site infections (SSIs) is important for patient management and facility infection control. Identifying infections promptly allows for early interven...
Article
Full-text available
A combination of pre and intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping techniques have been suggested to optimize SLN detection. A novel liposomal nanoparticle, Nanotrast-CF800 (CF800), utilizes computed tomography lymphography (CTL) and near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) for image-guided surgery and SLN mapping. This novel tracer agent h...
Preprint
Full-text available
A combination of pre- and intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping techniques have been suggested to optimize SLN detection. A novel liposomal nanoparticle, Nanotrast-CF800 (CF800), utilizes computed tomography lymphography (CTL) and near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) for image-guided surgery and SLN mapping. This novel tracer agent...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To describe the perioperative characteristics and outcomes in dogs that underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic ureteronephrectomy (TLU) for primary renal neoplasia. Study design: Short case series. Animals: Seven client-owned dogs. Methods: Medical records were reviewed and data extracted regarding perioperative characteristics an...
Article
Veterinary ultrasonography is a complex, advanced skill requiring repetitive exposure and supervision to gain competence. Consequently, newly graduated veterinarians are underprepared and lack the resources to achieve basic ultrasound proficiency upon graduation. Ultrasound simulation has been proposed as an adjunct educational tool for teaching en...
Article
Objective: To describe surgical management and associated outcomes for dogs with primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Animals: 110 client-owned dogs with primary spontaneous pneumothorax that underwent surgical management. Procedures: Medical records at 7 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, history, cl...
Article
Objective: To compare intraoperative and short-term postoperative variables pertaining to laparoscopic ovariectomy (LapOVE) and open ovariectomy (OVE) in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Animals: Twelve 4- to 5-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits. Procedures: Rabbits were randomly assigned to undergo LapOVE (n = 6) or OVE (6), with a ve...
Article
Objective: To determine the feasibility of laparoscopic liver lobectomy (LLL) in dogs by using canine cadavers and to describe the clinical application in dogs with liver disease. Study design: Ex vivo experiment and descriptive case series. Sample population: Twelve canine cadavers and six client-owned dogs. Methods: Cadavers underwent LLL...
Article
An 8-year-old, spayed female, Doberman pinscher dog was presented to the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Center for evaluation of a large subcutaneous mass on the right cranial ventral abdomen. Computed tomography localized a 6 × 7 cm soft tissue mass to the site of a laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy performed 3 years earlier. Body wall...
Article
Full-text available
The updated VCOG‐CTCAE v2 guidelines contain several important updates and additions since the last update (v1.1) was released in 2011 and published within Veterinary and Comparative Oncology in 2016. As the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group (VCOG) is no longer an active entity, the original authors and contributors to the VCOG‐CTCAE v1.0 and v...
Article
Lymphatic drainage from the head and neck is variable with significant crossover, therefore sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping can help ensure the appropriate lymph nodes are sampled. To improve sensitivity, SLN mapping utilizing multiple modalities and a combination of preoperative computed tomography lymphography (CTL) and intraoperative near infr...
Article
Objective To determine the use and barriers to uptake of a surgical safety checklist (SSC) after implementation in a veterinary teaching hospital. Study design Voluntary online survey and retrospective study. Sample population All personnel actively involved in the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre small animal surgery service bet...
Article
Objective: To determine whether catheterization of the common bile duct (CBD) is associated with outcome in dogs undergoing cholecystectomy for gallbladder mucocele and to determine whether this association is modified by the catheterization method. Study design: Multi-institutional retrospective cohort study. Animals: Dogs (n = 252) that unde...
Article
Objective To describe the morphology of the lymphatics in the region of the cisterna chyli in healthy dogs and in dogs with idiopathic chylothorax by using computed tomographic lymphangiography. Study Design Retrospective study. Animals Nine dogs with idiopathic chylothorax and six healthy dogs. Methods Computed tomographic lymphangiograms were...
Article
One male and one female dog were presented with giant kidney worm infection in the right kidney. Infection was identified through visualization of intra-renal Dioctophyme renale on abdominal ultrasound. Both dogs underwent right-sided laparoscopic ureteronephrectomy for treatment of the giant kidney worm infection. Additional adult worms were extir...
Article
Perioperative administration of desmopressin has shown to significantly decrease rates of local recurrence and metastasis, and increase survival times in dogs with grade II and III mammary carcinomas. The objective of this study was to compare the oncologic outcome of cats with mammary carcinoma treated with bilateral mastectomy with or without per...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate post-operative outcome in dogs and cats undergoing perineal herniorrhaphy using porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS) alone and with internal obturator muscle transposition augmented with PSIS (IOMT + PSIS). Medical records were retrospectively reviewed and information collected on signalment, pre-opera...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To review the effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopy, evaluate alternative techniques to establishing a working space and compare this to current recommendations in veterinary surgery. Study Design: Literature review. Sample Population: 92 peer-reviewed articles. Methods: An electronic database search identified hu...
Article
Objective To identify factors associated with surgical site infection (SSI) after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). Study design Retrospective case series. Animals Dogs (n = 541) that underwent TPLO (n = 659). Methods Medical records of dogs that underwent TPLO from 2011‐2018 were reviewed. Data collected included perioperative and posto...
Article
Objective To describe perioperative characteristics and outcomes of dogs surgically treated for intestinal intussusception. Study design Multi‐institutional, retrospective study. Animals One hundred fifty‐three client‐owned dogs with intestinal intussusception. Methods Dogs were included when they had undergone surgical treatment of a confirmed...
Article
Objective To evaluate and report the quality of the scientific literature reporting complications associated with laparoscopic and laparoscopic‐assisted procedures in client‐owned or healthy research dogs and to report and illustrate laparoscopic complications related to individual organ systems. Study design Systematic review. Animals Client‐own...
Article
Objective: To determine long-term outcomes and factors associated with those outcomes in dogs with gastroesophageal intussusception (GEI). Animals: 36 dogs with GEI evaluated at 16 veterinary hospitals from January 2000 through January 2018. Procedures: Medical records of included dogs were reviewed to collect information regarding signalment,...
Article
Objective To identify prognostic factors for short‐term survival of dogs that experience seizures within 7 days after surgical correction of single congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (cEHPSS). Study design Multi‐institutional retrospective study. Sample population Ninety‐three client‐owned dogs. Methods Medical records at 14 veterinary...
Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on cardiorespiratory parameters during pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide in domestic rabbits. Six juvenile female New Zealand white rabbits were assigned to randomized sequences of IAP (0, 4, 8 mmHg) in a crossover study. The following parameters were measur...
Article
Objective To characterize the in vitro elution of amikacin and Dispersin B (β‐N‐acetylglucosaminidase) in a degradable hydrogel. Study design In vitro, prospective study. Methods Amikacin (group A; 40 mg/mL), Dispersin B (group D; 70 μg/mL), or combined amikacin and Dispersin B (group AD; 40 mg/mL and 70 μg/mL, respectively) were added to a hydro...
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose To develop a digital algorithm and validate a semi-quantitative scoring method for surface methylene blue (MB) staining in whole lymph nodes (LN). Methods Lymph nodes from canine models undergoing sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping were prospectively assessed ex vivo and photographed. Two blinded observers evaluated all images and assigned...
Article
Objective To evaluate the presence of quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) (resistance genes, qac A/B, smr, qacG, and qacJ, in clinical isolates of methicillin‐susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP) and methicillin‐resistant S pseudintermedius (MRSP) from dogs and the impact on in vitro chlorhexidine susceptibility. Study design Experime...
Article
Objective: To describe the use of a bipolar sealing device (BSD) for partial cystectomy in dogs undergoing excision of bladder tumors. Study design: Multicenter, prospective, clinical pilot study. Sample population: Seven client-owned dogs with nontrigonal urinary bladder lesions. Methods: Dogs underwent a sealed partial cystectomy with a BS...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the performance of an endoscopic 3-mm electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing device (EBVS) intended for single use after multiple use-and-resterilization cycles. Study design: Ex vivo study. Sample population: Eight 3-mm EBVS handpieces. Methods: Handpieces were subjected to a maximum of 15 cycles of testing, including...
Article
Objective: To compare long-term clinical outcomes of dogs with single congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (CEHPSS) treated with thin film banding (TFB) consisting of polyolefin fiber or ameroid ring constrictor (ARC) placement in dogs. Design: Retrospective, two-center clinical study. Animals: Client-owned dogs (n = 123) with single C...
Article
Full-text available
Ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS) is a condition resulting from incomplete removal of ovarian tissue during ovariectomy and/or ovariohysterectomy. Single-port laparoscopy (SPL) is an alternative to ventral midline laparotomy for treatment of ORS. Medical records of 13 client-owned female dogs who underwent SPL for the treatment of ORS were retrospecti...
Article
Objective: To assess the effects of 3 intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs) on pneumoperitoneal (laparoscopic working space) volume in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Animals: 6 female New Zealand White rabbits. Procedures: A Latin-square design was used to randomly allocate sequences of 3 IAPs (4, 8, and 12 mm Hg) to each rabbit in a cro...
Article
Objective: To compare demographics and disease characteristics in dogs in which peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPDH) had been diagnosed and report outcomes after surgical treatment (ST) or conservative treatment (CT). Study design: Retrospective study. Sample population: One hundred twenty-eight dogs (91 ST, 37 CT) in which PPDH ha...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To determine the optimal intercostal space (ICS) for thoracoscopic-assisted pulmonary surgery for lung lobectomy in cats. Sample: 8 cat cadavers. Procedures: Cadavers were placed in lateral recumbency. A 5-cm minithoracotomy incision was made in the middle third of ICS 4 through 7 on the left side and 4 through 8 on the right side,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Lower urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is an important but rarely described disease of cats. Objectives: To report the clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes in a cohort of cats with lower urinary tract TCC and to test identified variables for prognostic relevance. Animals: One-hundred eighteen client-own...
Article
Objective: To report the clinical characteristics, types of vascular ring anomalies (VRA), operative findings, complications, and survival after surgical treatment of cats with VRA. Study design: Retrospective, multi-institutional case series. Animals: Client- or shelter-owned cats presenting to academic, referral veterinary institutions. Met...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of fluoroscopy-assisted placement of one-lung ventilation (OLV) devices in dogs. Study design: Experimental study. Sample population: Canine cadavers (n = 8) weighing between 20.2 and 37.4 kg. Methods: Thoracoscopic access with a two-port approach was established to evaluate bilateral lung ventilation p...
Article
A dog with a history of recurrent pericardial effusion that required repeated pericardiocentesis was presented to the surgical service at the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre for thoracoscopic pericardiectomy. Physical examination revealed a subcutaneous mass in the right lateral thorax. Cytology of the subcutaneous mass and histop...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To evaluate reporting of surgical complications and other adverse events in clinical research articles describing soft tissue and oncologic surgery in dogs and cats. Study design: Systematic literature review. Sample: English-language articles describing soft tissue and oncologic surgeries in client-owned dogs and cats published in...
Article
Case description: A 12-year-old spayed female Chinese Crested was referred because of a mass detected in the gallbladder during ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen, which had been prompted by a history of high serum liver enzyme activities. Clinical findings: Serum biochemical analysis revealed mild hypoglobulinemia and high alkaline phos...
Article
Objective: To describe surgical technique, biopsy sample quality, and short-term outcome of minimally invasive small intestinal exploration and targeted abdominal organ biopsy (MISIETB) with use of a wound retraction device (WRD) in dogs. Animals: 27 client-owned dogs that underwent MISIETB with a WRD at 1 of 4 academic veterinary hospitals betw...
Article
Objective: To develop and validate a preoperative brachycephalic risk (BRisk) score that objectively and accurately predicts the risk of major complications or death in dogs undergoing corrective surgery for brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS). Study design: Retrospective multicenter cohort study. Sample population: Score develop...
Article
The aim of this report is to describe a modified Foley catheter technique for anal sacculectomy. A standard approach used for a closed anal sacculectomy was performed. The duct of the anal sac was then freed from the surrounding tissues and ligated. The duct was transected lateral to the ligature and a purse string suture placed. The anal sac ballo...
Article
Objective To assess the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic ovariectomy in guinea pigs utilizing 3‐mm minilaparoscopic instruments. Study design Experimental pilot study. Animals Guinea pigs (n = 3). Methods The guinea pigs were sedated, placed under general anesthesia, and intubated under endoscopic visualization. A 3‐port technique was used...
Article
Objective To report the morbidity and mortality associated with adrenalectomy with cavotomy for resection of invasive adrenal neoplasms in dogs and evaluate risk factors for perioperative outcomes. Study design Retrospective study. Animals Forty‐five client‐owned dogs. Methods Dogs that underwent open adrenalectomy with cavotomy for resection of...
Article
Objective To calculate a risk prediction model for hemangiosarcoma (HSA) diagnosis in dogs presenting with nontraumatic hemoabdomen. Design Retrospective multicenter observational cohort study enrolling dogs presented 2003–2016. Setting Five academic veterinary medical centers. Animals A total of 406 dogs with nontraumatic hemoabdomen as the pre...
Article
Background: Otitis externa is a common multifactorial disease in dogs. The diversity of the cutaneous microbiota in dogs appears to decrease in diseased states. However, little is known about the microbiota of the canine ear and how it is altered by disease. Hypothesis/objectives: To describe the otic bacterial microbiota in dogs with otitis ext...
Article
Objective To describe a hybrid, single‐port, minimally invasive cisterna chyli ablation (CCA) technique in clinical cases of canine idiopathic chylothorax and evaluate this technique as a method for mesenteric lymphangiography (ML) in canine cadavers and clinical cases of idiopathic chylothorax. Study design Cadaveric and retrospective study. Ani...
Article
OBJECTIVE: To report the incidence of postattenuation seizures (PAS) in dogs that underwent single congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (cEHPSS) attenuation and to compare incidence of PAS in dogs that either did or did not receive prophylactic treatment with levetiracetam (LEV). STUDY DESIGN: Multi-institutional retrospective study. POPULAT...
Article
Objective To report perioperative characteristics, complications, histopathologic diagnosis and outcome in cats undergoing surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Study design Multi‐institutional, retrospective case series. Animals Thirty‐two client‐owned cats. Methods Medical records of cats treated with surgical removal of 1...
Article
CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old female pigeon was evaluated because of a 5-day history of lower than typical activity level, weight loss, and polyuria. CLINICAL FINDINGS Whole-body radiography revealed a linear metallic foreign body in the area of the ventriculus. Fluoroscopy followed by contrast-enhanced CT was performed to further characterize the...
Article
Objective To report the outcome of dogs with presumptive echocardiographic idiopathic pericardial effusion treated with thoracoscopic pericardectomy and pericardioscopy. Study design Multi‐institutional retrospective study (2011‐2017). Animals Eighteen dogs. Methods Records were searched for dogs with pericardial effusion and no identified cause...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of pneumoperitoneum created with warmed humidified CO2 (WHCO2) during laparoscopy on core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, systemic inflammation, peritoneal response, and signs of postoperative pain in healthy mature dogs. ANIMALS 6 mature purpose-bred dogs. PROCEDURES In a randomi...