Alok Atreya

Alok Atreya
Lumbini Medical Collage & Teaching Hospial · Department of Forensic Medicine

MD (Forensic Medicine)

About

136
Publications
49,453
Reads
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594
Citations
Introduction
Alok does research in Forensic Medicine & Toxicology. His broad areas of interest are injury, violence, trauma, abuse, medical ethics, medical education, forensic pathology, forensic anthropology, criminal law, etc.

Publications

Publications (136)
Article
Full-text available
As winter approaches, people in the land of rural Himalayas commonly use fire as the source of heat. Many accidents occur in the process, and mostly the victims are among unattended children and the elderlies. We present a case from rural Nepal where an elderly female sustained fatal burn injuries. Advanced age, greater surface area, and secondary...
Article
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Introduction: Mandibular condyle is a prominent structure in the mandible, which forms the temporomandibular joint. An oval-shaped condyle is considered to be present with a normal temporomandibular joint and any morphological variation of the condyle is assumed to be pathologic in temporomandibular disorders. The aim of the study was to find out t...
Article
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Background Injury remains a major concern to public health in the European region. Previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study showed wide variation in injury death and disability adjusted life year (DALY) rates across Europe, indicating injury inequality gaps between sub-regions and countries. The objectives of this study were...
Article
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Background Injury remains a major concern to public health in the European region. Previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study showed wide variation in injury death and disability adjusted life year (DALY) rates across Europe, indicating injury inequality gaps between sub-regions and countries. The objectives of this study were...
Article
Full-text available
Background Injury remains a major concern to public health in the European region. Previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study showed wide variation in injury death and disability adjusted life year (DALY) rates across Europe, indicating injury inequality gaps between sub-regions and countries. The objectives of this study were...
Article
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Background: The emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic threw the world into turmoil. The medical community bore the brunt of the pandemic's toll. Long work hours, and a lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) and social support all had an influence on mental health. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among Lumbini Medical College Tea...
Article
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Thermal injuries in young children involving the buttocks, perineum, and lower limbs raise suspicion of child abuse. Determining the manner of death and ruling out homicide in a fatal case of scalding remains a challenge for forensic practitioners. In the present article, the medicolegal evaluation in a case of fatal scald injury involving a two-ye...
Article
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Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a common, preventable, and treatable disease. Here, we conducted a systematic review of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and its risk factors in Nepal for the last two decades. Methods: We systematically searched databases to find all relevant Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease research...
Article
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Possession of a firearm without a certified valid license is against Nepalese law. Following a decade-long civil war, Nepal government issued stringent laws not allowing public to possess firearms without a valid reason, despite bearing a license. However, there are people who possess and use firearms for hunting purposes. The present case reports...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal injuries in young children involving the buttocks, perineum, and lower limbs raise suspicion of child abuse. Determining the manner of death and ruling out homicide in a fatal case of scalding remains a challenge for forensic practitioners. One such issue is reported in the present case report, where a medicolegal evaluation of a fatal scal...
Article
The nose is a prominent facial structure which is too often overlooked by forensic medicine practitioners. Studies that consider the role of the nose in forensic practice are scattered throughout scientific literature. We provide a brief review of these.
Article
A 5-y-old boy presented to the emergency department (ED) with painful blisters over the chest and both legs. Fresh blood was seen coming from his left ear. The blisters on the chest were ruptured by friction with his clothing (Figure 1). What caused these blisters? How should you manage this case? Figure 1. Ruptured superficial skin blisters over t...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic threw the world into turmoil. The medical community bore the brunt of the pandemic's toll. Long work hours, and a lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) and social support all had an influence on mental health. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among Lumbini Medical College...
Preprint
Background: Injury remains a major concern to public health in the European region, particularly among adults younger than 49 years. Previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study showed wide variation in injury death and disability adjusted life year (DALY) rates across Europe, indicating injury inequality gaps between sub-regions...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal injuries in young children involving the buttocks, perineum, and lower limbs raise suspicion of child abuse. Determining the manner of death and ruling out homicide in a fatal case of scalding remains a challenge for forensic practitioners. One such issue is reported in the present case report, where a medicolegal evaluation of a fatal scal...
Article
This paper aims to examine the worldwide research development and trends in forensic anthropology by using bibliometric analysis. Scopus database was used to identify all published papers on forensic anthropology from establishment until the year 2020. A total of 4,499 records were analyzed for yearly publication productivity, authorship and citati...
Article
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The practice of autopsy for medico-legal purposes in Nepal was started during the 1960s when jail doctors used to perform the autopsy. However, the medico-legal service in clinical forensic settings is less than three decades old. In Nepal, a police inquest is done for all the unnatural deaths who then subjects the body for medico-legal autopsy at...
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Background In estimating the global burden of cancer, adolescents and young adults with cancer are often overlooked, despite being a distinct subgroup with unique epidemiology, clinical care needs, and societal impact. Comprehensive estimates of the global cancer burden in adolescents and young adults (aged 15–39 years) are lacking. To address this...
Article
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Forensic anthropology utilises the knowledge gained from the examination of human remains. It is a requirement for forensic medicine residents to have knowledge of forensic anthropology and exhumation. Most of the forensic medicine residents in the Indian sub-continent graduate only with a theoretical knowledge and without a proper practical traini...
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Although cases of sexual offenses are not uncommon in children, they present to the Emergency Department seeking treatment for a medical cause. Sometimes the history of abuse is missed by the treating clinicians who are only focused upon the presenting complaint and not upon the underlying cause. Furthermore, the lack of reporting of sexual abuse i...
Article
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Nepal's second wave of COVID-19 has become the worst the world has seen so far. For a population of 29 million people, Nepal currently has only 1127 ICU beds and 453 ventilators for the entire population. The fragile healthcare system is already overwhelmed with every emergency room full of patients. Due to the unavailability of ICU beds, ventilato...
Article
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Nepal is one of the first South Asian countries to include anti discrimination laws against LGBTQ community, yet they face disparity in all sectors, including health. This group has special reproductive and sexual health needs, which has to be assessed and treated on an individual level. Most gynecologist in Nepal have not been trained to care for...
Article
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Thelaziasis is a zoonotic disease which affects the eye of domestic and wild carnivores caused by the nematode Thelazia. It is transmitted to humans by secretophagous arthropod-borne zoophilic nonbiting flies of the family Drosophilidae. Human thelaziasis is rare and occurs in poor socio-economic families of the rural locations where people live in...
Article
Palliative care, namely the relief of pain, is a priority for cases of incurable diseases in Nepal. However, since oral morphine is not available, pain control is often inadequate. Euthanasia is not permissible by law but could be a better solution in some cases and should be made understandable to patients and physicians as in developed countries....
Article
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Background Regularly updated data on stroke and its pathological types, including data on their incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability, risk factors, and epidemiological trends, are important for evidence-based stroke care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) aims to provide a...
Article
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Background: Road traffic accidents are the leading cause of deaths worldwide among children and young adults aged between 5 to 29 years. The risk of road traffic accident-related death is higher in low-income countries. Thus, we aim to evaluate the epidemiology of road traffic accidents in Nepal during the fiscal years from 2009/10 to 2019/20. Me...
Article
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Aims: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from 2000-2020 in various parts of Nepal. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched using the appropriate keywords. All Nepalese studies mentioning the prevalence of T2DM and/or details such as risk factors were included. Studies were screen...
Article
Full-text available
Possession of a firearm without a certified valid license is against Nepalese law. After the civil war, the government issued a stringent rule of not allowing the public to keep firearms without a valid reason, despite having a license. However, there are still people who keep firearms in their homes. The present case reports the accidental death o...
Article
Full-text available
Background Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 has targeted elimination of preventable child mortality, reduction of neonatal death to less than 12 per 1000 livebirths, and reduction of death of children younger than 5 years to less than 25 per 1000 livebirths, for each country by 2030. To understand current rates, recent trends, and potential traject...
Article
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Penile fractures are clinically diagnosed with eggplant-like deformity of the penis (aubergine sign). Surgical repair immediately following the penile fracture is the standard of care, which usually heals with minimal or no complications.
Article
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Firearm-related mortality is not frequently encountered in a country like Nepal where there are stringent laws prohibiting the buying, selling, carrying or storing of firearms. To possess a firearm a person must have a valid license. Wounds produced by firearms have typical characteristics the knowledge of which helps to identify the type of firear...
Article
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The constitution of the Federal Republic of Nepal assures equality of all Nepalese citizens regardless of gender, ethnicity and religion. There is a stringent law which recognizes all form of caste-based discrimination as a serious criminal offense. However, caste-based hate crimes including physical assaults and cold-blooded homicides are frequent...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from 2000-2020 in various parts of Nepal. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched using the appropriate keywords. All Nepalese studies mentioning the prevalence of T2DM and/or details such as risk factors were included. Studies were screen...
Article
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The Nepalese constitution guarantees equal rights to both men and women regardless of caste, race, or ethnicity. However, the centuries-old superstitious practice of caste-based hierarchy in the Hindu community and discrimination against people of lower caste are still prevalent. Furthermore, witchcraft allegations are also not uncommon. Both these...
Article
Full-text available
Firearm related mortality is not frequently encountered in a country like Nepal where there us a stringent law prohibiting buying, selling, carrying or storing of firearms. It is required to have a valid license to have a firearm in possession. Wounds produced by firearm have a typical characteristic the knowledge of which helps to identify the typ...
Article
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Male dominance in a patriarchal society can be attributed to the phallus which symbolises masculinity, power and vigour. Any injury to the penis is therefore, injury to manhood. We report a rare case from Nepal where an elderly man who allegedly committed a sexual offence suffered a malicious injury to his penis in retaliation by his victim's famil...
Article
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Background High-resolution estimates of HIV burden across space and time provide an important tool for tracking and monitoring the progress of prevention and control efforts and assist with improving the precision and efficiency of targeting efforts. We aimed to assess HIV incidence and HIV mortality for all second-level administrative units across...
Article
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Background: Male genital injuries are urological emergencies which if not promptly treated with correct therapeutic intervention may lead to loss of fertility due to infections and anatomical disruption of normalcy. This study highlights the clinical scenarios, etiology and outcome of male genital injury cases that were managed at a tertiary care c...
Article
Sodium nitrite is a common household product with a variety of uses such as curing meat, food additive, colouring agent, anti-freezing agent and disinfectant. We report a case of sodium nitrite intoxication for deliberate self-harm and discuss the increasing number of such cases in recent times.
Article
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Although preventable, electrocutions have claimed many lives in Nepal. People of low socioeconomic background from remote villages in Nepal who visit jungle to tend cattle, collect firewood and cattle fodder are vulnerable to electrocution when the foliage are in contact with the power lines. We present a case of a 11-year-old boy who was found sus...
Article
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The killing of an illegitimate newborn immediately or within 24 hours of birth is neonaticide which differs from other forms of homicide in terms of diagnosis and motives. Neonaticide is a cognizable offense where mothers are usually the perpetrators. This case reports the autopsy findings of a smothered neonate at a secluded location in rural Nepa...
Article
Criminal justice in Nepal is stringent when it deals with cases of sexual offence. The law protects the victims' rights and fast tracks trials. Notwithstanding, there has been an increase in the number of reported cases recently. This study highlights the increasing number of reported rape and attempted rape cases in Nepal over the past 20 years an...
Article
There is inadequate research and study into the use of garlic and other herbal medicine in clinical practice; accordingly, the general population should be cautious when using such complementary and herbal treatments. We report a case which highlights the potential complications following the application of garlic-related naturopathic remedies most...
Article
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Accusations of witchcraft and witch-hunting activities remain serious problems in Nepal, where many women are subjected to violence or torture following accusation and persecution. Many experience serious physical and mental injury, and some die. However, most of these incidents are not reported because women and their families fear reprisals. Pove...
Article
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Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a well-recognized neurologic emergency. It presents with classic features including hyperthermia, autonomic instability, muscle hypertonia, and mental status changes. The syndrome is potentially fatal and is associated with significant morbidity due to complications such as rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury...
Article
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Background: Medical ethics is a core component in the standardization of medical practice of any nation. Due to this reason, knowledge related to this subject should be imparted to medical students. Only then, the aim of providing a strong base in the medical field and making an ideal doctor will be possible. A total number of 232 medical students...
Article
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Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a public health priority in Latin America. While the burden of HIV is historically concentrated in urban areas and high-risk groups, subnational estimates that cover multiple countries and years are missing. This paucity is partially due to incomplete vital registration (VR) systems and statis...
Article
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In the past, journals were published only in the print, and the only way to access them was through the library. However, today we can easily access journals and articles with a click. There are more online journals which have made it possible and feasible for authors to submit their work. As an editor of a journal, I am often approached by younge...
Article
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Is it humane to attack healthcare workers for no fault of theirs? Is humanity really on sale? In a small country like Nepal with limited healthcare resources, the government needs to do more to protect healthcare workers from such untoward incidents being repeated. The emergence and spread of the virus has created chaos and anxiety in the general p...
Article
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Background: The lockdown strategy adopted to contain the spread of current pandemic of coronavirus disease has affected all sectors of life globally. Nepal also instructed all the educational institutions to shut down, medical colleges being no exception. One month into the lockdown all the medical colleges in Nepal started online classes to keep...
Article
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To fight the global pandemic of COVID-19, the government of Nepal made it compulsory for everyone entering the country to be confined in quarantine for two weeks. Without proper infrastructure, facilities for lodging, and food, many people fled from the quarantine shelter in the initial days. The authorities were helpless in checking up on them the...
Article
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In a country like Nepal where the number of geriatricians can be counted on fingers healthy aging and improving longevity is not achievable in the current scenario. Unlike the developed world where the longevity is focused primarily on older population to age better, we need to encourage our youth for healthy life who will continue to live a health...
Article
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Male genital injuries in the form of avulsed laceration of penis and scrotum are less frequent injuries in urological practice. The cases that occur are mostly caused by road traffic accidents, animal attacks, machinery-related accidents and physical/sexual assaults. Here, we report a case of a 28-year-old male with avulsion and traumatic degloving...
Article
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Background: Facebook addiction is said to occur when an individual spends an excessive amount of time on Facebook, disrupting one’s daily activities and social life. The present study aimed to find out the level of Facebook addiction in the Nepalese context and briefly discuss the issues associated with its unintended use. Methods: A descriptive cr...
Article
Background: Facebook addiction is said to occur when an individual spends an excessive amount of time on Facebook, disrupting one’s daily activities and social life. The present study aimed to find out the level of Facebook addiction in the Nepalese context and briefly discuss the issues associated with its unintended use. Methods: A descriptive cr...
Article
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According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the suicide rate in Nepal is 8.8/100,000 population. Nepal police reported 875 cases of suicide during the lockdown period between March and May 2020. Of these 875 suicide cases, 482 were reported in the first month of the lockdown between mid-March and mid-April. The number of cases increased furth...
Data
Cross-sectional study of Facebook addiction in a sample of Nepalese population.
Article
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Although a causal relationship between alcohol and violence is established, the actual number of alcohol related violence are seldom reported. Consumption of alcohol is part of ritual or ceremony in indigenous communities in Nepal. However, alcohol related domestic violence are rarity in Nepalese scenario. This may be because alcohol related domest...
Article
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The rectangular, landlocked country of Nepal shares it borders with China in the north and India in the east, west and south. Many Nepalese from rural parts of the country work in India as migrant workers. After lockdown was imposed in India and subsequently in Nepal on 24 March 2020 due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19), there was a mass exodus of...
Article
In Nepal, following allegations of sexual assault, the survivor is taken by the police to a Government Hospital for medical examination and sample collection. To provide an integrated service to survivors of gender-based violence, a One–Stop Crisis Management Centre (OCMC) is established in many Government Hospitals. However, paediatric survivors o...
Article
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Clinical training is an integral part of medical education. Instruments, specimens and other clinical teaching aids are inaccessible during the lockdown, where both the educators and the learners are at their place of residence. Although there are many disadvantages with online teaching, during this time of global crisis access to online theory cla...
Article
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Introduction: As medicine is an ever-changing field, it necessitates medical students to develop independent learning skills for continuous learning process. Self-directed learning (SDL) is a learning strategy where students take the initiative to learn on their own. It is basically an independent study where the students use available resources an...