Amanda I Phipps

Amanda I Phipps
University of Washington Seattle | UW · Department of Epidemiology

PhD

About

150
Publications
8,242
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,611
Citations
Citations since 2017
67 Research Items
2661 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
Additional affiliations
September 2006 - present
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
September 2006 - present
University of Washington Seattle
October 2003 - June 2006
Northern California Cancer Center
Education
September 2006 - June 2010
University of Washington Seattle
Field of study
  • Epidemiology
August 2001 - May 2003
University of California, Berkeley
Field of study
  • Epidemiology and Biostatistics
September 1997 - June 2001
Northwestern University
Field of study
  • Biological Sciences

Publications

Publications (150)
Preprint
Full-text available
Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have great potential to guide precision colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention by identifying those at higher risk to undertake targeted screening. However, current PRS using European ancestry data have sub-optimal performance in non-European ancestry populations, limiting their utility among these populations. Towards addre...
Article
Background The pathogenic effect of colorectal tumor molecular features may be influenced by several factors, including those related to microbiota, inflammation, metabolism, and epigenetics, which may change along colorectal segments. We hypothesized that the prognostic association of colon cancer location might differ by tumor molecular character...
Article
Background: Mechanistic data indicate the benefit of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by gut microbial fermentation of fiber on colorectal cancer (CRC), but direct epidemiological evidence is limited. A recent study identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for two SCFA traits (fecal propionate and butyrate-producing microbiome pat...
Preprint
Full-text available
A potential association of endogenous circadian rhythm disruption with risk of cancer development has been suggested, however, epidemiological evidence for the association of sleep traits with colorectal cancer (CRC) is limited and often contradictory. Here we investigated whether genetically predicted chronotype, insomnia and sleep duration are as...
Article
Background: The microbiome in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors is now recognized as a potent facilitator of tumorigenesis. Identification of the intra-tumoral microbiome may provide an avenue to enhance prediction of adverse outcomes and ultimately lead to improved survival of CRC, the second leading cause of cancer death. Methods: We performed targe...
Article
Background: Evidence suggests that, compared to later-onset colorectal cancer (CRC), early-onset CRC (diagnosed before 50 years of age) occur more frequently in rectal location and less frequently in proximal colon location. Studies also indicate heterogeneity of molecular characteristics within early-onset CRCs and between early-onset and later-on...
Article
Full-text available
Background Obesity is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC); but the evidence for the association is inconsistent across molecular subtypes of the disease. Methods We pooled data on BMI, tumor microsatellite instability (MSI) status, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status, BRAF and KRAS mutations, and Jass classification ty...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The anti-tumor immune response plays a key role in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and survival. The T cell-inflamed gene expression profile (GEP) is a biomarker predicting response to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy across immunogenic cancer types, but the prognostic value in CRC is unknown. We evaluated associations with disea...
Article
Background and Aims To examine whether quantitative pathologic analysis of digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) correlates with clinicopathologic features, molecular alterations, and prognosis. Methods A quantitative segmentation algorithm (QuantCRC) was applied to 6,468 digitized H&Es of CRCs. Fifteen paramet...
Article
Full-text available
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease with evidence of distinct tumor types that develop through different somatically altered pathways. To better understand the impact of the host genome on somatically mutated genes and pathways, we assessed associations of germline variations with somatic events via two complementary approaches. We f...
Article
Full-text available
Carriers of germline biallelic pathogenic variants in the MUTYH gene have a high risk of colorectal cancer. We test 5649 colorectal cancers to evaluate the discriminatory potential of a tumor mutational signature specific to MUTYH for identifying biallelic carriers and classifying variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS). Using a tumor and...
Article
Full-text available
Background Sleep problems (SP) are common in cancer patients but have not been previously assessed in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Methods We collected questionnaire data on sleep apnea risk, insomnia, and general sleep patterns. We used an adjusted multivariate Poisson regression to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) and...
Article
Diabetes is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer. However, colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease and it is not well understood whether diabetes is more strongly associated with some tumor molecular subtypes than others. A better understanding of the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer according to molecular subtype...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Epigenetic clocks have been associated with cancer risk in several observational studies. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether they play a causal role in cancer risk or if they act as a non-causal biomarker. Methods: We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study to examine the genetically predicted effects of epigenetic ag...
Article
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a strong epigenetic component that is accompanied by frequent DNA methylation (DNAm) alterations in addition to heritable genetic risk. It is of interest to understand the interrelationship of germline genetics, DNAm, and CRC risk. Methods: We performed a genome-wide methylation quantitative trait locus (m...
Article
Background Sleep problems (SP) can indicate underlying sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea, which may adversely impact cancer risk and mortality. Methods We assessed the association of baseline and longitudinal sleep apnea and insomnia symptoms with incident cancer (N = 3930) and cancer mortality (N = 4580) in the Cardiovascular Healt...
Article
Full-text available
Identification of new genetic markers may improve the prediction of colorectal cancer prognosis. Our objective was to examine genome-wide associations of germline genetic variants with disease-specific survival in an analysis of 16,964 cases of colorectal cancer. We analyzed genotype and colorectal cancer-specific survival data from a consortium of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background : Epigenetic clocks have been associated with cancer risk in several observational studies. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether they play a causal role in cancer risk or if they act as a non-causal biomarker. Methods : We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study to examine the genetically predicted effects of epigenetic...
Article
Background While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified germline variants influencing the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), there has been limited examination of the possible role of inherited variation as a determinant of patient outcome. Patients and methods We performed a GWAS for overall survival (OS) in 1926 patients...
Article
Background: Fusobacterium nucleatum activates oncogenic signaling pathways and induces inflammation to promote colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: We characterized F nucleatum and its subspecies in colorectal tumors and examined associations with tumor characteristics and colorectal cancer (CRC) specific survival. We conducted deep sequencing of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Sleep problems (SP) are common in cancer patients but have not been previously assessed in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Methods: We collected questionnaire data on sleep apnea risk, insomnia and general sleep patterns. We used an adjusted multivariate Poisson regression to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) and...
Article
Purpose: Analyses of the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors have shown a statistically significant sex difference in the excess risk of incident lung cancer due to radiation exposure, with the radiation-related excess relative risk per gray (ERR/Gy) for women approximately 4 times that for men, after accounting for active smoking. We...
Article
Full-text available
Reproductive and hormonal factors may influence breast cancer risk via endogenous estrogen exposure. Cumulative menstrual months (CMM) can be used as a surrogate measure of this exposure. Using harmonized data from four population-based breast cancer studies (7,284 cases and 7,242 controls), we examined ethnicity-specific associations between CMM a...
Article
PurposeThis study aimed to characterize patient and clinical factors associated with cannabis (marijuana) use among patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC).Methods We identified CRC patients, diagnosed from 2016 to 2018, using the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry. CRC patients were recru...
Conference Paper
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogenous disease that develops through somatic mutations in driver genes, leading to activation of diverse neoplastic pathways. To systematically examine if somatically mutated genes and pathways impact survival, we sequenced tumor and normal DNA samples for 4,512 CRC cases using a targeted panel. We performed Cox r...
Article
Full-text available
Background Smoking is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Previous studies suggested this association may be restricted to certain molecular subtypes of CRC while large-scale comprehensive analysis is lacking. Methods A total of 9,789 CRC cases and 11,231 controls of European ancestry from 11 observational studies were included. We harmo...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Sleep quality in relation to anatomic site among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is not well understood, though discerning the relationship could contribute to improved survivorship care. Methods: We ascertained sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and other personal characteristics within an ongoing population-based study of...
Article
Background: Existing evidence indicates household income as a predictor of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) following a colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis. This association likely varies with neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), but evidence is limited. Methods: We included data from 1355 CRC survivors participating in the population-b...
Preprint
Full-text available
PurposeThis study aimed to characterize patient and clinical factors associated with cannabis(marijuana) use among patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC).Methods We identified CRC patients, diagnosed from 2016-2018, using the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry. CRC patients were recruited...
Article
Purpose: While evidence indicates that Fusobacterium nucleatum may promote colorectal carcinogenesis through its suppressive effect on T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity, the specific T-cell subsets involved remain uncertain. Experimental design: We measured F. nucleatum DNA within tumor tissue by quantitative PCR on 933 cases (including 128 F....
Article
Lifestyle factors could plausibly modulate the host immune system, the tumor microenvironment and, hence, immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) response. As such, these factors should be considered in ICI studies.
Article
Full-text available
Background Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood. Methods We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and wh...
Article
Full-text available
Background Though bladder cancer has been the subject of many well-powered genome-wide association studies, the mechanisms involving bladder-cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remain largely unknown. This study focuses on rs798766, rs401681, rs2294008, and rs8102137, which have been associated with bladder cancer and are also...
Article
Background: Cetuximab, an EGFR inhibitor used to treat multiple cancer types, including colon cancer, causes severe skin toxicity in 5%-20% of patients, leading to decreased quality of life and treatment delays. Our understanding of which patients have an increased risk of severe toxicities is limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study...
Article
Background: Radiation exposure is an established risk factor for the development of several forms of cancer, including gastrointestinal cancers. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between prediagnostic radiation exposure and survival after cancer diagnosis. Methods: Participants in the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb su...
Article
Background: High numbers of lymphocytes in tumor tissue, including T regulatory cells (Treg), have been associated with better colorectal cancer survival. Tregs, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and therefore variants in genes related to Treg differentiation and function could be associated with colorec...
Conference Paper
p> Purpose : Despite declines in the overall incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC), there have been increases in the incidence and mortality of CRC among those < 50 years old (early-onset CRC). Although the reasons for the increases in early-onset CRC are unknown, one hypothesis is that temporal changes in dietary patterns has led to c...
Article
Protective associations of fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk have been shown in many, but not all epidemiologic studies. One possible reason for study heterogeneity is that dietary factors may have distinct effects by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes. Here, we investigate the association of fruit, vegetables, and...
Article
Full-text available
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a biologically heterogeneous disease. To characterize its mutational profile, we conduct targeted sequencing of 205 genes for 2,105 CRC cases with survival data. Our data shows several findings in addition to enhancing the existing knowledge of CRC. We identify PRKCI, SPZ1, MUTYH, MAP2K4, FETUB, and TGFBR2 as additional g...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) is associated with a decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. As CRC is a heterogeneous disease, we evaluated whether the association of HT and CRC differs across etiologically relevant, molecularly defined tumor subtypes and tumor location. Methods: We pooled data on tumor subtypes (microsatellite...
Preprint
Full-text available
Importance: Evidence on adiposity altering colorectal cancer (CRC) risk differently among men and women, and on metabolic alterations mediating effects of adiposity on CRC, is unclear. Objective: To examine sex− and site−specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk, and whether adiposity−associated metabolites explain associations of adiposity...
Article
We pooled multiethnic data from four population‐based studies and examined associations of menstrual and reproductive characteristics with breast cancer (BC) risk by tumor hormone receptor (HR) status [defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR)]. We estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariable logisti...
Article
Background and aims: The heterogeneity among colorectal tumors is probably due to differences in developmental pathways and might associate with patient survival times. We studied the relationship among markers of different subtypes of colorectal tumors and patient survival. Methods: We pooled data from 7 observational studies, comprising 5010 p...
Article
Background & aims: Many genetic variants have been associated with colorectal cancer risk, although few have been associated with survival times of patients. Identification of genetic variants associated with survival times might improve our understanding of disease progression and aid in outcome prediction. We performed a genome-wide association...
Article
Background aims: Human studies examining associations between circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and colorectal cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We conducted complementary serologic and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to determine whether alterati...
Article
Full-text available
An important premise of epidemiology is that individuals with the same disease share similar underlying etiologies and clinical outcomes. In the past few decades, our knowledge of disease pathogenesis has improved, and disease classification systems have evolved to the point where no complex disease processes are considered homogenous. As a result,...
Conference Paper
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 3rd most common cancer in men and women, excluding skin cancer, and the 2nd leading cause of cancer death in the United States. In this biologically heterogeneous disease, a comprehensive molecular characterization is valuable for understanding tumorigenesis and studying associations with clinical, lifestyle, environm...
Conference Paper
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 3rd most common cancer in men and women, excluding skin cancer, and the 2nd leading cause of cancer death in the United States. In this biologically heterogeneous disease, a comprehensive molecular characterization is valuable for understanding tumorigenesis and studying associations with clinical, lifestyle, environm...
Article
Smoking accounts for approximately 52% of bladder cancer incidence among postmenopausal women, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Our study investigates whether changes in DNA methylation, as measured in blood, mediate the impact of smoking on bladder cancer risk among postmenopausal women. We conducted analyses among 206 cases and...
Article
Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, while studies have consistently reported elevated risk of CRC among heavy drinkers, associations at moderate levels of alcohol consumption are less clear. We conducted a combined analysis of 16 studies of CRC to examine the shape of the alcohol‐CRC association,...
Article
Background: Data on breast-feeding and breast cancer risk are sparse and inconsistent for Hispanic women. Methods: Pooling data for nearly 6,000 parous Hispanic women from four population-based studies conducted between 1995 and 2007 in the U.S. and Mexico, we examined the association of breast-feeding with risk of breast cancer overall and subt...
Article
Background & aims: Red and processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but it is not clear if intake is associated with patient survival after diagnosis. Methods: We pooled data from 7627 patients with stage I-IV CRC from 10 studies in the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Cox propor...
Article
Purpose: Existing studies on laxatives, used by roughly 40% of the U.S. population experiencing constipation and colorectal cancer (CRC) have yielded inconsistent results, which may be due to a failure to account for differential risks by major laxative types: bulk (fiber-based), and nonbulk (or nonfiber-based). Methods: We examined the associat...
Article
Colorectal cancer (CRC), a common malignancy, is a biologically heterogeneous disease. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled CRC characterization by identifying somatically mutated genes which now allow us to better define colorectal tumor subtypes (e.g. by mutated pathways). However, the relationship of such CRC subtypes to patient survival...
Article
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a biologically heterogeneous disease. Such biological heterogeneity reflects diversity in tumor etiology and has implications for survival. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong association between the presence of microsatellite instability (MSI) in CRC and longer disease-specific survival. The influence of other tu...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Short telomeres have been associated with increased risk of many cancers, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract including esophagus and stomach. However, the association between telomere length (TL) and colorectal cancer and its precursors, colorectal polyps, is not clear. Methods: We investigated the relationship betwee...
Article
Full-text available
A family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) in first‐degree relatives (FDRs) increases the risk of CRC. However, the influence of family history on survival among CRC patients remains unclear. We conducted a pooled analysis of survival in 5010 incident CRC cases. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association of family histor...
Article
Background: Prior studies have supported an inverse association between physical activity and colon cancer risk, and suggest that higher physical activity may also improve cancer survival. Among participants in a phase III adjuvant trial for stage III colon cancer, we assessed the association of physical activity around the time of cancer diagnosi...
Article
Immunotherapy strategies targeting immune checkpoints such as the CTLA4 and CD274 (programmed cell death 1 ligand 1, PD-L1)/PDCD1 (programmed cell death 1, PD-1) T-cell coreceptor pathways are revolutionising oncology. The approval of pembrolizumab use for solid tumours with high-level microsatellite instability or mismatch repair deficiency by the...
Article
Few risk factors have been identified for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) which lacks expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). This more aggressive subtype disproportionately affects some racial/ethnic minorities and is associated with lower survival. We pooled data...
Article
Background: Body weight is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and survival, but to the authors' knowledge, the impact of long-term postdiagnostic weight change is unclear. Herein, the authors investigated whether weight change over the 5 years after a diagnosis of CRC is associated with survival. Methods: CRC cases diagnosed from 1997...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Epidemiological studies suggest that short sleep duration and poor sleep quality may increase breast cancer risk. However, whether sleep is associated with breast tumor aggressiveness characteristics has largely been unexplored. Methods: The study included 4171 non-Hispanic whites (NHW) and 235 African Americans (AA) diagnosed with inci...
Article
Purpose Regular use of aspirin is associated with improved survival for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the timing of and the subtype of CRC that would benefit the most from using aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in relation to survival is unclear. Patients and Methods In all, 2,419 patients age 18 to...
Article
Background: Although colorectal cancer (CRC) usually metastasizes to the liver and/or lungs, factors influencing the anatomic pattern of metastases remain poorly understood. Methods: We assessed the relationship between primary CRC site and pattern of synchronous metastasis among 1202 individuals diagnosed with incident metastatic CRC between 20...
Article
3604 Background: Limited research has investigated the role of variation in the host genome as a determinant of colon carcinoma (CC) outcomes, including toxicity due to therapeutic agents. We examined the relationship between germline genetic factors and treatment-associated serious adverse events (SAEs) in a population of CC patients in which trea...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is a transdisciplinary and relatively new scientific discipline that integrates theory, methods, and resources from epidemiology, pathology, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and computational biology. The underlying objective of MPE research is to better understand the etiology and progression of complex and...
Conference Paper
Previous studies have shown an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) among moderate to heavy alcohol consumers relative to non-drinkers; however, the relationship between alcohol and CRC survival remains unclear. Using data from the international Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), we assessed the association between pre-diagnostic alcohol int...
Article
Proceedings: AACR 107th Annual Meeting 2016; April 16-20, 2016; New Orleans, LA Approximately 20% of individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States are found to have distant metastases at the time of their diagnosis, indicating an extremely poor prognosis. Although it is well known that primary CRC typically metastasizes t...
Article
Previous studies evaluating the association of weight gain following colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis with mortality have been inconsistent. In this study, we evaluate whether this association differs by age at diagnosis. Incident, invasive CRC cases were identified from the Puget Sound Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Registry fr...
Article
Full-text available
Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), but is inconsistently associated with CRC survival. In 6 prospective studies participating in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), 2,249 non-Hispanic white CRC cases were followed for a median 4.5 years after diagnosis, duri...
Article
Full-text available
Alcohol consumption is associated with a modest increased risk of colon cancer, but its relationship with colon cancer survival has not been elucidated. Using data from a phase III randomized adjuvant trial, we assessed the association of alcohol consumption with colon cancer outcomes. Patients completed a risk factor questionnaire before randomiza...
Article
Purpose: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in the general population, and regular NSAID use is associated with improved survival among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We examined the association of NSAID use prior to, and after, diagnosis in relation to CRC-specific and overall survival. Methods: Study subjects were i...
Article
Genome-wide association studies have identified several germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Common germline genetic variation may also be related to CRC survival. We used a discovery-based approach to identify SNPs related to survival outcomes after CRC diagnosis. Genome-w...
Article
Full-text available
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease, arising from many possible etiological pathways. This heterogeneity can have important implications for CRC prognosis and clinical management. Epidemiological studies of CRC risk and prognosis-as well as clinical trials for the treatment of CRC-must therefore be sensitive to the molecular phenotyp...
Article
Full-text available
Microsatellite instability (MSI) and BRAF-mutation status are associated with colorectal cancer survival whereas the role of body mass index (BMI) is less clear. We evaluated the association between BMI and colorectal cancer survival, overall and by strata of MSI, BRAF-mutation, sex, and other factors. This study included 5,615 men and women diagno...