Amanda Martinot

Amanda Martinot
Tufts University | Tufts · Department of Infectious Disease and Global Health

DVM, MPH, PhD

About

49
Publications
7,370
Reads
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2,771
Citations
Citations since 2017
35 Research Items
2401 Citations
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Additional affiliations
February 2015 - January 2016
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Position
  • Research Associate
September 2005 - June 2006
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (49)
Article
There is a need to standardize pathologic endpoints in animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection to help benchmark study quality, improve cross-institutional comparison of data, and assess therapeutic efficacy so that potential drugs and vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 can rapidly advance. The Syrian hamster model is a tractable small animal model for COVID-19...
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To gain insights into the mechanisms driving cardiovascular complications in COVID-19, we performed a case-control plasma proteomics study in COVID-19 patients. Our results identify the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, a marker of biological aging, as the dominant process associated with disease severity and cardiac involvement. FSTL3, an...
Article
Full-text available
Syrian golden hamsters exhibit features of severe disease after SARS-CoV-2 WA1/2020 challenge and are therefore useful models of COVID-19 pathogenesis and prevention with vaccines. Recent studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection stimulates type I interferon, myeloid, and inflammatory signatures similar to human disease and that weight loss can...
Article
Authorized vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 remain less available in low- and middle-income countries due to insufficient supply, high costs, and storage requirements. Global immunity could still benefit from new vaccines using widely available, safe adjuvants, such as alum and protein subunits, suited to low-cost production in existing manufacturing fa...
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The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant, including in highly vaccinated populations, has raised important questions about the efficacy of current vaccines. In this study, we show that the mRNA-based BNT162b2 vaccine and the adenovirus vector-based Ad26.COV2.S vaccine provide robust protection against high-dose challenge with...
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Full-text available
Background The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant has proven highly transmissible and has outcompeted the Delta variant in many regions of the world. Early reports have also suggested that Omicron may result in less severe clinical disease in humans. Here we show that Omicron is less pathogenic than prior SARS-CoV-2 variants in Syrian golden ha...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant, including in highly vaccinated populations, has raised important questions about the efficacy of current vaccines. Immune correlates of vaccine protection against Omicron are not known. Methods 30 cynomolgus macaques were immunized with homologous and heterologous prime-boo...
Article
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The CVnCoV (CureVac) mRNA vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 has recently been evaluated in a phase 2b/3 efficacy trial in humans¹. CV2CoV is a second-generation mRNA vaccine with non-modified nucleosides but optimized non-coding regions and enhanced antigen expression. Here we report a head-to-head study of the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of CVnCoV...
Preprint
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant has proven highly transmissible and has outcompeted the Delta variant in many regions of the world. Early reports have also suggested that Omicron may result in less severe clinical disease in humans. Here we show that Omicron is less pathogenic than prior SARS-CoV-2 variants in Syrian golden hamsters. Inf...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of immune activation in the brain during acute HIV infection is crucial for the prevention and treatment of HIV-associated neurological disorders. We determined regional brain (basal ganglia, thalamus, and frontal cortex) immune and virological profiles at 7 and 14 days post infection (dpi) with SIVmac239 in rhesus macaques. The basal gan...
Preprint
Full-text available
Syrian golden hamsters exhibit features of severe disease after SARS-CoV-2 challenge and are therefore useful models of COVID-19 pathogenesis and prevention with vaccines. Recent studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection stimulates type I interferon, myeloid, and inflammatory signatures similar to human disease, and that weight loss can be preve...
Article
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that result in increased transmissibility and partial evasion of neutralizing antibodies have recently emerged. Whether natural immunity induced by the original SARS-CoV-2 WA1/2020 strain protects against rechallenge with these SARS-CoV-2 variants remains a critical unresolved qu...
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern have emerged and may pose a threat to both the efficacy of vaccines based on the original WA1/2020 strain and the natural immunity induced by infection with earlier SARS-CoV-2 variants. We investigated how mutations in the spike protein of circulating SARS-CoV-2 varian...
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The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants that partially evade neutralizing antibodies poses a threat to the efficacy of current COVID-19 vaccines1,2. The Ad26.COV2.S vaccine expresses a stabilized Spike protein from the WA1/2020 strain and has recently demonstrated protective efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 in humans in multiple geographic region...
Preprint
Full-text available
The CVnCoV (CureVac) mRNA vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 has recently been evaluated in a phase 2b/3 efficacy trial in humans. CV2CoV is a second-generation mRNA vaccine with optimized non-coding regions and enhanced antigen expression. Here we report a head-to-head study of the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of CVnCoV and CV2CoV in nonhuman primat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been distributed at massive scale in developed countries, and have been effective at preventing COVID-19. Access to vaccines is limited, however, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) due to insufficient supply, high costs, and cold storage requirements. New vaccines that can be produced in existing manufactur...
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Full-text available
We previously reported that a single immunization with an adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector-based vaccine expressing an optimized SARS-CoV-2 spike (Ad26.COV2.S) protected rhesus macaques against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. To evaluate reduced doses of Ad26.COV2.S, 30 rhesus macaques were immunized once with 1x10¹¹, 5x10¹⁰, 1.125x10¹⁰, or 2x10⁹ vp Ad26...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cardiovascular complications are common in COVID-19 and strongly associated with disease severity and mortality. However, the mechanisms driving cardiac injury and failure in COVID-19 are largely unknown. We performed plasma proteomics on 80 COVID-19 patients and controls, grouped according to disease severity and cardiac involvement. Findings were...
Chapter
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) is a common foodborne pathogen in developed countries. STEC generates “attaching and effacing” (AE) lesions on colonic epithelium, characterized by effacement of microvilli and the formation of actin “pedestals” beneath intimately attached bacteria. In addition, STEC are lysogenized with a phage that, upon induc...
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Objectives: To determine the feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided minimally invasive autopsy in COVID-19 patients. Methods: 60 patients who expired between 04/22/2020-05/06/2020 due to COVID-19 were considered for inclusion in the study, based on availability of study staff. Minimally invasive ultrasound-guided autopsy was performed with...
Preprint
Full-text available
We previously reported that a single immunization with an adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector-based vaccine expressing an optimized SARS-CoV-2 spike (Ad26.COV2.S) protected rhesus macaques against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of reduced doses of Ad26.COV2.S. 30 rhesus macaques were im...
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Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), an attenuated whole cell vaccine based on Mycobacterium bovis , is the only licensed vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), but its efficacy is suboptimal and it fails to protect against pulmonary tuberculosis. We previously reported that Mtb lacking the virulence genes lprG and rv1410c ( ΔLprG) was highl...
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans is often a clinically mild illness, but some individuals develop severe pneumonia, respiratory failure and death1–4. Studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in hamsters5–7 and nonhuman primates8–10 have generally reported mild clinical disease, and preclinical S...
Preprint
Normal tissue physiology and repair depends on communication with the immune system. Understanding this communication at the molecular level in intact tissue requires new methods. The consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which can result in acute respiratory distress, thrombosis and death, has been studied primarily in accessible liquid specimens...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has led to extensive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Clinical features that drive SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in humans include inflammation and thrombosis, but the mechanistic details underlying these processes remain to be determined. In this study, we demonstrate endothelial disruption and vascular thrombosis in h...
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An understanding of protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is critical for vaccine and public health strategies aimed at ending the global COVID-19 pandemic. A key unanswered question is whether infection with SARS-CoV-2 results in protective immunity against re-exposure. We developed a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection and observed that maca...
Article
Maternal infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) can lead to microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities of the fetus. Although ZIKV vaccines that prevent or reduce viremia in non-pregnant mice have been described, a maternal vaccine that provides complete fetal protection would be desirable. Here, we show that adenovirus (Ad) vector-based ZIKV vaccin...
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the world’s most deadly pathogen. Unlike less virulent mycobacteria, Mtb produces 1-tuberculosinyladenosine (1-TbAd), an unusual terpene nucleoside of unknown function. In the present study 1-TbAd has been shown to be a naturally evolved phagolysosome disruptor. 1-TbAd is highly prevalent among patient-derived Mt...
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Natural killer (NK) cells respond rapidly as a first line of defense against infectious pathogens. In addition, NK cells may provide a “rheostat” function and have been shown to reduce the magnitude of antigen-specific T cell responses following infection to avoid immunopathology. However, it remains unknown whether NK cells similarly modulate vacc...
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The development of interventions to prevent congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) has been limited by the lack of an established nonhuman primate model. Here we show that infection of female rhesus monkeys early in pregnancy with Zika virus (ZIKV) recapitulates many features of CZS in humans. We infected 9 pregnant monkeys with ZIKV, 6 early in pregnancy...
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Despite drug advances for Hepatitis C virus (HCV), re-infections remain prevalent in high-risk populations. Unfortunately, the role of preexisting viral immunity and how it modulates re-infection is unclear. GBV-B infection of common marmosets is a useful model to study tissue immune responses in hepacivirus infections, and in this study we re-chal...
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The granuloma is the hallmark of tuberculosis and simultaneously signifies acquisition of an infection and induction of a host immune response. But who benefits more from the development of the granuloma, the host or the pathogen? Is microbe or man dictating disease course and progression? Mycobacterial diseases affect humans and animals alike, and...
Article
CD4 T cells help immune responses, but knowledge of how memory CD4 T cells are regulated and how they regulate adaptive immune responses and induce immunopathology is limited. Using adoptive transfer of virus-specific CD4 T cells, we show that naïve CD4 T cells undergo substantial expansion following infection, but can induce lethal TH1-driven infl...
Article
Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with severe neuropathology in neonates as well as Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurologic disorders in adults. Prolonged viral shedding has been reported in semen, suggesting the presence of anatomic viral reservoirs. Here we show that ZIKV can persist in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and lymph nodes (LN) of infecte...
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Chronic hepatitis C has been associated with metabolic syndrome that includes insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and obesity. These metabolic aberrations are risk factors for disease severity and treatment outcome in infected patients. Experimental infection of marmosets with GBV-B serves as a tangible, small animal model for human HCV infection...
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Importance: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has created a global health crisis and, despite new effective antivirals, is still a leading cause of liver disease and death worldwide. Recent evidence suggests innate immunity could be a potential therapeutic target for HCV, but may also be a correlate of increased disease. Due to a lack of access to...
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Author Of the estimated 2 billion people worldwide currently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), surprisingly few go on to develop active tuberculosis (TB) disease. The vast majority, 95 percent, of infected individuals develop latent TB, remaining infected but without disease. Despite its importance in global health, the question of w...
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The prolonged survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) in the host fundamentally depends on scavenging essential nutrients from host sources. M. tb scavenges non-heme iron using mycobactin and carboxymycobactin siderophores, synthesized by mycobactin synthases (Mbt). Although a general mechanism for mycobactin biosynthesis has been proposed,...
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Significance Whereas most mycobacteria do not cause disease, Mycobacterium tuberculosis kills more than one million people each year. To better understand why Mycobacterium tuberculosis is virulent and to discover chemical markers of this pathogen, we compare its lipid profile with that of the attenuated but related mycobacterium, Mycobacterium bov...
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Full-text available
Lymphoid tissue immunopathology is a characteristic feature of chronic HIV/SIV infection in AIDS-susceptible species, but is absent in SIV-infected natural hosts. To investigate factors contributing to this difference, we compared germinal center development and SIV RNA distribution in peripheral lymph nodes during primary SIV infection of the natu...
Article
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is an important mediator of innate immunity but can also promote inflammatory tissue damage. During chronic infections such as tuberculosis, the beneficial antimicrobial role of IL-1 must be balanced with the need to prevent immunopathology. By exogenously controlling the replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vivo, we ob...
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Although the cellular immune response is essential for controlling SIV replication in Asian macaques, its role in maintaining nonpathogenic SIV infection in natural hosts such as sooty mangabeys (SM) remains to be defined. We have previously shown that similar to rhesus macaques (RM), SM are able to mount a T lymphocyte response against SIV infecti...
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Small intestinal adenocarcinomas are uncommon neoplasms that are rarely reported in nonhuman primates. These neoplasms are also rare in humans, although they are thought to share a similar pathogenesis with the more common colorectal carcinoma. Herein the authors report the clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular characteristics of...
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In contrast to pathogenic lentiviral infections, chronic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in its natural host is characterized by a lack of increased immune activation and apoptosis. To determine whether these differences are species specific and predicted by the early host response to SIV in primary infection, we longitudinally examin...
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Ninety-two clinics were surveyed in 2005 as part of a baseline assessment of HIV activities in Tuberculosis (TB) clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Some HIV activities were implemented in 58% of TB clinics. The majority of health had > or = 1 health care worker (HCW) trained in either HIV counseling or testing (71%). Fifty-three cli...
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A pandemic of highly pathogenic influenza would threaten the lives of hundreds of thousands in the United States and confront governments and organizations, with ethical issues having wide-ranging implications. The Department of Health and Human Services and all states have published pandemic influenza plans. We analyzed the federal and state plans...
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Avian influenza presents both challenges and opportunities to leaders around the world engaged in pandemic influenza preparedness planning. Most resource-poor countries will be unable to stockpile antivirals or have access to eventual human vaccines for pandemic flu. Preparedness plans, directed at controlling avian influenza at the source, enable...

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