Alon Barash

Alon Barash
Bar Ilan University | BIU · Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee

PhD

About

66
Publications
33,495
Reads
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692
Citations
Citations since 2016
36 Research Items
577 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
Additional affiliations
October 2011 - present
Bar Ilan University
Position
  • Anatomy course director
October 2011 - present
Bar Ilan University
Position
  • Managing Director
October 1999 - August 2012
Tel Aviv University
Position
  • PhD Student, Anatomy teacher
Education
October 2004 - August 2014
Tel Aviv University
Field of study
  • Anatomy & Physical Anthropology

Publications

Publications (66)
Article
Full-text available
Background The training of near-peer (NP) teachers and junior faculty instructors received major attention as a possible solution for the shortage of experienced anatomy instructors in faculties of medicine and health professions. Several studies described the training of NP teachers and junior instructors (≤ 2 years of teaching experience) using v...
Article
Opening a new medical school and introducing an anatomy course is a rare opportunity for medical anatomy educators. Here we sum our experience in an ongoing 10-year anatomy program, emphasizing the challenges we endured, the hardships and successes in the hope that others can learn from our experience. In February 2010, Bar Ilan University was chos...
Article
Full-text available
The paucity of early Pleistocene hominin fossils in Eurasia hinders an in-depth discussion on their paleobiology and paleoecology. Here we report on the earliest large-bodied hominin remains from the Levantine corridor: a juvenile vertebra (UB 10749) from the early Pleistocene site of ‘Ubeidiya, Israel, discovered during a reanalysis of the faunal...
Article
Full-text available
We have read, with great interest, several articles published in the Anatomical Sciences Education regarding anatomy teaching in the Covid‐19 pandemic (Evans et al, 2020; Pather et al., 2020; Smith and Pawlina, 2021) and would like to reflect on the subject. The Covid‐19 (SARS‐CoV‐2) pandemic ravaged the world, claiming lives, shutting down economi...
Article
Cervical spinal injury and neck pain are common disorders with wide physical implications. Neck pain and disability are reported to occur in females more often than in males, and chronic or persistent neck pain after whiplash is twice as common in females. Female athletes also sustain a higher percentage of concussions compared to male athletes. St...
Article
Full-text available
The tall and narrow body shape of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) evolved via changes in the thorax, pelvis and limbs. It is debated, however, whether these modifications first evolved together in African Homo erectus, or whether H. erectus had a more primitive body shape that was distinct from both the more ape-like Australopithecus spec...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual dimorphism is an important feature of adult thorax morphology, but when and how sex-related differences in the ribcage arise during ontogeny is poorly known. Previous research proposed that sex-related size differences in the nasal region arise during puberty. Therefore, we explore whether ribcage sexual dimorphism also arises at that time a...
Article
Full-text available
For more than 10,000 years between the peak of the Last Glacial Maximum and the beginning of the Holocene, people repeatedly returned to the same spot on the southern edge of Paleolake Hula in the Upper Jordan Valley to fish, hunt and exploit other aquatic or semi-aquatic resources at the Epipaleolithic site of Jordan River Dureijat. Preliminary da...
Chapter
Full-text available
Reconstruction of the spinal curvatures of extinct hominins is essential in order to understand their posture and function. Despite its importance, researchers face many difficulties in reconstructing spinal posture based solely on osseous material due to the absence of soft tissues.
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter overviews the theoretical basics of geometric morphometrics (GM) and reviews its potential for the study of hominin vertebrae and vertebral columns. We show that challenges are related to seriality and the metameric nature of the spine. Measuring a series of vertebrae is a time-consuming process because the necessary sample sizes need...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The shape of the human lumbar spine is considered to be a consequence of erect posture. In addition, several other factors such as sexual dimorphism and variation in genetic backgrounds also influence lumbar vertebral morphology. Here we use 3D geometric morphometrics (GM) to analyze the 3D morphology of the lumbar spine in different h...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Classic studies in Palaeoanthropology suggest that in hominins and other primates thoraces and pelves are anatomically integrated. However, this torso integration hypothesis has been only tested in isolated bones so far, but not in anatomically connected torsos. Here we aim at testing the torso integration hypothesis in two modern human populations...
Article
Full-text available
The size and shape of the Neandertal thorax has been debated since the first discovery of Neandertal ribs more than 150 years ago, with workers proposing different interpretations ranging from a Neandertal thoracic morphology that is indistinguishable from modern humans, to one that was significantly different from them. Here, we provide a virtual...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Lower thoracic widths and curvatures track upper pelvic widths and iliac blades curvatures in hominins and other primates (torso integration hypothesis). However, recent studies suggest that sexual dimorphism could challenge this assumption in Homo sapiens. We test the torso integration hypothesis in two modern human populations, both c...
Poster
Full-text available
The almost complete Neanderthal skeleton of La Chapelle-aux-Saints (LC) was discovered in 1908 by Amédée and Jean Bouyssonie and Louis Bardon in the homonymous French town. Marcellin Boule provided the first anatomical description of the fossil, where he considered that LC had a less curved cervical spine than the modern human, based on the orienta...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of the present project is to reconstruct the atlas of LC using virtual morphological and geometric morphometric (GM) techniques to include this fossil in the study of the comparative anatomy of the cervical spine and head posture of Neanderthals.
Article
The Kebara 2 individual (K2), an adult Neanderthal male, was found in the early 1980s during excavation at the Kebara cave on Mount Carmel (Israel) and is dated to around 60 ka (Arensburg, 1989; Bar-Yosef and Vandermeersh, 1991; Valladas et al., 1991). Because the remains are fairly complete and well preserved, this individual has been used as a re...
Article
Thorax and pelvis covariation is important for understanding evolutionary variability in human body shape. Although previous analyses have addressed these issues by investigating isolated trunk bones, no research has included anatomically connected trunk bones. Here, we assessed how the thorax and pelvis co-vary in Homo sapiens, considering sex, an...
Article
Full-text available
Background A near-peer instructors (NPI) program was designed for 1st year medical students who successfully finished the Anatomy course, in order to develop their didactic ability and teaching skills, mostly for cadaver dissection. Methods Graduates of the training program were administered a voluntary survey at the end of the program, annually....
Article
Well preserved thoracic vertebrae of Neandertals are rare. However, such fossils are important as their three-dimensional (3D) spatial configuration can contribute to the understanding of the size and shape of the thoracic spine and the entire thorax. This is because the vertebral body and transverse processes provide the articulation and attachmen...
Article
Full-text available
The late Middle Palaeolithic (MP) settlement patterns in the Levant included the repeated use of caves and open landscape sites. The fossil record shows that two types of hominins occupied the region during this period—Neandertals and Homo sapiens. Until recently, diagnostic fossil remains were found only at cave sites. Because the two populations...
Article
Here we provide the most extensive metric and morphological analysis performed to date on the Neandertal lumbar spine. Neandertal lumbar vertebrae show differences from modern humans in both the vertebral body and in the neural arch, although not all Neandertal lumbar vertebrae differ from modern humans in the same way. Differences in the vertebral...
Article
Full-text available
Spinopelvic alignment refers to the interaction between pelvic orientation, spinal curvatures, and the line of gravity. In a healthy modern human, this alignment is characterized by reciprocal curves/orientation of the sacrum, lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, and cervical lordosis. In an economic sagittal posture, these curvatures keep the line...
Conference Paper
Recent research has shown that lumbar lordosis is an important factor in bipedal locomotion and has been also related to adaptations to pregnancy. Several studies, using different methods, indicate males are less lordotic than females. Previous research also found differences between African and European populations suggesting a geographic variatio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
H. naledi shows a mosaic morphological pattern with several derived (Homo-like) features of the skull, hands and feet, and primitive (australopith- like) features in the ribcage, shoulder, and pelvis. This pattern reflects a morphology that might be expected of a hominin at the evolutionary transition between Australopithecus and Homo. Two thoracic...
Article
Full-text available
The Intermediate Bronze Age (IB) in the Southern Levant (ca. 2350–2000 BCE) is known as the “Dark Ages,” following the collapse of Early Bronze urban society and predating the establishment of the Middle Bronze cities. The absence of significant settlements and monumental building has led to the reconstruction of IB social organization as that of n...
Chapter
Full-text available
Spinal posture has vast biomechanical , locomotor and pathological implications in hominins . Assessing the curvatures of the spine of fossil hominins can provide important information towards the understanding of their paleobiology. Unfortunately, complete hominin spines are very rarely preserved in the fossil record. The Neanderthal partial skele...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
‘Ein Qashish is a late Mousterian open-air site from the southern Levant bearing evidence of three discrete human fossil remains. One of the fossils, EQH-3, consisted five lower limb bones of a young adult Neandertal male [1] that is the subject of the current paper. One of the ‘unusual’ features of this individual was the narrow distal articular s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
10:15, A 703/704 During human evolution, different hominin groups present different lumbar lordosis angles. H. sapiens present high lordosis angles while Neandertals present smaller angles. Recently, Wagner et al. demonstrated that lordosis reduces the local joint torques necessary for an equilibrium of the vertebral column. They found that the ven...
Research
Full-text available
During human evolution the spinal curvature as well as pelvic and sacral orientation have changed dramatically, from a very small pelvic incidence and spinal curvatures in non human hominoids to large curvatures in modern humans. This change was accompanied by a dramatic shift of the line of gravity and C7 plumb line. In this work we will describe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Researchers are increasingly using computer software and morphometrics to assist with reconstruction of fossil hominin material although the majority of reconstructions focus on a single bone. The Spy II skeleton was found in Belgium in 1886 and is relatively complete(1). The aim of this study was to virtually recreate the Spy II Neandertal using m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Previous studies of rib morphology have suggested increased thorax capacity in Neandertals when compared to modern humans [1-3]. However, the thorax consists of the vertebral spine, the ribs, and the sternal complex. Therefore assessments of thorax capacity on ribs only might not provide a complete picture. The three-dimensional spatial configurati...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of species recognition in paleoanthropology has been the subject of numerous studies. In the current study, we have used the complex topography of the mandibular fossa to assess its potential as a species-specific indicator. Six landmarks were registered using a microscribe 3Dx digitizer on four extant species: Pan paniscus, Pan troglod...
Conference Paper
e El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain), dated to approximately 49 kyrs BP, has produced the most important collection of Iberian Neandertals. More than 2400 fossil cranial and postcranial remains have been recovered so far. ese have been attributed to at least thirteen individuals including seven adults, three adolescents, two juveniles and one infan...
Article
The difficulties in quantifying the 3D form and spatial relationships of the skeletal components of the ribcage present a barrier to studies of the growth of the thoracic skeleton. Thus, most studies to date have relied on traditional measurements such as distances and indices from single or few ribs. It is currently known that adult-like thoracic...
Article
Full-text available
The Assyrians, who ruled at the height of their power between Egypt and the Persian Gulf (745–630 BC), are known from historical records to have been cruel and unrelenting towards their enemies. However, osteological evidence for this behavior is scarce. We herein present a case of an adult male skeleton, dated to the Iron Age IIB period (second ha...
Article
Preliminary results of the investigation of the microfauna at the Acheulo-Yabrudian Middle Pleistocene site of Qesem Cave, Israel, are presented. Thus far the assemblage includes ca. 10,000 bone and tooth fragments, of which 50% could be identified to the generic and some hundreds to the species level. Based on the current material, the fauna inclu...
Article
A retrospective cohort study of the relationship between the structures that form the lumbar spine in humans. To investigate the relationship between the segmental wedging of the vertebral bodies and that of the intervertebral discs, and between the overall lordosis angle and each of the 5 lumbar segments. Little attention has been paid to the inte...
Article
The morphology of the lumbar spine is crucial for upright posture and bipedal walking in hominids. The excellent preservation of the lumbar spine of Kebara 2 provides us a rare opportunity to observe a complete spine and explore its functionally relevant morphology. The lumbar spine of Kebara 2 is analyzed and compared with the lumbar spines of mod...
Article
The debate over the posture of early hominids is longstanding, perhaps because the absence of a reliable method for reconstructing the lumbar lordosis angle (LA) in early hominid spines has made it difficult to determine whether their posture resembled or differed from that of modern humans. We have developed a new model for predicting the lordotic...
Article
The attainment of upright posture, with its requisite lumbar lordosis, was a major turning point in human evolution. Nonhuman primates have small lordosis angles, whereas the human spine exhibits distinct lumbar lordosis (30 degrees -80 degrees ). We assume the lumbar spine of the pronograde ancestors of modern humans was like those of extant nonhu...

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