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Amanda M. Vanderheyden

Amanda M. Vanderheyden
Education Research & Consulting, Inc. · www.springmath.org

PhD

About

87
Publications
62,345
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,521
Citations
Citations since 2017
23 Research Items
997 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Additional affiliations
July 2005 - March 2007
University of California, Santa Barbara
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
July 2002 - July 2005
Vail Unified School District
Position
  • Managing Director
July 2001 - July 2002
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (87)
Article
Full-text available
Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) has conventionally included accuracy criteria with recommended fluency thresholds for instructional decision making. Some scholars have argued for the use of accuracy to directly determine instructional need (e.g., Szadokierski et al., 2017). However, accuracy and fluency have not been directly examined to determi...
Article
Full-text available
Students with dyslexia demonstrate reading difficulty in early literacy skills (e.g., phonemic awareness, word recognition, decoding), and administering screeners is a necessary step to implement effective intervention. There are several commonly used reading screeners, but the decision accuracy and predictive value between them varies. In the curr...
Preprint
Elementary schools administer reading screening assessments to identify students in need of remedial instruction. However, the administration of additional assessments comes at an opportunity cost and it is currently unclear the extent to which multiple types of reading screeners warrant the increase in resources that could be used for instruction....
Article
Full-text available
Computer-based curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is a relatively common practice, but surprisingly few studies have examined the reliability of computer-based CBM. This study sought to examine the reliability of CBM administered via paper/pencil versus the computer. Twenty-one of 25 students in two third-grade classes ( N = 21) participated in two...
Article
Successful math word-problem solving is difficult for some students. Getting the right answer involves students engaging correctly in an amalgamation of actions. Schema instruction is an instructional approach aimed at supporting students in identifying the underlying math problem structure to yield an appropriate solution plan. The focus of this a...
Article
Math curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is an essential tool for multi-tiered systems of support decision making, but the reliability of math CBMs has received little research, particularly using more rigorous methods such as generalizability (G) theory. Math CBM is historically organized into two domains: mastery measures and general outcome measu...
Article
Full-text available
This article is the second of a series of articles appearing in the Communique about how school psychologists can adopt and promote the evidence-based practices in math assessment and instruction. The focus of this article is on measuring math skills for screening, diagnostic decisions, and progress monitoring. Measurement in MTSS School psychologi...
Article
Full-text available
In education, there is a history of pitting philosophy against science. For example, in reading instruction, the so-called reading wars dominated decades of practice and reflected polarized groups, one group embracing science and research as the way to instruct reading and another group prioritizing philosophy and theory. A seismic shift in educati...
Preprint
Word problem solving is a difficult task that requires students to decode and comprehend written text, activate prior knowledge related to the mathematical problem presented, devise a plan and execute that plan to yield a solution, and contextualize the solution. One intervention with considerable research evidence supporting its use is schema-base...
Article
Full-text available
School leaders are tasked with addressing a variety of academic, behavioral, and social–emotional concerns but struggle to do so with limited resources. Because resources are limited, researchers and practitioners need to consider not only what works but also at what cost. Economic evaluations apply specific methods to assess and contextualize the...
Article
Full-text available
Given limited resources, schools are encouraged to consider not only what works, but also at what cost. Cost-effectiveness analysis offers a formal methodology to conceptualize and calculate the ratio of the costs to implement an intervention to its effects (i.e., incremental cost-effectiveness ratios). This study used the ingredients method to ana...
Article
Full-text available
Many school psychologists work in schools that have low proficiency rates on the year-end test of mathematics, which is concerning because math proficiency is a powerful indicator of long-term academic success. For example, Duncan et al. (2007) found that early numeracy measures forecast later academic proficiency even better than early literacy me...
Article
Full-text available
This study details the construction of parameters for generating subskill mastery math measures to be used for screening, intervention planning, progress monitoring, and proximal program evaluation. Parameters for generating assessment measures were built and tested to verify initial equivalence of generated measures using potential digits correct...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the classification accuracy for subskill mastery measures administered in mathematics for students in kindergarten and Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7 at fall ( n = 564) and winter ( n = 602) screening. In addition, response to classwide math intervention was examined as another layer of screening for students in kindergarten and Grades 1...
Article
Full-text available
School psychology has an established tradition of providing evidence-based services and practices. However, such practices sometimes conflict with our preparation or traditional methods of service delivery, creating the need to continually evolve and grow as professionals. In this "Presenters In Focus" Q&A, convention presenter Amanda VanDerHeyden...
Article
Full-text available
Assessment is fundamental to school psychology, but its purpose has shifted from making predictions about children to improving outcomes for children. This commentary on the special issue focuses on screening and progress-monitoring decisions that can be used to solve student problems. We outline several psychometric and practical issues that affec...
Preprint
Full-text available
This article considers the cost of poor decision making in school psychology, especially with regard to determining eligibility for special education under the category of specific learning disability. One common costly decision made by school psychologists is failing to use evidence-based assessment and intervention procedures that are likely to b...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract. Screening is necessary to detect risk and prevent reading failure. Yet the amount of screening that commonly occurs in U.S. schools may undermine its value, creating more error in decision making and lost instructional opportunity. This 2-year longitudinal study examined the decision accuracy associated with collecting concurrent reading...
Article
Full-text available
Schools need evidence-based guidance on which measures in mathematics, administered under what particular set of conditions (e.g., time of year), provide the most useful prediction. The purpose of this study was to examine decision accuracy among commonly used screening measures with a priority toward identifying the least costly screening measures...
Article
Full-text available
Schools need evidence-based guidance on which measures in mathematics , administered under what particular set of conditions (e.g., time of year), provide the most useful prediction. The purpose of this study was to examine decision accuracy among commonly used screening measures with a priority toward identifying the least costly screening measure...
Article
Treatment dose is an understudied aspect of treatment effectiveness. This study compared the frequency with which a small-group mathematics intervention was delivered weekly (i.e., four times, twice, once) with a control condition while controlling for total duration. 101 at-risk students in grades 2–4 were randomly assigned to a condition followin...
Article
Full-text available
We used existing reading (n = 1,498) and math (n = 2,260) data to evaluate state test scores for screening middle school students. In Phase 1, state test data were used to create a research-derived cut score that was optimal for predicting state test performance the following year. In Phase 2, those cut scores were applied with future cohorts. Diag...
Article
Full-text available
http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2016/01/06/four-steps-to-implement-rti-correctly.html
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter provides an introduction and orientation regarding the contemporary context and contents of the second edition of the Handbook of Response to Intervention: The Science and Practice of Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (2015). This second edition of the handbook includes many chapters describing the evolved and more rigorous research base...
Chapter
With many elementary schools across the nation implementing assorted response-to-intervention (RTI) models, this chapter emphasizes the value of a unified RTI model. This unified RTI model is based on the IDEAL model of problem solving in which school personnel (a) identify the problem, (b) define the problem, (c) explore alternative solutions to t...
Article
Full-text available
Several scholars have recommended using data from neuropsychological tests to develop interventions for reading and mathematics. The current study examined the effects of using neuropsychological data within the intervention process with meta-analytic procedures. A total of 1,126 articles were found from an electronic search and compared to inclusi...
Article
Full-text available
The current article presents additional analyses of a classwide mathematics intervention, from a previously reported randomized controlled trial, to offer new information about the treatment and to demonstrate the utility of different types of effect sizes. Multilevel modeling was used to examine treatment effects by race, sex, socioeconomic status...
Book
The Second Edition of this essential handbook provides a comprehensive, updated overview of the science that informs best practices for the implementation of response to intervention (RTI) processes within Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) to facilitate the academic success of all students. The volume includes insights from leading scholars an...
Article
Full-text available
For many who operate outside of education, it is difficult to imagine what could be misguided or complicated about identifying and serving students who have a learning disability. After all, a student with a learn- ing disability is viewed as someone who has the potential and ability to perform at or above grade level, but is failing to do so, desp...
Article
Full-text available
Universal academic screening is an endeavor that many systems implement with inefficiency and error. School personnel do not consider how the data will be used and therefore fail to collect the data needed to reach the most accurate and efficient decisions. Accurate and efficient decision making requires consideration of screening accuracy in the b...
Article
This article describes the emergence and influence of evidence-based practice and data-based decision making in educational systems. Increasingly, educators and consumers want to know that resources allocated to educational efforts yield strong effects for all learners. This trend is reflected by the widespread influence of evidence-based practice...
Article
Full-text available
A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate the effects of a supplemental mathematics intervention that emphasized fluency building for computations and procedures. All fourth- and fifth-grade English-speaking students from a single school district who were participating in general education mathematics instruction and had a 2009 year-end ac...
Article
Full-text available
Early measures of mathematics skill and development have focused on early numeracy skills like counting, number identification, and sequencing of numbers. This study attempted to expand early mathematics assessment. Six new measures of early mathematics skill competence were developed and evaluated. Four existing measures also were examined. Measur...
Article
Full-text available
Since its first appearance in policy, the diagnostic construct of learning disability (LD) has struggled to demonstrate its validity. Any diagnostic construct requires the operationalization of a “true positive” diagnosis to permit strong analyses of diagnostic accuracy and associated intervention outcomes. Because there is no “true positive” defin...
Article
Full-text available
Perhaps the greatest value of response to intervention (RTI) as a decision framework is that it brings attention to variables (e.g., mastery of prerequisite skills, frequency of instructional corrective feedback, reinforcement schedules for correct responding) that if changed might make a meaningful difference for students (e.g., child rate of lear...
Article
RTI as a framework for decision making has implications for the diagnosis of specific learning disabilities. Any diagnostic tool must meet certain standards to demonstrate that its use leads to predictable decisions with minimal risk. Classification agreement analyses are described as optimal for demonstrating the technical adequacy of RTI decision...
Article
Full-text available
The National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) specifies that children should be able to fluently add and subtract whole numbers by the end of third grade. Mathe-matical understanding of addition and sub-traction emerges well before formal math-ematic instruction begins, and when it emerges it reflects competence in a number of prerequisite skills...
Article
Reports an error in "Progress monitoring in oral reading fluency within the context of RTI" by Amy-Jane Griffiths, Amanda M. VanDerHeyden, Mary Skokut and Elena Lilles (School Psychology Quarterly, 2009[Mar], Vol 24[1], 13-23). The slopes reported in text were incorrect. The correct information is as follows: The average slope across the four measu...
Article
Full-text available
Brief experimental analysis (BEA) can be used to specify intervention characteristics that produce positive learning gains for individual students. A key challenge to the use of BEA for intervention planning is the identification of performance indicators (including topography of the skill, measurement characteristics, and decision criteria) that m...
Article
[Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 24(2) of School Psychology Quarterly (see record 2009-08555-001). The slopes reported in text were incorrect. The correct information is as follows: The average slope across the four measurement occasions for students who had a successful RTI on the familiar passage was 8.98 wc/m...
Article
Full-text available
This article investigates the utility of various estimates of mathematics proficiency. The participants were 432 students in Grades 2 through 5. The delayed alternate form reliability of multiskill probes, retention probes, slopes of student growth, and trials to criterion were computed. The fluency probes were found to be both sufficiently reliabl...
Article
Full-text available
Response to intervention (RTI) is characterized as a logical science of decision making that has applicability for early childhood, particularly in the context of multitiered intervention models. This study examined the utility of using curriculum-based early literacy measures as screening tools and for evaluating whether growth in early literacy s...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of implementation of a systematic response to intervention (RTI) model on the identification and evaluation of children for special education. Using a multiple baseline design, a systematic model of assessment and intervention was introduced in consecutive years for all elementary schools (N = 5)...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this manuscript is to conceptualize a unified Response to Intervention (RTI) model that may be applied to Head Starts or preschools with typical children and those identified as “at risk,” or “children with disabilities.” RTI basically provides a specific and discrete cumulative intervention history of services which also may be used...
Article
This study examined general education teachers’ implementation of a peer tutoring intervention for five elementary students referred for consultation and intervention due to academic concerns. Treatment integrity was assessed via permanent products produced by the intervention. Following verbal instructions, intervention implementation by four teac...
Chapter
The System to Enhance Educational Performance (STEEP) is a program that provides a blueprint for implementation of response to intervention (RTI). RTI has been defined as the practice of “(a) providing high quality instruction/intervention matched to student needs and (2) using learning rate over time and level of performance to (3) make important...
Chapter
Promoting the success of students is the primary focus of educational professionals. Systematically identifying individual needs and subsequently providing appropriate interventions is central to the task of enhancing student outcomes. With the reauthorization of the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), referred to as the Ind...
Book
Education professionals have traditionally relied on a wait-to-fail formula to identify and assist students experiencing academic difficulties. With the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, however, a unique early-identification tool – known as response to intervention (RTI) – now offers professionals the...
Article
Full-text available
Knowing what behaviors adults can engage in to accelerate child growth toward desired outcomes is fundamental to achieving the promise of early education and intervention. Once adequate progress-monitoring measures are developed, patterns of child performance over time and in response to certain interventions can be quantified. The ability to quant...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the progress monitoring and screening accuracy for a set of curriculum-based measures (CBM) of early mathematics skills. Measures included counting objects, selecting numbers, naming numbers, counting, and visual discrimination. Measures were designed to be administered with preschoolers in a short period of...
Article
Full-text available
Despite evidence indicating the general acceptability of curriculum-based measures (CBM) to teachers (e.g., Eckert, Shapiro, & Lutz, 1995), there has to date been no empirical evidence demonstrating the relative level of acceptability of measures of written expression that might set the stage for their increased adoption by teachers. Results of an...
Article
Several approaches to response to intervention (RTI) described in the literature could be blended into an RTI model that would be effective in the schools. An effective RTI model should employ three fundamental variables: (a) systematic data collection to identify students in need, (b) effective implementation of interventions for adequate duration...
Article
Full-text available
Special Series: Using Response to Intervention as a Diagnostic Tool for Learning Disabilities The recent reauthorization of Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) stated that districts cannot be required to use the traditional discrepancy model to diagnose learning disabilities (LD) and allowed for assessing response to sci...
Article
Full-text available
Five hundred thirty-eight elementary school students participated in a study designed to examine the technical characteristics of curriculum-based measures (CBMs) for the assessment of writing. In addition, the study investigated rating-based measures of writing using the Six Trait model, an assessment instrument and writing program in use in many...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the mathematics performance of 434 second-, third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students to previously reported fluency and accu- racy criteria using three categories of performance (frustration, instructional, and mastery). Psychometric properties of the fluency and accuracy criteria were explored and new criteria for the instruct...
Article
Full-text available
Response to intervention (RTI) has emerged as a promising, but possibly vulnerable, alternative to the current model of identification and eligibility assessment in special education. Nested within a simple and compelling structure for RTI are many questions and challenges that make its future as "policy" at-risk unless these issues can be satisfac...
Article
Full-text available
Response to Intervention (RTI) models have substantial promise for screening, intervention service delivery, and to serve as catalysts for system change to enhance the educational outcomes of children. RTI represents a more flexible service delivery model; however, it is essential to articulate how RTI can be effectively implemented and demonstrate...
Article
Comments on an article by Marisa G. Macy, Diane D. Bricker, and Jane K. Squires. This commentary presents a distinction between curriculum-based assessment (CBA) and curriculum-based measurement (CBM). CBA has been linked to a mastery measurement model whereas; CBM has been linked to a general outcome measurement model. The primary difference betwe...
Article
The effects on child engagement of adult use of systematic, naturalistic instructional strategies within an embedded instruction context were examined. Following baseline observations of two children with disabilities and same-age classmates without disabilities, three different instructional strategies were implemented with each child with a disab...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article was to examine the effect of base rate occurrence of race, sex, and student achievement on the accuracy of a problem-solving model of assessment and teacher referral. All students in first and second grade (n = 182) at a participating school were exposed to four screening measures. Students who performed poorly on at lea...
Article
Full-text available
No Child Left Behind mandates accountability data for school districts. This mandate has led to increased attention to instruction and academic remediation among educational researchers. The current study used schoolwide curriculum-based assessment (CBA) and curriculum-based measurement (CBM) data to plan and deliver mathematics instruction to exam...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes a systematic process for finding and resolving problems with classroom-based behavioral interventions in schools. Described is a step-by-step process for identifying and resolving issues that reduce intervention effectiveness. The article is organized around the Behavioral Intervention Troubleshooter, which is a checklist foc...
Article
Full-text available
Six curriculum-based measures of math performance were developed for use with 4-year-old preschool children. Measures included counting objects, selecting numbers, naming numbers, selecting shapes, counting, and visual discrimination. Technical properties of probe scores were assessed in two rural public preschool programs. Alternate forms, source,...
Article
Curriculum-based measures have been validated for use in evaluating reading, mathematics, and writing skills (Marston, 1989). Despite its common use by school psychologists (Wilson & Reschly, 1996), the relationship between the Woodcock Johnson-Revised and curriculum-based measures of writing has not been evaluated. This study investigated the rela...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes efforts to examine the validity of a screening process that provides objective data for multidisciplinary team meetings where consideration is being given to teacher referral of a student for assessment and possible placement in special education. In this study, the accuracy with which this process, called Problem Validation...
Article
This study compared two strategies for increasing accurate responding on a low-preference academic task by interspersing presentations of a preferred academic task. Five children attending a preschool program for children with delayed language development participated in this study. Preferred and nonpreferred tasks were identified through a multipl...
Article
Curriculum-based measures of written expression have traditionally used total words written or correct word sequences as indices of students' skill levels. Although there are validity data to support these measures, anecdotal evidence indicates that these measures may be unacceptable to some teachers and psychologists. This investigation attempted...
Article
Full-text available
Limited participation and sampling stimuli by children in early childhood programs may restrict opportunities to respond and limit learning. The purpose of this study was to extend the concept of within-stimulus prompting (Schreibman, 1975) for use in early intervention classroom to occasion play with previously low-contact toys in previously low-c...
Article
Full-text available
Legal mandate and limited resources provide an impetus to increase the utility of functional assessment. Studies have demonstrated the utility of descriptive analysis-based interventions on an individual level (Lalli, Browder, Mace, & Brown, 1993; Mace & Lalli, 1991). The goal of this study was to develop a brief assessment that could be conducted...
Article
This study examined three strategies for assessing compliance in students (aged 5 yrs) whose speech and language development were delayed. The effects of attention versus escape from instruction following compliance were examined through a descriptive assessment in the classroom, an out-of-class experimental analysis conducted by a consultant, and...
Article
Full-text available
A series of group-administered curriculum-based measurement (CBM) probes were developed to assist in the identification of kindergarten students exhibiting deficient readiness skills. The technical adequacy of the readiness probes was assessed in 2 suburban, public kindergarten centers. Reliability was assessed in 3 ways with 107 kindergarten stude...
Article
One of the single most powerful predictors of aggressive and noncompliant behaviors exhibited in early childhood is coercive parent-child interaction. Coercive parent-child interaction has been linked to multiple negative outcomes in the lives of children. When children learn to relate to their parents and the world in the context of coercive inter...
Article
This study demonstrated a method for integrating in-class and out-of-class procedures to assess and treat an adaptive behavior deficit. The assessment and intervention procedures were implemented to teach students to respond appropriately when they were asked their name. The students were three preschool boys whose language development was delayed....
Article
A primary goal of school-based health centers is to reduce the occurrence of high-risk behaviors and mental health problems commonly exhibited by adolescents. This paper provides a review of national best practice prevention strategies for common adolescent problems including school dropout, violence, and other high-risk behaviors. Specific prevent...