Allan Cain

Allan Cain
Development Workshop · Angola

O.C., A.A.Dipl, B.E.S.Architecture

About

77
Publications
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372
Citations
Citations since 2017
28 Research Items
203 Citations
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Introduction
Allan Cain is the director of Development Workshop. Allan does research in Housing Finance, Urbanisation, Resilience, Water & Sanitation and Development Planning. DW has a current projects in 'Planning African Coastal Cities for Resilience & Adaptation to Climate Change' and "Micro-finance for Incremental Housing".
Additional affiliations
July 2021 - June 2024
Carleton University
Position
  • Professor
May 2015 - June 2017
University of Ottawa
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Taught masters-level course on Urban Development in the Global South. From practitioner’s perspective the course used a case-study approach.
January 1981 - present
Development Workshop
Position
  • Managing Director
Description
  • DW is the oldest NGO in Angola. With more than three decades of research and practice in Angola, DW has been able to offer lessons for replication and influencing public policy in sectors of land tenure, housing, water supply and poverty reduction.

Publications

Publications (77)
Article
Full-text available
With the collapse of oil prices through 2014 to 2016 the Angolan state budget has been drastically reduced, and the government will be unlikely to be able to provide investment and subsidies to continue building new housing and urban infrastructure at the rate of the previous decade. Since the end of the civil war in 2002, the government of Angola...
Article
Full-text available
This paper responds to Vanessa Watson's article on the inappropriate urban development plans that are increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa as governments seek to make their cities world class. It describes how the government of Angola has been able to use financing from Chinese credit facilities to build prestige projects that include support...
Article
Full-text available
Angola's last four decades of near-continuous conflict have resulted in the displacement of over one-third of the population and massive damage to property and infrastructure. Social networks and local institutions were seriously eroded. The war has urbanized Angola, with an estimated 60 per cent of the population now living in the cities, three-qu...
Article
Full-text available
A large part of Angola’s population was displaced during the war years, and they created new homes and settlements in coastal cities on land that they occupied in good faith but for which they could get no legal title. Now, they face eviction threats due to commercial interests and government investment in infrastructure expansion. This paper discu...
Data
As co-founder and head of Development Workshop, the oldest and one of the most trusted NGOs in Angola, Allan Cain has spent more than 40 years putting his training as an architect, urban planner and manager at the service of tens of thousands of the poor in one of Africa’s fastest-urbanizing countries. Mr. Cain’s focus on harnessing local knowled...
Article
Full-text available
Opportunities are increasing for civil society and community representatives to employ emerging local spaces such as municipal forums and consultative councils in order to bring the debate on women's land rights into the public arena. Land issues are likely to be high on the agenda of elected municipal councils when they are instituted after the fi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Since the end of the civil war in 2002, the government of Angola has used Chinese credit facilities backed by petroleum-based guarantees to build prestige urban projects on a scale that in sub-Saharan Africa is second only to post-apartheid South Africa. Decades of rural-urban migration have turned Angola into one of Africa’s most urbanized countri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
During the conflict, millions of Angolans fled the countryside for the relative safety of crowded shantytowns in coastal cities. The poor often settled in flood-prone environmentally risky sites, building homes incrementally where land was cheap. Angolan coastal settlements, house 64% of the Angola’s urban population, are confronted by the dual cha...
Article
Full-text available
The Angolan State’s post-war center-piece reconstruction program, to provide the human right to ‘Water to All’, remains incomplete. The majority of Angola’s peri-urban communities still use the informal market to fill the gap. Water selling is the largest sub-sector of Luanda’s extensive informal economy, involving extractors, transporters and reta...
Preprint
Full-text available
Marketing water at the local household level involves significant trading in social capital. A financially sustainable model of community water management that builds on this neighbourhood social capital has been adopted in Angola. Water selling is the largest sub-sector of Luanda’s extensive informal economy, involving extractors, transporters and r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Current Angolan municipalisation reforms present a unique opportunity to affect local practice on how community and individual land-holder tenure is administered and to protect women's equitable rights to land. Angola is a post-war country, with weak land tenure legislation and limited local government management capacity. Customary traditions are...
Chapter
Full-text available
The recession of the last four years depressed the real estate sector, resulting in less demand, more supply, and lower prices. The dollar-denominated prices of apartments and offices in the centre of Luanda have fallen almost 30 percent since 2014. Similarly, prices in the rental market fell due to the departure of thousands of expatriates from th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since the end of the civil war in 2002, the government of Angola has used Chinese credit facilities backed by petroleum-based guarantees to build prestige urban projects on a scale that in sub-Saharan Africa is second only to post-apartheid South Africa. The most famous is the publicly-privately developed Kilamba 'Centralidade' (new town) with 20,0...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
O mapeamento participativo foi pioneiro pela primeira vez pelo Development Workshop no início dos anos 90 e tem sido usado no desenvolvimento de comunidades urbanas em Angola, mesmo antes de as ferramentas GIS amigáveis estarem amplamente disponíveis. O Development Workshop tem trabalhado com as comunidades angolanas locais em questões de água, san...
Article
Full-text available
Current Angolan municipalisation reforms present a unique opportunity to affect local practice on how community and individual land-holder tenure is administered and to protect women's equitable rights to land. Angola is a post-war country, with weak land tenure legislation and limited local government management capacity. The post-socialist inheri...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Chokwe (or the Quiocos), one of Angola’s most developed cultures in pre-colonial times, are best known for their sculpture and plastic arts tradition. This tradition is also reflected in their vernacular architecture and architectural decoration. The largest structures built by the Chokwe are the village centre meeting places, reception halls,...
Chapter
Full-text available
Oil revenues and oil-backed loans have allowed for large-scale state investments in the construction and rehabilitation of public infrastructure, including the implementation of an ambitious housing programme to meet the country’s massive housing deficit, which is growing rapidly in a context of rapid urbanisation. Currently Angola is said to be on...
Presentation
Full-text available
Allan Cain was a keynote speaker on the 50th year commemoration of the founding of the School of Architecture at the University of Waterloo. Allan, in one of the first groups of students, spoke about the significance of 1968, the year that the social movement for the "Right to the City" was launched. He spoke about participating in the first school...
Poster
Full-text available
The Angolan government has committed itself to the New Urban Agenda in Quito, Ecuador, in October 2016, which will ensure that cities and human settlements are places where all people can enjoy equal rights and opportunities, as well as their fundamental freedoms. The right to the city includes the social function of land, promoting a secure land t...
Presentation
Full-text available
Allan Cain made a presentation to the China-Africa Conference at the Université Libre de Bruxelles. He spoke on the growing impact of Chinese financing of African urban infrastructure and housing in the last fifteen years. He noted that since the end of the Angolan civil war in 2002, the government has used Chinese credit facilities backed by petro...
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapter presents two cases illustrating Angola’s first-ever experience of land readjustment. The projects, one successful and the other less so, provide lessons on how the approach can be adapted for future public land and settlement policies in Angola. The cases presented here demonstrate how land readjustment was used in a participatory way t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Massive shifts in populations and uncontrolled urban expansion left Angola with chronic settlement problems after the end of the war. The authors propose an adaptation of “land readjustment” in the context of Angola’s urban crisis. The paper illustrates two case studies of projects implemented in the Province of Huambo at a time when important dece...
Article
Full-text available
The majority of Angola’s peri-urban population still rely on informal mechanisms for water supply. This water is expensive and of poor quality, representing a significant household expenditure for the urban poor. The article uses qualitative tools and tracking of the supply chain to analyze the scope of the informal water economy in Luanda. Marketi...
Article
Full-text available
Africa has some of the world’s most unequal cities[3]. Informal settlements in African cities, and the struggles that are fought in their defense, are evidence of deep-rooted exclusion]. They have inherited colonial segregated planning laws that are socio-economically exclusive, resulting in cement cities and slums. In many African former colonial...
Article
Full-text available
In the post-war period, public demands for safe and healthy cities and affordable water and sanitation services are increasingly voiced. In this context, the Angolan government is attempting to meet the challenges of overpopulated, unstructured and unhealthy cities by implementing an ambitious program of regional and urban planning. However, planni...
Article
Full-text available
África tiene algunas de las ciudades más desiguales del mundo[3]. Los asentamientos informales en las ciudades africanas, y las luchas en su defensa, evidencian una exclusión profundamente arraigada[4]. Estos asentamientos han heredado del período colonial leyes urbanísticas segregadoras que son socioeconómicamente exclusivas, resultando en ciudade...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the significant demand for rented housing in Angola, it does not feature in Angola's National Urbanisation and Housing Program . This is unsurprising as few African Governments do give rented housing the attention that it deserves. Governments tend not to recognize that rental housing exists as an important form of housing tenure and that m...
Article
Full-text available
The Angolan Government, in its public pronouncements, has put great store in the private sector in driving post-war development and taking the lead particularly in the housing sector. However the World Bank has shown that Angola remains one of the world’s most difficult countries to do business, particularly in the sale and transfer of property. An...
Article
Full-text available
It has been the policy of the Angolan government since the end of the war to progressively reduce the subsidies to the consumer and restructure the management services and collection of funds from public utilities companies. Cost recovery will allow the government to re-establish the ability to maintain and restore the systems of water and electric...
Article
Full-text available
Angola’s National Urbanism and Housing Programme (PNHU) identified Cooperative Housing as one of the four key strategies adopted to meet the country’s deficit of more than one million dwelling units. The PNHU set a target for the construction of 80,000 cooperative housing units or 8% of the planned one million dwellings in the period up to 2015. Co...
Chapter
Full-text available
When comparing with thirty other Sub-Saharan African Countries, Angola ranked at the bottom of the seven-point CSOS Index with a score of 5.8. The Index covers civil society organizations (CSOs) assessing both advances and setbacks in seven key components or “dimensions” of the sustainability of the civil society sector: legal environment, organiza...
Article
Full-text available
The case study demonstrates the emergence of an Angolan housing market that had largely been dominated by the State to date. Public-private enterprises are attempting to introduce more market-oriented methodologies in an environment where the State can no longer subsidize the sector as in the past. The emergence of the consumer as an actor in the m...
Article
Full-text available
This policy paper, on the Access to Land, contributes to the discussion of some important land policy issues and identifies some of the shortcomings and inconsistencies that exist in regulations and current practice. The article also initiates a discussion on “capturing the value of land”. With Angola's economy slowing, it is clear that the state b...
Article
Full-text available
Since the end of the civil war in 2002, the government of Angola has used Chinese credit facilities backed by petroleum guarantees for massive infrastructure rehabilitation and to build prestige urban projects. The most famous is the public-privately developed Kilamba “Centralidade” with 20,000 apartments, China’s largest housing venture in Africa....
Chapter
Full-text available
The Index covers civil society organizations (CSOs) assessing both advances and setbacks in seven key components or “dimensions” of the sustainability of the civil society sector: legal environment, organizational capacity, financial viability, advocacy, service provision, infrastructure, and public image. When comparing with thirty other Sub-Sahar...
Article
Full-text available
Este artículo responde al artículo de Vanessa Watson sobre los planes de desarrollo urbano inapropiados que son cada vez más comunes en el África subsahariana a medida que los gobiernos buscan que sus ciudades sean "de clase mundial". Describe cómo el gobierno de Angola ha podido utilizar el financiamiento de las facilidades de crédito chinas para...
Article
Full-text available
With climatic changes and growing populations, coastal cities are increasingly facing environmental issues such as flooding (storm surges and rainstorms), sea level rise, and ground water salinization. These challenges are magnified by lack of effective planning and provision of basic services, worsening the vulnerability of poor urban people. In r...
Article
Full-text available
Avec les changements climatiques et la croissance démographique, les villes côtières sont de plus en plus confrontées à des problèmes environnementaux tels que les inondations (ondes de tempête et pluies torrentielles), l'élévation du niveau de la mer et la salinisation des eaux souterraines. Ces défis sont amplifiés par le manque de planification...
Chapter
Full-text available
Walking the streets of central Luanda, the capital of oil- and diamond-rich Angola, you cannot help but notice the stark disparities. The tall office buildings of the oil and diamond companies present a marked contrast to the poverty of the children selling small items to passing cars in the streets. If you venture a little further from the city ce...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Index covers civil society organizations (CSOs) assessing both advances and setbacks in seven key components or “dimensions” of the sustainability of the civil society sector: legal environment, organizational capacity, financial viability, advocacy, service provision, infrastructure, and public image. When comparing with twenty-five other Sub-...
Article
Full-text available
Many new urban migrants in developing countries and other poor families have settled in some of the most environmentally risky parts of cities. Many of these cities are located on or near the coast. These locations place these cities at greater risk from current and projected climate hazards. While the configuration of these settlements is indeed a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Angola is often cited as a classic case of natural resources sustaining a conflict. Angola’s protracted civil war (1975–2002) was mainly financed through the wholesale extraction of oil and diamonds. The armed struggle for liberation from Portuguese rule started in 1961, but the resistance had begun earlier to the wide-scale expropriation by the co...
Article
Full-text available
Almost 40 years of war in Angola forced millions of people fleeing rural areas to seek a safe haven in the capital and to settle in informal slum settlements (musseques) on the periphery of Luanda. The new urban migrants created homes and settlements on land that they purchased in good faith but for which they could get no legal title. Now, they fa...
Book
Full-text available
This report outlines key findings of a study into the housing finance sector conducted by the Development Workshop (DW). The study was designed to document the actual state of Housing Finance in Angola. On the supply side it researches what is available from, commercial banks and other formal financial institutions, from microfinance institutions,...
Chapter
Full-text available
In Mozambique a great deal of the responsibility for urban planning lies with municipalities. The objective of this paper is to look at how the municipalities have dealt with urban land management and, to a less extent, with low-income housing questions in the first 10 years of their existence. The study carried out a rapid review of the growing li...
Article
Full-text available
In order to achieve significant scales and ensure that lessons learned from engagement with communities during the years of conflict are incorporated into ambitious post-war reconstruction programmes Development Workshop engages strategically with the Angolan Government, the National Water Directorate, UNICEF, the World Bank, the European Union and...
Article
Full-text available
Mozambique began a process of decentralization in 1998. Thirty-three Municipalities were created in 23 cities (cidades) and 10 towns (vilas). Most responsibility for urban planning now lies with these new Municipalities. The objective of this paper is to examine how the Municipalities have dealt with urban land management and low-income housing que...
Book
Full-text available
O objectivo principal é de informar e sensibilizar os residentes das zonas peri-urbanas e rurais como adquirir ou regularizar direitos de posse a terra e em caso de conflitos de terra saber como resolvê-los. O manual pretende também providenciar estes conhecimentos numa perspectiva da defesa dos interesses da mulher e de outros grupos vulneráveis (...
Book
Full-text available
Based on two research studies carried out by Development Workshop between 2003 and 2005, this book examines what happens when the fighting stops after a prolonged and intense conflict. There have been some remarkable short-term achievements in Angola since peace was achieved in 2002, but there are a number of longer-term risks. Returning refugees,...
Book
Full-text available
The book focuses, naturally, on urban land issues, but needs to be seen in a wider context of changing governance in Angola, and indeed in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. The public consultation on the Land Law was the first such wide consultation by any government in Angola since the nation-state was created, and as such represents an enormous chan...
Book
Full-text available
Em 27 anos de guerra civil, milhares de angolanos abandonaram o campo pela segurança relativa das grandes cidades e dos seus sobrepovoados musseques. Com os seus parcos recursos, construíram abrigos em terra obtida através de mecanismos sobretudo informais, possuindo uma reduzida segurança da propriedade. Com base em pesquisa pioneira sobre o aces...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Angola’s last four decades of near-continuous war were years of tremendous human suffering, large-scale displacements of the population, heavy damage to property and infrastructure, serious economic losses and accumulation of a massive war debt. At its peak an estimated four million or more than a quarter of the total population was internally disp...
Presentation
Full-text available
Recognition of the right of the poor to land is vital to forestall future conflicts over ownership and access in postwar Angola, according to Allan Cain (architect), director of the respected NGO, Development Workshop. Aid and humanitarian agencies are concerned over a draft law proposed by the government and have criticised it for failing to safeg...
Article
Full-text available
Luanda, the capital city of Angola, faces extreme urban development challenges, due to the turbulent history of the country, the city’s peripheral role in the global economy, and the resulting extremely high urban growth rates and widespread poverty. This profile reviews the historical and current political and economic basis for the city in three...
Article
Full-text available
This paper questions the likely benefits of globalization for Luanda by considering how global political and economic forces affect the lives of its 3.4 million inhabitants. Most live in informal, self-constructed settlements which lack basic infrastructure and services. Most receive little benefit from the nation's oil and diamond exports. while m...
Article
Full-text available
This is a case study of the water and sanitation programmes of Development Workshop Angola in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. Potentially, urban water and sanitation programmes can tackle urban poverty in three ways. First, they can reduce the cost of basic services: as we will see some urban residents inLuanda pay very high prices for water du...
Article
Full-text available
This is the third report on Angola under the Country Advisor Agreement between the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) and Chr. Michelsen Institute. The report consists of a part I synthesising and assessing existing information regarding political, economic and social developments in Angola, and a Part II focussing on development...
Article
Full-text available
The article argues that despite ample justification for donor fatigue, the international community has, in fact, stayed engaged in Angola during the last decade. Investment in humanitarian and development/rehabilitation programming can be understood as a donor strategy for influencing regional stability and building peace. The war raises risks for...
Chapter
Full-text available
In 1973 when the Development Workshop carried out its research in Oman, the country had been closed to visitors for many decades. Very little change had taken place in the lifestyles and living conditions of most Omanis; the vast majority of the country's towns and villages,t eir architectures and the building methods used, had remained unaltered f...
Article
Full-text available
Three-quarters of Luanda's one and one quarter million people live in Musseque or peti-urban "bairros". The urban infrastructure, originally designed to serve Luanda's 250,000 Portuguese colonial population is totally inadequate to meet today's demands. Urban services have been allowed to run down in the decade since the departure of the Portuguese...
Article
Full-text available
The Angolan Government's most significant attempt to promote popular participation is the national programme for "Auto-Construção". It is primarily aimed at assisting families to meet their habitat needs and the community to provide itself with basic infrastructure and public facilities. A special law of December 1980 defines "Auto-Construção" as t...
Technical Report
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In 1986, Angola’s long term urban crisis in the capital Luanda has been exacerbated by the influx of Deslocados or internal refugees from areas destabilized by South African backed insurgents. Ongoing cycles of political disruption and localized rural drought dating back to the independence war against Portuguese colonialism fuel this rural to urba...
Article
Full-text available
The Development Workshop is a research, architectural and planning group. The Workshop has undertaken projects in several developing countries including Iran, Oman, the Arab Emirates, Egypt, Niger, Indonesia, and has just begun work in Angola. Training builders and the preparation if teaching materials are also an important part if the group's func...
Technical Report
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Shortlisted for Aga Khan Award for Architecture As part of an inter-disciplinary and integrated approach for the development of a typical Sahelien village, the Literacy Centre was built to meet community needs while offering an opportunity to introduce new design elements and test appropriate technology. Chikal Literacy Centre should not be seen a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The urban housing problem in many Third World countries largely results from a policy that encourages mass rural migration to a few urban centres. Similarly, a dependence on expensive, imported, advanced technologies results in comparatively few, and often inappropriate units being constructed. The use of imported technologies absorbs a large porti...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses indigenous village building methods in earthquake regions. The paper proposes a methodology for upgrading village building to better withstand earthquakes, involving local people themselves and materials and technologies which remain in their hands. The second part of this paper proposes a methodology for the introduction of im...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The potentials of indigenous planning and building methods have been neglected in most Third World Countries. They have been re- placed by western methods that are often inappropriate to local conditions and needs. Indigenous methods are most evident in the villages, the traditional city quarters and the more recent squatter settlements. The archit...
Article
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This paper presents the view that to develop an appropriate technology, Third World countries should first thoroughly study, develop and share their indigenous technologies. This paper concentrates on indigenous building technologies to make this point.
Book
Full-text available
Book published on the occasion on the exhibition of the same name on Development Workshop's work, prepared by Development Workshop and held in The Iran America Society Gallery, Tehran, Iran and afterwards at the 1st UN Habitat Conference in Vancouver, Canada in 1976
Article
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This article deals with the indigenous technologies of cooling, using largely natural sources of energy and techniques that have been developed by people locally.
Article
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The lessons that can be derived from the indigenous built environment can be applied not only to housing, but also to more specialized buildings such as schools, workshops, markets, and public baths, and also to infrastructural design, such as layout, and access for people and services.
Article
Full-text available
The potentials of indigenous systems have been neglected in most Third World countries. Instead they have been replaced by Western methods often inappropriate to local conditions and needs - physical, economic, social, cultural and aesthetic. By ‘the indigenous built environment’ we mean the built-environment of the rural areas, the older tradition...
Book
Full-text available
This book is based on research of the indigenous built environment of Oman done in 1973. It examines how and why the built environment developed and it's potentials and shortcomings for the future. We proposed this study because we believe the potentials of indigenous systems in general have been unfairly neglected in most developing countries. The...

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Projects

Projects (11)
Project
The Africa-China Urban Initiative brings together expertise about the unique urban planning linkages between Africa and China. A joint initiative of African and Chinese academics, researchers, urban development practitioners, and other interested institutions, it seeks to increase positive outcomes of Chinese urban development projects in Africa by contributing to better-informed policy and decision-making and sharing best practices on pro-poor urban development.
Project
Based on pioneering research on urban land access in Angola by the Development Workshop. The recommendations on policy and practice are grounded in Angola’s reality. Drawing on field research and recent international experience in urban land management.