Almut Gerhardt

Almut Gerhardt
LimCo Internartional GmbH

PhD

About

118
Publications
28,034
Reads
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3,937
Citations
Citations since 2017
22 Research Items
1409 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
Introduction
Biologist (limnology, zoo/ecology), PhD aquatic ecotoxicology (Univ. of Lund, Sweden). Post-Docs: China (SKLEAC), South-Africa (Rhodes University), Portugal (Univ. of Aveiro). Foundation of LimCo International. Development of Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor (1994-8). Directrice Swiss Ecotox Centre (2008-2009), expertise for EU (2000-2018). Lecturer in Bremen: 2003-4, Tübingen: 2003-9; HTWG: 2014-16, Weingarten 2017. Theses supervision 2012-19. SETAC council 2003-10. Conference chair. Referee.
Additional affiliations
July 2016 - December 2020
Kompetenzzentrum Wasser Bodensee
Position
  • CEO
Description
  • Organizing and teaching in Summer School, organizing annual conferences in the water sector, leading research and cooperation projects
April 2014 - December 2016
Hochschule Konstanz Technik, Wirtschaft und Gestaltung Konstanz
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Aquatic biology/ecology
January 2011 - present
LimCo International GmbH
Position
  • CEO
Description
  • CEO of LimCo International GmbH, aquiring and leading international and national R&D projects in water quality, ecology and ecotoxicology. Development and marketing of the LimCo real-time online biomonitors, such as Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor (MFB), the Microimpedance Sensor System (MSS) and groundwater biomonitor. Supervision of theses in cooperation with different universities.Teaching contracts at different universities. Consultancies in water quality assessment and river restoration
Education
January 1989 - February 1996
Lund University
Field of study
  • University assistant: Aquatic ecotoxicology: research and teaching

Publications

Publications (118)
Article
Full-text available
The Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor © (MFB) is a unique real-time toximeter, that has been developed in 1994 and since then continuously adapted , for the permanent surveillance of the water quality in surface water, ground water and wastewater. After intensive scientific research in different fields of application, the MFB has already been used...
Poster
Full-text available
This study shows the proof-of-concept that them Multispecies freshwater Biomonitor (MFB) can be used to monitor both water quality (with invertebrates such as gammarids) and fish health and welfare in aquaculture by using modified test chambers....
Article
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Modern wastewater treatment plants cannot completely remove pollutants. Often, effluents entering the aquatic environment still contain micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals or pesticides, which may impose adverse effects on aquatic biota. At the same time, a large proportion of free-living aquatic species are known to be infected with parasites,...
Poster
Full-text available
The Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor, MFB, developed by Limco International in 1994, quantitatively records survival and behaviour of animals for real-time biomonitoring, ecotoxicological and ethological studies. Due to the non-invasive and non-optical technology behaviour can also be recorded in soil and sediment: first examples with marine amph...
Presentation
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The LimCo online biomonitor MFB as toximeter for water quality biomonitoring in waterworks, wastewater treatment plants and rivers
Article
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Freshwater ecosystems are among the most threatened in the world, while providing numerous essential ecosystem services (ES) to humans. Despite their importance, research on freshwater ecosystem services is limited. Here, we examine how freshwater studies could help to advance ES research and vice versa. We summarize major knowledge gaps and sugges...
Article
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The Water Framework Directive – WFD (2000/60/EC) is the cornerstone of European Union water policy. Its main objective is to protect and enhance the status of aquatic ecosystems and promote sustainable water use across Europe. The WFD summarises much of the European experience of pollution, water quality and ecosystem management, and it represents...
Article
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Nitrate levels originating from agricultural fields can reach groundwater concentrations far above the allowed threshold values. In this context we studied the effects of pig manure applied as fertilizer on a field with crop during several simulated rain events. The effects on groundwater crustaceans were monitored continuously using the Multispeci...
Article
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Toxicity of Nitrate was investigated in acute and chronic toxicity tests with G. fossarum and grpundwater macrocrustaceans.
Article
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The freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum (Koch, 1835) was exposed in four subsequent experiments of each 45 - 48 days to 1 cm2 plastic foil (Poly-ethylenterephthalat (PET), Polylactic acid (PLA)) with mortality, feeding, and behavior in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor© (MFB) (spontaneous lo-comotion, gill ventilation) being studied once a w...
Article
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Bisphenol A (BPA) is being considered by the European Union as a substance of very high concern, occurring worldwide due to its wide application in many plastic products, building materials, coatings and epoxy resins. The toxicity of BPA in groundwater invertebrates is insufficiently understood. Both acute (24 h) and chronic (28 d) toxicity was com...
Article
Full-text available
Online biomonitoring of water quality control in wastewater treatment plants: case studies The Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor© (MFB) has been applied for the first time during several years in different wastewater treatment plants for the continuous biological quality control of wastewater effluents (emission control), river quality (immis­ sio...
Article
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Copepods are priority crustaceans for toxicity tests and higher tier environmental risk assessment, especially in marine ecosystems. Eucyclops serrulatus inhabit both epigean and stygal freshwater habitats; they represent optimal candidates for biomonitoring due to their wide range of habitats and geographical distribution, short life-cycle and eas...
Article
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We investigate the toxicity of different types and sizes of microplastic particles (0.3 – 4 mm) under different conditions (new particles, aged particles with biofilm, and particles with adsorbed Tributyltin) on the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum in 3-week exposures. All types of plastic particles, which were randomly taken up to a small ext...
Article
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In a rapidly urbanizing global environment, anthropogenic sources of pollution [e.g., heavy metals, pharmaceuticals] have increasingly contaminated drinking water sources like surface-or groundwater, jeopardizing the safe provision of potable water. Due to the lack of appropriate technology, continuous water surveillance is yet not feasible and whi...
Article
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Purpose The avoidance behaviour of earthworms is a functional ecotoxicological test parameter for the assessment of contaminated soil to examine its habitat function. But, the endpoint analysis of behavioural parameters leaves questions unanswered about changes within the test period and its optimal duration. Therefore, a permanent, automated and n...
Article
Der Zustand von Oberflächengewässern wird seit Jahrzehnten biologisch überwacht. Was sich an der Oberfläche bewährt hat, funktioniert auch im Untergrund. Grundwasser ist eine unserer wichtigsten Bezugsquellen für Trinkwasser. Durch Veränderungen der Landnutzung und Stoffe-inträge ist die Qualität des Grundwassers jedoch zunehmend gefährdet und eine...
Article
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Sewage sludge contains valuable plant nutrients, especially phosphorus. But unfortunately, it also contains pollutants which are hazardous for the environment. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and its agricultural valorisation in recycling fertilisers based or containing recovered phosphate provides opportunities to minimise negative environm...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Treated and processed sewage sludges (biosolids) generated during the treatment of wastewater usually contain substantial concentrations of nutrients, especially phosphorus, which is essential for plant growth. Sewage sludge therefore can be used as an alternative fertiliser in agriculture. But since sewage sludge could also contain polluta...
Article
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Mining of sulfide rich pyritic ores produces acid mine drainage waters and has induced major ecological problems in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Biomining utilizes microbes to extract metals from the ore, and it has been suggested as a new sustainable way to produce metals. However, little is known of the potential ecotoxicological effects of biom...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Treated and processed sewage sludge (biosolids) generated during the treatment of waste water usually contain substantial concentrations of nutrients, especially phosphorus which is essential for plant growth. Sewage sludge therefore can be used as an alternative fertiliser in agriculture. But since sewage sludge could also contain pollutan...
Article
Treated and processed sewage sludge (biosolids) generated during the treatment of waste water usually contain substantial concentrations of nutrients, especially phosphorus which is essential for plant growth. Sewage sludge therefore can be used as an alternative fertiliser in agriculture. But since sewage sludge could also contain pollutants, anal...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose In order to assess possible adverse effects originating from pulp deposits in a Swiss lake, a sediment quality triad approach was applied with chemical, ecotoxicological and ecological assessment methods. Materials and methods To obtain an integrative picture of the potential ecotoxicological effects on organisms of different trophic levels...
Data
Full-text available
Purpose In order to assess possible adverse effects originat-ing from pulp deposits in a Swiss lake, a sediment quality triad approach was applied with chemical, ecotoxicological and ecological assessment methods. Materials and methods To obtain an integrative picture of the potential ecotoxicological effects on organisms of different trophic level...
Article
Full-text available
o 7/8 | 2013 Die modernste Abwasserreinigungsanlage Europas steht im zürcherischen Dietikon. Während acht Jahren und für rund 70 Millionen Franken umgebaut, misst sie die Qualität des gereinigten Ab-wassers nicht nur physikalisch und chemisch, sondern seit Kurzem auch biologisch: Gammariden zeigen Mikroverunreinigungen an und schlagen bei Belastung...
Article
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Carbon capture and storage (CCS) in sub-sea geological formations is being developed and promoted to mitigate CO 2 discharges to the atmosphere from point sources such as power stations. There remain some questions on the risks asso-ciated with the possible loss of gas from storage and the environmental harm this could pose to marine organisms asso...
Article
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Abwasserüberwachung: Biotest in Echtzeit Organische Mikroverunreinigungen können in Abwasserreinigungsanlagen derzeit nicht vollständig aus dem Abwasser entfernt werden, sodass es zu ökotoxikologisch bedenklichen Belastungen für die Gewäs-serlebewelt, die das Schutzziel der Gewässerschutzverordnung darstellt, kommen kann. Der vollautoma-tische «Mul...
Article
Full-text available
The behavioral responses of guppy Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) and prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) individuals exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) were monitored online in the laboratory with a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor™ (MFB). These responses were compared to those to reference water acidified to the respective pH valu...
Article
Full-text available
The behavioral responses of guppy Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) and prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) individuals exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) were monitored online in the laboratory with a Multispecies Freshwater BiomonitorÔ (MFB). These responses were compared to those to reference water acidified to the respective pH valu...
Article
Full-text available
Abwasserüberwachung: Biotest in Echtzeit Organische Mikroverunreinigungen können in Abwasserreinigungsanlagen derzeit nicht vollständig aus dem Abwasser entfernt werden, sodass es zu ökotoxikologisch bedenklichen Belastungen für die Gewäs-serlebewelt, die das Schutzziel der Gewässerschutzverordnung darstellt, kommen kann. Der vollautoma-tische «Mul...
Article
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Wasser gibt es kein Leben, wobei nicht nur die verfügbare Wassermenge sondern auch die Wasserqualität bedeutend für das Überleben von Mensch, Tier und Pflanzest. Wasser, das "Blaue Gold" ist nicht nur Lebensmittel (Trinkwasser), Lösungsmittel und Transportmit-tel, sondern auch Lebensraum für zahlreiche Wassertiere einschl. Fisch-arten (Gewässerschu...
Article
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Gammarids are important members of a stream's macrozoobenthos biocoenosis and food web. Moreover, they proved to be very sensitive towards different types of pollution. GamTox TM is a new in situ ecotoxicity test, based on survival and feeding behavior of caged gammarids for active monitoring of small streams in agricultural areas. GamTox TM has be...
Article
Lumbriculus variegatus is a recommended species for use in sediment toxicity tests and is known to have a remarkable power of segmental regeneration. Here, we tested the effects of a chemical stressor on the regenerative ability of L. variegatus and investigated the potential of regenerative ability as an additional new parameter in standard toxici...
Article
Full-text available
Gammarus spp. represent an important taxon in running water ecosystems concerning both structural and functional aspects. Gammarus spp. are also part of several macrozoobenthos indices for assessing biological water quality. However, in ecotoxicological water quality assessment, this taxon has been used much less than Daphnia spp. A new user-friend...
Article
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The effects of chemicals on biotic interactions, such as competition and predation, have rarely been investigated in aquatic ecotoxicology. This study presents a new approach for the investigation of predator-prey interactions between zebrafish (Danio rerio) and midge larvae (Chironomus riparius) impaired by chlorpyrifos (CHP), a neurotoxic insecti...
Article
Full-text available
The Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor is an online continuous biomonitor which utilises impedance conversion to quantitatively record behavioural responses of vertebrates and invertebrates to environmental change. Here, we extend the use of the MFB into the marine aquaculture environment using the Green crab (Carcinus maenas) as a biological monit...
Article
Purpose The significance of chironomids mouthpart deformities as suitable indicators for pollutant contamination of natural waters and sediments has been investigated and discussed for several decades. Uncertainties still exist as further laboratory studies, with different pollutants and with the same experimental design are required. Materials and...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the work was to study effects of suboptimal temperature on nickel toxicity under chronic exposure and to apply the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor (MFB) for the first time to soil organisms in order to link behavioral to physiological endpoints. Ground beetles Pterostichus oblongopunctatus were reared at 10 or 20 degrees C on control...
Article
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This review summarizes the application of Tetrahymena spp. in ecotoxicology, in order to promote a more integrated, multi-level ecotoxicological assessment approach regarding the effects of chemical stressors on several biological levels (from molecule to ecosystem). Such a multi-level testing approach in one species facilitates the establishment o...
Article
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The amphipod genus Gammarus is widespread and is structurally and functionally important in epigean freshwaters of the Northern Hemisphere. Its presence is crucial, because macroinvertebrate feeding is a major rate-limiting step in the processing of stream detrius. In addition, Gammarus interacts with multiple trophic levels bu functioning as prey,...
Article
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Ecotoxicological effect studies often expose test organisms under optimal environmental conditions. However, organisms in their natural settings rarely experience optimal conditions. On the contrary, during most of their lifetime they are forced to cope with sub-optimal conditions and occasionally with severe environmental stress. Interactions betw...
Article
Since data documentation on neonicotinic toxicity to nontarget organisms should be enhanced, we investigate the effects of thiacloprid, a novel neonicotinoid insecticide, on the sediment-dwelling nontarget insect Chironomus riparius. Further, we wanted to validate the sensitivity of end points on different biological levels and obtain the greatest...
Article
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Background and objectives There is an urgent need to detect, assess, and reduce effects of hormonally active compounds and endocrine disrupters in aquatic systems, as reflected in national research programs like the Swiss NRP 50 “Endocrine Disruptors” and its consensus platforms. As a medium-term measure, the EU strategy on endocrine disruptors (SE...
Article
In order to assess the combined toxicity of environmental chemicals with different modes of action in acute (2 h) and subchronic (11 d) exposures, embryos and larvae of Danio rerio were exposed to a heavy metal salt, nickel chloride (NiCl2), the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CHP) and their binary mixtures. Chlorpyrifos is an acetylcholine esterase inhi...
Article
Full-text available
A new automated online toxicity test for screening of short-term effects of chemicals is presented using the freshwater oligochaete Tubifex tubifex in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor™ (MFB). Survival and locomotory behavior of the worms were observed during 24 h of exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Ni), pesticides (Imidacloprid), and pharmaceutica...
Article
Full-text available
In this study the effects of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), a decomposition product of the herbicides propanil and diuron (and other pesticides), and diazinon, a neurotoxic insecticide, on early life stages of zebrafish Danio rerio were assessed. The toxicity of these substances with different modes of action (acetylcholine esterase inhibitor vs. p...
Article
The drainage of abandoned mines leads to several ecological problems, particularly the acidification of surface freshwater systems and heavy metal contamination. In order to study the possibility of using the behavioural early warning responses of Portuguese indigenous benthic invertebrates to detect an acute short-term pulse of Acid Mine Drainage...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the short-term effects of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of weathered Forties crude oil on the behavior of Corophium volutator in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor (MFB). When exposing C. volutator to 25 and 50% WAF in aqueous exposures, hyperactivity with an additional increase in ventilation was detected, whereas expos...
Article
We examined acute (2 h exposure of 5-day-old larvae) and subchronic (exposure from fertilization up to an age of 11 days) effects of NiCl(2).6H2O on embryos and larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio), both alone and in combination with oxygen depletion. The following endpoints were recorded: acute exposure: locomotory activity and survival; subchronic e...
Article
Full-text available
The introduction and establishment of invasive species are of increasing global concern. While their establishment and spread are occurring at an accelerated rate, the introductions can be characterized as either deliberate or uninten-tional. Unintentional introductions are on the rise due to the escape, stowaway, or contamination during the transp...
Article
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An integrated multilevel phytoassessment of an acid mine drainage (AMD, pH range 3.3-6.8) in southern Portugal was performed. A 7-day phytotoxicity bioassay with the duckweed Lemna gibba (chlorosis, necrosis, growth) was carried out, both in the laboratory and in situ, combined with an analysis of the resident epilithic diatom community. The toxici...
Article
In this paper, the movement behavior of Daphnia magna was studied as a bio-indicator of organophosphorous pesticide (OP) contamination, using an on-line bio-monitoring method, the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor. A static test of acute toxicity test revealed the 24-h and 48-h LC(50) values (95% confidence limit) for Daphnia magna to be respectiv...
Article
Full-text available
Lumbriculus variegatus Miller (Oligochaeta), a common freshwater sediment-dweller, has frequently been used in toxicokinetic studies, although has been less used in ecotoxicity tests. For the first time the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor (MFB) was applied in a short-term whole-sediment toxicity test. The MFB automatically and quantitatively rec...
Article
Full-text available
Biological early warning systems represent a set of tools that may be able to respond to certain chemical monitoring requirements of recent European legislation, the Water Framework Directive (WFD2000/60/EC), that aims to improve and protect water quality across Europe. In situ biomonitoring was performed along the rivers Meuse (NL), Aller (GER) an...
Article
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This Perspective gives an overview of the definitions, advantages, and the importance of behavioral studies in ecotoxicology. Recent developments in automated quantitative recording technology as well as in mathematical data analysis and statistical data treatment have given rise to increased research in behavioral ecotoxicology. As an example, sev...
Article
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Lumbriculus variegatus is an oligochaete widely used in sediment toxicity tests. The locomotory behavior of adults from a normal and a clone population was studied in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor™ along with growth and reproduction to determine how different sediment types may affect this worm and forced clones during testing. Four differ...
Article
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In situ-based effects measures have gained increased acceptance as a means to improve the link between cause and effect in aquatic ecotoxicological studies. These approaches have primarily been employed where more conventional laboratory tests with field collected samples and routine in-field community surveys have failed to provide reasonable answ...
Article
As a result of mining activities the exposure of metal sulphides to oxidation takes place with consequent release of acid mine drainage (AMD). Biomonitoring instruments have been proven to have the best deterrent effect upon polluters. A new approach in online biomonitoring, with the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitortrade mark (MFB), was developed...
Article
In situ on-line biomonitoring is an emerging branch of aquatic biomonitoring. On-line biomonitoring systems use behavioral and/or physiological stress responses of caged test organisms exposed in situ either in a bypass system or directly in-stream. Sudden pollution waves are detected by several existing single-species on-line biomonitors, which un...
Article
Full-text available
Biological monitors are increasingly important in 'Biological Early Warning Systems' (BEWS) for monitoring water quality. This study examines the freshwater amphipod Crangonyx pseudogracilis as a potential new indicator species when used in the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor (MFB). The MFB is an online continuous biomonitor which uses impedance...
Article
Automated sediment toxicity testing and biomonitoring has grown rapidly. This study tested the suitability of the marine amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas, 1766) for sediment biomonitoring using the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor (MFB). Two experiments were undertaken to (1) characterize individual behaviors of C. volutator using the MFB and...