Amar Gupta

Amar Gupta
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | MIT · Institute for Medical Engineering and Science; Department of EECS; Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab

Doctor of Philosophy

About

267
Publications
27,900
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2,310
Citations
Citations since 2017
9 Research Items
405 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080

Publications

Publications (267)
Article
Objective This study seeks to develop a fully automated method of generating synthetic data from a real dataset that could be employed by medical organizations to distribute health data to researchers, reducing the need for access to real data. We hypothesize the application of Bayesian networks will improve upon the predominant existing method, me...
Article
Objective Identify opportunities to improve the interaction between clinicians and Tele-Critical Care (Tele-CC) programs through an analysis of alert occurrence and reactivation in a specific Tele-CC application. Materials and Methods Data were collected automatically through the Philips eCaremanager® software system used at multiple hospitals in...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Emergency teleneurology care has grown in magnitude, impact, and validation. Stroke is a leading cause of death in the US and the timely treatment of stroke results in better outcomes for patients. Teleneurology provides evidence-based care to patients even when a board-certified neurologist is not physically on site. Determining staf...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction by Amar Gupta In order to place predictions for telehealth in proper perspective, consider that like all new industries, telehealth is characterized by disparate ideas developed by different people, often for the same medical specialty and/or medicine-related activity. Over time, these ideas must coalesce to provide growth and economie...
Article
Objectives: We sought to compare virtual visits, remote patient encounters via a live video system, with conventional in-person visits with respect to clinical outcomes, family experience and costs in a pediatric urology surgical population. Methods: Patients were enrolled in a prospective cohort study comparing postoperative virtual and in-pers...
Article
Full-text available
In the age of digitization, a growing percentage of services are becoming available online, and this trend is affecting healthcare too. As evolving technology creates more avenues for physicians to deliver affordable and instant care to their patients, there has been a sharp increase in the number of telemedicine implementations across the world.1...
Article
The diagnosis of brain death and the determination of neurologic prognosis following cardiac arrest are important reasons for neurology consultation in the intensive care unit. In hospitals without access to neurology consultation, it may be challenging to address these important questions with high reliability in a timely manner. The American Acad...
Article
Background: A shortage of pediatricians and long wait times in the hospitals render more efficient follow-up visits increasingly important. Virtual visits between physician and patient offer a solution to this problem. Increased awareness, improved technology, and efficient scheduling methods will contribute to the quality and adoption of telemedic...
Article
While organizations are increasingly relying on global virtual teams (GVTs) to carry out knowledge intensive activities, the understanding of how GVTs develop capabilities is still limited. We explore how GVTs adapt routines and build capabilities, and the role played by brokers and social identities in this process. We interviewed 49 professionals...
Article
Full-text available
Organizations increasingly rely on teams that span national and organizational boundaries, yet team members in emerging countries and vendor firms are not treated as professional peers by their Western and client-based peers. To understand how they respond to this identity threat, we integrate two literatures that suggest two possible answers: an o...
Article
As organizations increasingly rely on globally distributed teams (GDTs) to carry out knowledge intensive activities, the understanding of how GDTs develop capabilities is still limited. In this study we investigate how GDTs adapt routines and build up capabilities and the interplay between team and organizational capabilities. We collected qualitat...
Article
Telemedicine involves the remote diagnosis and treatment of patients using technology. Its practice has been well received in the United States in recent years. However, its growth remains encumbered by a fragmented, state-based system of licensing telemedicine professionals. This system creates a heavy burden on practitioners, limiting the number...
Conference Paper
IBM’s Watson, the supercomputer that beat two Jeopardy champions in a televised competition, has inevitably engendered speculation about what this surprising performance bodes for the role of computers in the workplace. How can Dr. Watson be best utilized in medicine and clinical support systems? This paper defines Computer Enhanced Medicine techno...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how workers successfully address constraints posed by distributed work – specifically, the lack of cognitive common ground or “mutual knowledge” – through emergent practices. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on archival and interview data collected over a ten-month period, from two match...
Article
Globally distributed arrangements that span Western and emerging countries have become increasingly common in knowledge intensive work. In these collaborations, it is often assumed that macro level structural inequalities are a major source of difficulty for coordination and knowledge sharing. However, we know surprisingly little about how professi...
Article
The United States spends one-and-a-half times more per person on health care than any country in the world, yet lags behind other industrialized nations in health care system performance. Telemedicine has the potential to play a central role in resolving this ongoing disparity. Defined as “the use of medical information exchanged from one site to a...
Article
The stability and growth of the international trade regime is threatened by the emergence and proliferation of anti-offshoring measures by governments worldwide. The business practice of offshoring transfers domestic production of goods and services abroad as a means of achieving optimal use of a firm’s resources and capitalizing on comparative adv...
Article
Interoperable electronic health records (EHR) have the capacity to deliver health care at optimal costs and quality in the United States, but current private and public initiatives have delayed nationwide implementation by failing to overcome several obstacles. These obstacles include: widespread reluctance in adopting health information technology...
Article
The concept of collaborative software development between groups spanning the globe is becoming more commonly accepted as a means of reducing development time and costs. It may be argued that the distributed development process is less efficient than a localized development process of comparable magnitude, especially because of the overheads involv...
Article
The adoption of anti-offshoring legislation by federal governments can potentially violate the commitments made by such governments to the World Trade Organization and other bilateral and regional trade agreements. This motivates examination of the constitutionality and legality of governmental actions in the offshoring arena. The Obama administrat...
Article
This paper covers four issues essential to understanding the interplay between law, the offshoring of professional services, intellectual property, and international organizations. First, this paper examines the extent to which evolving international conventions restrict the ability of countries, especially developed countries, to inhibit offshorin...
Article
The 24-Hour Knowledge Factory concept involves separate and distinct global operating centers that facilitate the transfer of information from one work location to another, thus allowing for continuous operation. This paper elaborates on this concept and discusses relevant current industry practices and technologies with respect to the implementati...
Article
Full-text available
The Obama administration has taken several steps to favor performance of tasks in the United States. This motivates examination of the constitutionality and legality of governmental actions in the offshoring arena. Over 40 state governments in the US have considered anti-offshoring legislation, and some of these bills have been approved by the resp...
Article
Globally Distributed Teams are being increasingly used by organizations to carry out knowledge intensive work and are often engaged in the development of modular products and services. While modularity is always treated as a given property of products and services, the findings of our qualitative research conducted in a GDT in charge of developing...
Article
Purpose: The increased use of distributed work arrangements across organizational and national borders calls for in-depth investigation of subgroup dynamics in globally distributed teams (GDTs). This paper focuses on the social dynamics that emerge across subgroups of onsite-offshore teams and affect the process of knowledge sharing. Methodology/A...
Article
The growing incidence of outsourcing and offshoring of professional applications is motivating increasing interest in the use of grid computing and grid topologies for meeting the infrastructure requirements. A Wireless Grid facilitates the exchange of information and the interaction between heterogeneous wireless and wired devices. Depending on th...
Article
The 24-hour knowledge factory paradigm facilitates collaborative effort between geographically distributed offshore teams. The concept of handoff, along with the vertical segregation of tasks, enables software development teams to work on a continuous basis on the project. This notion is made possible through efficient knowledge representation, as...
Article
Full-text available
The 24- Hour Knowledge Factory is a paradigm in which globally distributed teams work on the same software development task in a sequential manner. It provides a service-oriented architecture model that facilitates round-the-clock operations through the deployment of multiple development teams around the globe. Complex projects are iteratively brok...
Article
Trade in international health services has the potential to play a leading role in the global economy, but its rapid growth is impeded by legal barriers. Advances in technology and cross-border movement of people and health services create legal ambiguities and uncertainties for businesses and consumers involved in transnational medical malpractice...
Article
Trade in international health services has the potential to play a leading role in theglobal economy, but its rapid growth is impeded by legal barriers. Advances in technology andcross-border movement of people and health services create legal ambiguities and uncertaintiesfor businesses and consumers involved in transnational medical malpractice di...
Chapter
Medical information has been traditionally maintained in books, journals, and specialty periodicals. A growing subset of patients and caregivers are now turning to diverse sources on the internet to retrieve healthcare related information. The next area of growth will be sites that serve specialty fields of medicine, characterized by high quality o...
Chapter
Adverse drug events impose a large cost on the society in terms of lives and healthcare costs. In this chapter, the authors propose an information technology architecture for enabling the monitoring of adverse drug events in an outpatient setting as a part of the post marketing surveillance program. The proposed system architecture enables the deve...
Chapter
Medical information has been traditionally maintained in books, journals, and specialty periodicals. Now, a growing number of people, including patients and caregivers, turn to a variety of sources on the Internet, most of which are run by commercial entities, to retrieve healthcare-related information. The next area of growth will be sites that fo...
Chapter
A Wireless Grid is an augmentation of a wired grid that facilitates the exchange of information and the interaction between heterogeneous wireless devices. While similar to the wired grid in terms of its distributed nature, the requirement for standards and protocols, and the need for adequate Quality of Service; a Wireless Grid has to deal with th...
Article
Full-text available
The current health care crisis in the United States compels a consideration of the crucial role that telemedicine could play towards deploying a pragmatic solution. The nation faces rising costs and difficulties in access to and quality of medical services. Telemedicine can potentially help to overcome these challenges, as it can provide new cost-e...
Article
The term “24-Hour Knowledge Factory” connotes a geographically dispersed team of workers in which members of the team are able to work on specific endeavors on a round-the-clock basis. There are five defining features of this form of work: (i) the same body of work is processed sequentially, and is handed from one unit to another (as opposed to wor...
Article
The healthcare industry is being impacted by advances in information technology in four major ways: first, a broad spectrum of tasks that were previously done manually can now be performed by computers; second, some tasks can be outsourced to other countries using inexpensive communications technology; third, longitudinal and societal healthcare da...
Article
Full-text available
Information technology (IT) with increasingly faster rates of data transfer is anticipated to continue to shape the practice of medicine in the future. Such changes in health information technology coincide with our rapidly evolving understanding of sleep deprivation and circadian disturbances and their consequent effects on health, performance of...
Article
Full-text available
The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been investigating early warning accident prevention systems in an effort to prevent runway collisions. One system in place is the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS), developed under contract for the FAA. AMASS internal logic is based on computing separation distances among airplanes, and it...
Article
Offshore outsourcing of work to support software development and services is seen primarily as a transfer of labor to another shore. But intellectual property is transferred as well. Such transfers have significant long term effects on the balance of intellectual property (IP) generation and consumption. Software is such an intangible good, and the...
Chapter
Business forecasts and predictive models are rarely perfect. A paraphrase of the Nobel winning physicist Neils Bohr is apt in this context: Prediction is difficult, especially if it is of the future. However, executives and managers in enterprises ranging from retail and consumer packaged goods to high tech and semiconductors have to resort to fore...
Chapter
Medical information has been traditionally maintained in books, journals, and specialty periodicals. A growing subset of patients and caregivers are now turning to diverse sources on the internet to retrieve healthcare related information. The next area of growth will be sites that serve specialty fields of medicine, characterized by high quality o...
Chapter
The healthcare industry is being impacted by advances in information technology in four major ways: first, a broad spectrum of tasks that were previously done manually can now be performed by computers; second, some tasks can be outsourced to other countries using inexpensive communications technology; third, longitudinal and societal healthcare da...
Chapter
This chapter covers four issues. First, it examines evolving international conventions to determine whether countries, especially developed countries, can take any steps to inhibit offshoring with the objective of protecting jobs in their respective countries. Second, it looks at statistics from independent sources to see if outsourcing exceeds ins...
Chapter
The changing economic and labor conditions have motivated firms to outsource professional services activities to skilled personnel in less expensive labor markets. This offshoring phenomenon is studied from a political, economic, technological and strategic perspective. Next, an analytical model is developed for achieving strategic advantage from o...
Chapter
The healthcare industry is being impacted by advances in information technology in four major ways: first, a broad spectrum of tasks that were previously done manually can now be performed by computers; second, some tasks can be outsourced to other countries using inexpensive communications technology; third, longitudinal and societal healthcare da...
Chapter
The healthcare industry is being impacted by advances in information technology in four major ways: first, a broad spectrum of tasks that were previously done manually can now be performed by computers; second, some tasks can be outsourced to other countries using inexpensive communications technology; third, longitudinal and societal healthcare da...
Chapter
This article covers four issues. First, it examines evolving international conventions to determine whether countries, especially developed countries, can take any steps to inhibit offshoring with the objective of protecting jobs in their respective countries. Second, it looks at statistics from independent sources to see if outsourcing exceeds ins...
Article
This paper describes the design, development and testing of a pre-hospital documentation and patient monitoring application called iRevive. The application utilises a sensor gateway and data mediator to enable semantic interoperability with a wide variety of medical devices and applications. Initial test results indicate that complete and consisten...
Article
A new paradigm based on the 24-Hour Knowledge Factory is emerging in software development, where groups spanning the globe collaborate on the same work product over the entire 24 hour day, as a means to reduce development time and costs. This paradigm supports a gain in productivity but requires smooth transfer of knowledge — such as the rationale...
Article
The 24-Hour Knowledge Factory paradigm involves 3 (or more) collaborating centers, each located in a different continent. Individuals at each center work from 9 am to 5 pm in that country, and then pass the work-in-progress to the next collaborating center to enable round-the-clock performance in a manner somewhat akin to the deployment of three sh...
Article
Full-text available
In the current global marketplace, liberalization of trade in professional services (“services”) presents one of the biggest challenges and profitable opportunities for the international community. Changes in technology and state privatization polices over the past half century have made services the fastest growing sector in international trade. D...
Article
Full-text available
The relocation of knowledge work to emerging countries is leading to an increasing use of globally distributed teams (GDT) engaged in complex tasks. In the present study, we investigate a particular type of GDT working ‘around the clock’: the 24-h knowledge factory (Gupta, 2008). Adopting the productivity perspective on knowledge sharing ( [34] and...
Article
Purpose The increased use of distributed work arrangements across organizational and national borders calls for in‐depth investigation of subgroup dynamics in globally distributed teams (GDTs). The purpose of this paper is to focus on the social dynamics that emerge across subgroups of onsite‐offshore teams and affect the process of knowledge shari...
Article
The changing economic and labor conditions have motivated firms to outsource professional services activities to skilled personnel in less expensive labor markets. This offshoring phenomenon is studied from a political, economic, technological and strategic perspective. Next, an analytical model is developed for achieving strategic advantage from o...
Article
Full-text available
New computer-based techniques employed to yield innovative outsourcing solutions are presented and the long-term vision for conducting offshore outsourcing work in a global economy is discussed. MIT has developed a KNOWFACT prototype for sharing semi-structured outsourcing knowledge, comprising decision rationale module (DRM) and decision history m...
Article
Towards the end of 2007, the World Health Organization and the American Cancer Society determined that working at night is a cause of prostate cancer in men and breast cancer in women (www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22026660). This was the first time that work schedule had been linked to cancer by reputed health organizations. Earlier, when mines and asbesto...
Article
Collaborative work groups that span multiple locations and time zones, or "follow the sun," create a growing demand for creating new technologies and methodologies that enable traditional spatial and temporal separations to be surmounted in an effective and productive manner. The hurdles faced by members of such virtual teams are in three key areas...
Article
Full-text available
Businesses engaging in outsourcing of professional service activities to organizations in foreign countries have focused primarily on the issues of cost and the number of jobs affected. However, significant transfers of intangibles occur in many service-based off shoring arrangements as well. Some of these intangibles are considered to be intellect...
Article
Full-text available
Collaborating centers in time zones six to eight hours apart can transfer work so that every center is working during the daytime. Although this concept avoids the hazards of night work, it requires careful planning and a way to automatically capture evolving knowledge.
Article
Full-text available
This paper seeks to build upon earlier works analyzing U.S. federal and state legislation that conflict with the United States' obligations under international agreements. Several of these earlier works conclude that such conflicting legislation violates the Constitution on a variety of grounds, and is therefore legally invalid. The findings of thi...
Article
"I am a programmer with a Masters degree from a prominent college in the United States. I work 10 hour days and come in on weekends on a regular basis for my company. I pay my taxes and still manage to give back to my community. So why is my country doing nothing when my job is being threatened by international competition?" "I am president of a co...
Chapter
The changing economic and labor conditions have motivated firms to outsource professional services activities to skilled personnel in less expensive labor markets. This offshoring phenomenon is studied from a political, economic, technological and strategic perspective. Next, an analytical model is developed for achieving strategic advantage from o...
Chapter
This chapter covers four issues. First, it examines evolving international conventions to determine whether countries, especially developed countries, can take any steps to inhibit offshoring with the objective of protecting jobs in their respective countries. Second, it looks at statistics from independent sources to see if outsourcing exceeds ins...
Article
Recent academic and policy studies focus on off shoring as a cost-of-labor driven activity that has a direct impact on employment opportunities in the countries involved. This paper broadens this perspective by examining the 24-hour knowledge factory as a model of information systems off shoring that leverages other strategic factors beyond cost sa...
Article
Full-text available
Air traffic is increasing world wide at a steady annual rate, and airport congestion is already a major issue for air traffic managers. This paper presents a model based on neural networks to predict the position of aircraft on the airport, during landing or takeoff. The same model can also be used to predict the behavior of other vehicles moving o...
Article
Full-text available
In the US and many other countries, bank checks are preprinted with the account number and the check number in special ink and format; as such, these two numeric fields can be easily read and processed using automated techniques. However, the amount fields on a filled-in check is usually read by human eyes, and involves significant time and cost, e...
Article
Medical information has been traditionally maintained in books, journals, and specialty periodicals. Now, a growing number of people, including patients and caregivers, turn to a variety of sources on the Internet, most of which are run by commercial entities, to retrieve healthcare-related information. The next area of growth will be sites that fo...
Chapter
Adverse drug events impose a large cost on the society in terms of lives and health care costs. In this article, we propose an information technology architecture for enabling the monitoring of adverse drug events in an outpatient setting as a part of the post marketing surveillance program. The proposed system architecture enables the development...
Chapter
Medical information has been traditionally maintained in books, journals, and specialty periodicals. A growing subset of patients and caregivers are now turning to diverse sources on the internet to retrieve healthcare related information. The next area of growth will be sites that serve specialty fields of medicine, characterized by high quality o...
Chapter
The healthcare industry is being impacted by advances in information technology in four major ways: first, a broad spectrum of tasks that were previously done manually can now be performed by computers; second, some tasks can be outsourced to other countries using inexpensive communications technology; third, longitudinal and societal healthcare da...
Article
In order to improve the level of decision making and competitive advantage, organizations try to learn and develop new knowledge management techniques that are suited for the evolving global economy. Decision makers are becoming increasingly faced with a dilemma: great difficulty arises in sharing knowledge where distributed and heterogeneous data...
Article
The 24-Hour Knowledge Factory is a software development paradigm that goes beyond the conventional global delivery model. It involves round-the-clock operations through the establishment of three or more development teams around the globe. Complex projects are iteratively broken down into simpler modules, with a "composite persona" (CP) being respo...
Article
Full-text available
The 24-Hour Knowledge Factory is a service oriented architecture model that goes beyond the conventional global delivery model. It involves round-the-clock operations through the establishment of three or more development teams around the globe. Complex projects are iteratively broken down into simpler modules, with each "composite persona" (CP) be...
Article
This paper covers four issues. First, it examines evolving international conventions to determine whether countries, especially developed countries, can take any steps to inhibit offshoring with the objective of protecting jobs in their respective countries. Second, it looks at statistics from independent sources to see if outsourcing exceeds insou...
Article
Purpose: Starting from the observation that new types of distributed work arrangements across organizational and national borders are emerging, we decided to investigate a particular type of globally distributed team (GDT): the 24-hour knowledge factory, where individuals work around the clock or follow the sun. Our research question is: How do ind...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper discusses several types of interoperability for medical applications and devices: the ability of applications to run on any platform; how modularity affects interoperability; and data exchange between heterogeneous applications. It draws from experience with Internet standardization to find lessons for creating standards for interoperabi...
Article
The healthcare industry is being impacted by advances in information technology in four major ways: first, a broad spectrum of tasks that were previously done manually can now be done by computers faster, better, and at lower costs; second, some tasks can be outsourced to other countries using inexpensive communications technology; third, detailed...
Chapter
Full-text available
The process of data mining converts information to knowledge by using tools from the disciplines of computational statistics, database technologies, machine learning, signal processing, nonlinear dynamics, process modeling, simulation, and allied disciplines. Data mining allows business problems to be analyzed from diverse perspectives, including d...
Article
Full-text available
A growing number of companies are opting to perform increasing types of professional services in foreign countries, creating, for some companies, unprecedented opportunities to reduce costs and nucleate strategic relationships, while, for others, representing a major threat to current prosperity. Outsourcing and Offshoring of Professional Services:...
Chapter
Medical information has been traditionally maintained in books, journals, and specialty periodicals. A growing subset of patients and caregivers are now turning to diverse sources on the internet to retrieve healthcare related information. The next area of growth will be sites that serve specialty fields of medicine, characterized by high quality o...
Chapter
This chapter wraps up the discussion by describing how normalized components of information are carved out of inchoate information by constraints, and manifested as objects with specific properties and meanings. It describes the essential identity between a law and its outcome.
Chapter
This chapter describes the bridge between business meanings and automated information systems. It describes the information architecture that interfaces computational processes to the business semantic.
Chapter
This chapter introduces the layered structure of knowledge and describes why chaos rides on the wings of change and adaptation. It tells us how traditional analytical approaches, like functional decomposition, can lead to chaos when the size and complexity of business processes and information systems exceed a critical threshold.
Chapter
Adverse drug events impose a large cost on the society in terms of lives and health care costs. In this article, we propose an information technology architecture for enabling the monitoring of adverse drug events in an outpatient setting as a part of the post marketing surveillance program. The proposed system architecture enables the development...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the concept of Metamodel of Knowledge. The chapter: • Defines knowledge and introduces the concept of the atomic rule as the building block of knowledge. • Describes the need for coordinating business knowledge, the difficulty of doing so, and how normalization of knowledge can facilitate its coordination and lead to the dev...
Chapter
The term 24-Hour Knowledge Factory connotes a globally distributed work environment in which teammates work on a project around the clock. The 24-Hour Knowledge Factory is a special case of a globally distributed team in which the different teams work on a sequential basis that has been clearly defined in advance. Whereas a manufactured item was th...
Chapter
The healthcare industry is being impacted by advances in information technology in four major ways: first, a broad spectrum of tasks that were previously done manually can now be performed by computers; second, some tasks can be outsourced to other countries using inexpensive communications technology; third, longitudinal and societal healthcare da...
Chapter
The focus of this chapter is on how interactions between objects create new meanings. It develops a model of business rules, and shows how mutability supports innovation. It introduces the rules that support inference and innovation by manipulating the patterns of information that constitute different meanings.
Chapter
This chapter describes the information and meanings that emerge from aggregates. It shows how the concepts like containment and subtyping are configured from the concept of location.
Chapter
The healthcare industry is being impacted by advances in information technology in four major ways: first, a broad spectrum of tasks that were previously done manually can now be performed by computers; second, some tasks can be outsourced to other countries using inexpensive communications technology; third, longitudinal and societal healthcare da...
Chapter
This chapter describes the bridge between business meanings and automated information systems. It describes the information architecture that interfaces computational processes to the business semantic.
Chapter
Information by itself is no longer perceived as an asset. Billions of business transactions are recorded in enterprise-scale data warehouses every day. Acquisition, storage, and management of business information are commonplace and often automated. Recent advances in remote or other sensor technologies have led to the development of scientific dat...
Chapter
This is the final chapter of the book. It describes the overarching structure of knowledge. This chapter provides an overview of the interactions between the fractured meanings normalized by each metaobject. It shows how the entire scheme is integrated into one unified context, which leads to the concept of Knowledge itself. Wherever knowledge and...