Alison Holman

Alison Holman
University of California, Irvine | UCI · Program in Nursing Science

PhD, Health Psychology, FNP

About

80
Publications
26,864
Reads
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5,813
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2007 - present
University of California, Irvine
September 1997 - August 1998
Stanford University
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (80)
Article
Objective: During the protracted collective trauma of the COVID-19 pandemic, lay of distorted perceptions of time (e.g., time slowing, days blurring together, uncertainty about the future) have been widespread. Known as "temporal disintegration" in psychiatric literature, these distortions are associated with negative mental health consequences. H...
Article
Importance: During the past century, more than 100 catastrophic hurricanes have impacted the Florida coast; climate change will likely be associated with increases in the intensity of future storms. Despite these annual threats to residents, to our knowledge, no longitudinal studies of representative samples at risk of hurricane exposure have exam...
Article
Rationale Coronavirus (COVID-19) disproportionately affects people of color (e.g., Black and Latinx individuals) in the U.S., increasing their morbidity and mortality relative to White people. Despite this greater threat to their well-being, the mental health impact of COVID-19 on people of color remains poorly understood. Perseverative cognition (...
Article
Objective: Health care and non-health care essential workers working in face-to-face interactions during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may be vulnerable to psychosocial distress. Limited empirical research on COVID-19-related psychosocial outcomes has utilized probability-based samples including both health care and non-health c...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding psychosocial correlates of engaging in health-protective behaviors during an infectious disease outbreak can inform targeted intervention strategies. We surveyed a national probability-based sample of 6,514 Americans, with three separate, consecutive representative cohorts between March 18, 2020 and April 18, 2020, as the U.S. COVID-1...
Article
Full-text available
The year 2020 has been marked by unprecedented cascading traumas, including the COVID-19 pandemic, an economic recession, race-driven social unrest and weather-related disasters. Mental health consequences of direct and media-based exposure to compounding stressors may be profound. Policymakers must act to ease the burden of trauma to protect publi...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic is a collective stressor unfolding over time, yet rigorous published empirical studies addressing mental health consequences of COVID-19 among large probability-based national samples are rare. Between 3/18-4/18/20, during an escalating period of illness and death in the United States, we assessed acute stress, depressive symp...
Article
Humans seek consistency between their internal thoughts and the outside world. Thus, when legal authorities make decisions, people are likely to accept and obey these decisions in order to remain consistent with the societies in which they live. Few studies have explored these biases in an applied context. We examined the relationship between the s...
Article
Collective trauma, like the COVID-19 pandemic, can dramatically alter how we perceive time and view our futures. Indeed, the pandemic has challenged us to cope with an ambiguous, invisible threat that has changed our way of life and made our futures, both near and far, less certain. In this commentary, we review existing literature on time percepti...
Article
Indirectly experienced negative life events are not considered Criterion A traumatic events per DSM‐5 posttraumatic stress disorder diagnostic criteria, yet individuals indirectly exposed to trauma via the media may report these events as peak traumatic experiences. We studied which events people considered to be the “worst” in their lifetimes to g...
Article
Full-text available
The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-2019) has led to a serious outbreak of often severe respiratory disease, which originated in China and has quickly become a global pandemic, with far-reaching consequences that are unprecedented in the modern era. As public health officials seek to contain the virus and mitigate the deleterious effects on worldwide...
Article
Background: Negative childhood experiences are associated with poor health and psychosocial outcomes throughout one's lifespan. Objective: We examined associations between childhood bullying and maltreatment and several adulthood outcomes: psychological distress, functional impairment, generalized fear, and physician-diagnosed mental and physica...
Article
Full-text available
Media exposure to collective trauma is associated with acute stress (AS) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Qualities of media exposure (e.g., amount, graphic features) contributing to this distress are poorly understood. A representative national sample (with New York and Boston oversamples; N = 4,675) completed anonymous, online surveys 2...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The objective of the study was to explore how type and timing of prior negative life experiences (NLEs) may be linked to responses to subsequent collective trauma, such as a terrorist attack. Method: Using a longitudinal design, we examined relationships between prior NLEs and responses to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings (BMB). Shor...
Article
Full-text available
The established link between trauma-related media exposure and distress may be cyclical: Distress can increase subsequent trauma-related media consumption that promotes increased distress to later events. We tested this hypothesis in a 3-year longitudinal study following the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and the 2016 Orlando Pulse nightclub massacr...
Article
In the wake of collective traumas and acts of terrorism, media bring real graphic images and videos to TV, computer, and smartphone screens. Many people consume this coverage, but who they are and why they do so is poorly understood. Using a mixed-methods design, we examined predictors of and motivations for viewing graphic media among individuals...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Exposure to disaster-related media coverage is associated with negative mental health outcomes. However, risk factors that render individuals vulnerable to this exposure are unknown. Hurricane-associated media exposure was expected to explain the association between forecasted posttraumatic stress (PTS) and adjustment after the hurricane...
Article
People often perceive that their homes provide refuge from stress, but some homes may provide more stress-buffering resources than others. In particular, single-family homes may provide greater resources, such as status or defensible territory, compared to multi-family homes. Given historical links among gender, home-based status, and territory def...
Article
Objective: Disasters are place-based traumatic events, yet contemporary understandings of disaster recovery often do not consider the role of community organizations. We examine organization type and proximity as they relate to post-disaster mental health in a longitudinal study following the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. Method: Residents of m...
Poster
Full-text available
How does media coverage of traumatic events affect people? Do their different political affiliations have anything to do with their mental health? We analyzed over 4,500 individuals’ responses in the aftermath of two collective traumatic events: Boston Bombings (2013) and Ebola outbreak (2014). The poster shows how party affiliation moderates the e...
Article
Objective: Ebola media coverage directed public attention to potential disease carriers: residents or travelers from West Africa. We investigated the role of neighborhood population factors (i.e., the concentration of West African foreigners, non-West African foreigners, non-Hispanic Blacks) on individual responses to the Ebola outbreak in the Uni...
Article
Background and purpose: High acute stress may presage the development of subsequent cardiovascular ailments. Understanding how best to assess acute stress may inform early interventions seeking to prevent long-term morbidity/mortality following stroke. A mixed methods approach examined early post-stroke acute stress symptoms using the post-traumat...
Article
Ebola was the most widely followed news story in the United States in October 2014. Here, we ask what members of the U.S. public learned about the disease, given the often chaotic media environment. Early in 2015, we surveyed a representative sample of 3,447 U.S. residents about their Ebola-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Where possible,...
Article
Full-text available
The 2014 Ebola crisis received unprecedented media attention in the United States, despite low risk of transmission. We examined theoretically derived correlates of psychological response to the crisis, including Ebola-related media exposure, prior mental health history, and stress response to a recent prior collective trauma (the 2013 Boston Marat...
Article
Terrorist attacks target innocent civilians, spreading fear and anxiety throughout the population. Postattack, many people exhibit resilience, yet deleterious physical and mental health outcomes are also common. Directly exposed individuals may experience significant physical, mental, and/or social injury. Indirect exposure (i.e., media-based) diff...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional and new media inform and expose the public to potentially distressing graphic content following disasters, but predictors of media use have received limited attention. We examine media-use patterns after the Boston Marathon bombings (BMB) in a nationally representative U.S. sample (n=2,888), with representative oversamples from metropol...
Article
Despite the prominence of time in influential aging theories and the ubiquity of stress across the life span, research addressing how time perspective (TP) and adversity are associated with well-being across adulthood is rare. Examining the role of TP in coping with life events over the life span would be best accomplished after large-scale populat...
Article
Stroke remains a major source of adult disability in the USA and worldwide. Most patients show some recovery during the weeks to months following a stroke, but this is generally incomplete. An emerging branch of therapeutics targets the processes underlying this behavioral recovery from stroke toward the goal of reducing long-term disability. A key...
Article
Traumatic events can profoundly affect perceptions of time with significant impacts—altered time perspective (TP) promotes peritraumatic dissociation, a component of acute stress and predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder. Social relationships also play a critical role in shaping how we respond to trauma. This chapter explores the interplay bet...
Article
Full-text available
The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) ter...
Article
Full-text available
Research conducted in the early years after the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks demonstrated that both directly and indirectly-exposed Americans experienced adverse psychological outcomes. However, little is known about the impact of this collective trauma over time. Beginning in December, 2006, a 3-year longitudinal study of a national...
Article
Objective Trauma exposure can precipitate acute stress (AS) and cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Identifying AS-related physiologic changes that affect CVD risk could inform development of early CVD prevention strategies. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and stress-related cardiovascular function. We exa...
Article
Full-text available
We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888)...
Article
Objective: Stressful life events experienced during childhood and as an adult negatively impact mental and physical health over the life span. This study examined polymorphisms from 2 hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-related genes previously associated with posttraumatic stress disorder-FKBP5 and CRHR1-as moderators of the impact of child abuse...
Article
Millions of people witnessed early, repeated television coverage of the September 11 (9/11), 2001, terrorist attacks and were subsequently exposed to graphic media images of the Iraq War. In the present study, we examined psychological- and physical-health impacts of exposure to these collective traumas. A U.S. national sample (N = 2,189) completed...
Conference Paper
Child abuse substantially increases the risk for impaired physical and psychological health in adulthood (Dong et al., 2004). Increased vulnerability to mental and physical health problems may occur through stress-related biological processes, such as dysfunctional growth, development, or activation of the brain’s stress response system—the hypotha...
Conference Paper
Negative social interactions (e.g., social conflict) influence both cardiovascular disorders (CVD) and depression but the pathways underlying these associations remain unclear. Given the known comorbidity between CVD and depression, it seems plausible that negative interactions trigger physiologic processes common to both ailments. Yet some individ...
Conference Paper
@ Purpose/Aims: This presentation highlights the collaboration between the Nursing Science faculty at (blinded) CTSA across the campus, with the goal of providing examples of how nursing can have a strong voice in their own CTSAs. Rationale/Background: With funding by NIH of CTSAs across the country, nurse scientists must be vigilant about beco...
Article
We examined whether the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs53576 genotype buffers the combined impact of negative social environments (e.g., interpersonal conflict/constraint) and economic stress on post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and impaired daily functioning following collective stress (September 11th terro...
Article
Providing help or support to others buffers the associations between stress and physical health. We examined the function of the neurohormone oxytocin as a biological mechanism for this stress-buffering phenomenon. Participants in a longitudinal study completed a measure of charitable behavior, and over the next two years provided assessments of st...
Article
Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) are associated with acute and posttraumatic stress responses, yet biological processes underlying this association are poorly understood. This study examined whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, as indicated by a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the angiotensin converting enzyme (AC...
Conference Paper
Genetic and genomic research is transforming health care decision-making, clinical treatment, and management of a vast array of health issues. As primary healthcare providers, professional nurses educate patients about both their risk for disease and the recommended treatment options. Thus, understanding how findings from laboratory-based genomic r...
Conference Paper
Genetic markers of acute stress: From genetic testing to secondary prevention Background: Acute and posttraumatic stress can increase vulnerability to cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Identifying physiologic systems underlying the association between acute stress and CVD could open avenues for early secondary prevention of trauma-related CVD. Ai...
Article
Oxytocin, vasopressin, and their receptor genes influence prosocial behavior in the laboratory and in the context of close relationships. These peptides may also promote social engagement following threat. However, the scope of their prosocial effects is unknown. We examined oxytocin receptor (OXTR) polymorphism rs53576, as well as vasopressin rece...
Article
A repeat-length polymorphism of the serotonin promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in trauma-exposed individuals reporting unsupportive social environments. We examine the contributions of the triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype and social constraints to posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms i...
Article
The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks (9/11) presented a unique opportunity to assess the physical health impact of collective stress in the United States. This study prospectively examined rates of physical ailments and predictors of health care utilization in a U.S. nationally representative sample over three years following the attacks. A sam...
Article
Researchers have identified health implications of religiosity and spirituality but have rarely addressed differences between these dimensions. The associations of religiosity and spirituality with physical and mental health were examined in a national sample (N = 890) after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks (9/11). Health information was co...
Article
Nurses often help patients cope with loss. Recent research has cast doubt on the validity of early theories about loss and grief commonly taught to nurses. We systematically examined the accuracy of information on coping with loss presented in 23 commonly used undergraduate psychiatric nursing books. All 23 books contained at least one unsupported...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to adverse life events typically predicts subsequent negative effects on mental health and well-being, such that more adversity predicts worse outcomes. However, adverse experiences may also foster subsequent resilience, with resulting advantages for mental health and well-being. In a multiyear longitudinal study of a national sample, peop...
Article
Previous research has demonstrated an association between lifetime exposure to adverse events and chronic back pain (CBP), but the nature of this relationship has not been fully specified. Adversity exposure typically predicts undesirable outcomes, suggesting that lack of all adversity is optimal. However, we hypothesized that among individuals fac...
Article
Approximately 2 weeks after September 11th, adolescents from a national sample of households who were indirectly exposed to the terrorist attacks through the media completed a Web-based survey that assessed event-related acute stress symptoms. One year later, these adolescents (N = 142) and a randomly selected parent from their household completed...
Article
Time perspective (TP) is a pivotal cognitive process through which people perceive, interpret, and negotiate their physical and social worlds. This study identifies unique patterns in the quality of social relationships that were associated with different TP dimensions. Low support and high conflict with family characterized past-negative TP. Large...
Article
Individuals frequently perceive positive changes in themselves following adversity; after a collective trauma, they may perceive such benefits in others or in their society as well. We examined perceived benefits of the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks in a 3-year study of a national sample of adults (N = 1382). Many individuals (57.8%)...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to make sense of events in one's life has held a central role in theories of adaptation to adversity. However, there are few rigorous studies on the role of meaning in adjustment, and those that have been conducted have focused predominantly on direct personal trauma. The authors examined the predictors and long-term consequences of Ame...
Article
A longitudinal investigation of psychological responses to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks was conducted on a U.S. national probability sample. Using an anonymous Web-based survey methodology, data were collected among over 1,900 adults at 2 weeks and 12 months post-9/11 to consider whether direct and proximal exposure were necessary preco...
Article
Collective traumas can negatively affect large numbers of people who ostensibly did not experience events directly, making it particularly important to identify which people are most vulnerable to developing mental and physical health problems as a result of such events. It is commonly believed that successful coping with a traumatic event requires...
Article
The authors conducted confirmatory factor analyses of reports of posttraumatic stress reactions using a national probability sample of individuals indirectly exposed to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (n = 675). Reactions at three time points in the year after the attacks were best accounted for by a lower-order, 4-factor solution (Reex...
Article
The terrorist attacks of 9/11 (September 11, 2001) present an unusual opportunity to examine prospectively the physical health impact of extreme stress in a national sample. To examine the degree to which acute stress reactions to the 9/11 terrorist attacks predict cardiovascular outcomes in a national probability sample over the subsequent 3 years...
Article
This study examined adolescents' adjustment following the attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11). A Web-based survey was administered 2 weeks and 7 months postattacks to a national sample of adolescents (N = 104). A randomly selected parent also completed a survey at the 7-month assessment. Although exposure to the attacks was indirect, over half the...
Article
We conducted a three-year longitudinal study of the mental and physical health of a national probability sample following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Adjustment over the three years following the attacks was associated with higher levels of future-oriented thinking and lower levels of fear about future terrorism (as measured 1, 2, and 3 y...
Article
This study examines ethnic and gender differences in open-ended immediate responses to an online prompt provided by a nationwide sample of 1,559 individuals in the days following the 9/11 terrorist attacks. These responses were used to predict longitudinal outcomes over the following 2 years. Results show that African Americans and women responded...
Chapter
A longitudinal investigation of psychological responses to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks was conducted on a U.S. national probability sample. Using an anonymous Web-based survey methodology, data were collected among over 1,900 adults at 2 weeks and 12 months post-9/11 to consider whether direct and proximal exposure were necessary preco...
Article
Full-text available
On April 20, 1999, two angry students attacked Columbine High School. The unprecedented murder/suicide resulted in 15 deaths, more than 20 injuries, and thousands of psychologically traumatized individuals. We present a qualitative analysis of interviews conducted two weeks after the incident with 4 Columbine High School students and 7 parents who...
Article
Full-text available
The September 11, 2001, attacks against the United States provide a unique opportunity to examine longitudinally the process of adjustment to a traumatic event on a national scale. To examine the degree to which demographic factors, mental and physical health history, lifetime exposure to stressful events, September 11-related experiences, and copi...
Article
To examine among immigrants and others seeking primary care: (1) the prevalence, types, and predictors of traumatic life events; and (2) the relations among traumatic life events, psychiatric disorders, and utilization of primary care services. Survey with structured diagnostic interview. Community-based, university-affiliated primary care clinic i...
Article
The relations between temporal orientation and long-term psychological distress were studied cross-sectionally and longitudinally in 3 samples of traumatized individuals: adult victims of childhood incest, Vietnam War veterans, and residents of 2 southern California communities devastated by fire. Results indicated that a past temporal orientation-...
Article
Large numbers of adult women who have experienced incest during childhood report persistent psychological distress, low self-esteem, depression, and interpersonal difficulties. The processes underlying the development of these problems, however, remain unknown. Instead, research has provided equivocal evidence regarding the relationship between var...
Article
Full-text available
This paper offers an environmental psychological analysis of child sexual abuse, a pervasive and disruptive societal problem. Earlier analyses of child sexual abuse have emphasized clinical, social, and developmental concepts and methodologies, while neglecting the environmental context of the problem. The proposed conceptualization of child sexual...
Article
Although optimistic bias has been well documented for adults, little is known about how children view their own risks vis-à-vis those of their peers. Two studies of 6th graders examined optimism and the degree of differentiation in perceived risks across diverse health, lifestyle, and environmental problems. The findings revealed perceptions of rel...
Article
Two studies of 6th graders (244 and 73 Ss, respectively) examined optimism and the degree of differentiation in perceived risks across diverse health, lifestyle, and environmental problems. Findings revealed perceptions of relative invulnerability and highly differentiated risk assessments. The strongest levels of optimism emerged for controllable...
Article
Organizational and technological developments within the health care system have helped consolidate a power structure that dehumanizes clients and fosters defensiveness in professionals. Frequent exposure to death renders health professionals vulnerable to severe anxiety, which they may try to avoid through death denial, leaving them psychologicall...
Article
This study examined adolescents' adjustment following the attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11). A Web-based survey was administered 2 weeks and 7 months postattacks to a national sample of adolescents ( N = 104). A randomly selected parent also completed a survey at the 7-month assessment. Although exposure to the attacks was indirect, over half th...

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Projects (5)
Project
The overall goal of the iCARE Study is to assess public awareness, attitudes, concerns, and behavioural responses to COVID-19 public health policies, and their impacts, on people around the world (www.mbmc-cmcm.ca/covid19), and to link behavioural survey data with policy, mobility, and case data to provide behavioural science, data-driven recommendations to governments on how to optimise current policy strategies to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide.