Alice H Lichtenstein

Alice H Lichtenstein
Tufts University | Tufts · Cardiovascular Nutrition Research Laboratory

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644
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Publications

Publications (644)
Article
Background Prospective cohort studies have found a relation between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (SSB; sodas and fruit drinks) and dyslipidemia. There is limited evidence linking SSB consumption to emerging features of dyslipidemia, which can be characterized by variation in lipoprotein particle size, remnant-like particle (RLP), and apolip...
Article
Introduction: Higher intake of fiber has been associated with lower risk of incident symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined whether levels of alkylresorcinol (AR), a marker of whole grain intake, were associated with OA in subjects in The Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study. Method: Knee x-rays and knee pain were assessed at baseline a...
Article
Full-text available
Background Excess visceral adiposity is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Short‐term well‐controlled clinical trials suggest that regular avocado consumption favorably affects body weight, visceral adiposity, and satiety. Methods and Results The HAT Trial (Habitual Diet and Avocado Trial) was a multicenter, randomized, c...
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Food intake data collected using subjective tools are prone to inaccuracies and biases. An objective assessment of food intake, such as metabolomic profiling, may offer a more accurate method if unique metabolites can be identified. To explore this option, we used samples generated from a randomized and controlled cross-over trial during which part...
Article
Objectives Understanding the individual-level drivers of food choices is critical for designing personalized nutrition guidance. Taste perception is one factor, yet the effects of genetic variants (SNPs) related to taste perception on diet quality and cardiometabolic risk factors (CRFs) are unknown. Thus, our aims were to determine the associations...
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Subjective reporting of food intake can be unreliable. No objective method is available to distinguish between diets differing in protein type. To address this gap, a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled cross-over feeding trial was conducted. Assessed were fasting plasma metabolite profiles and their associations with cardiometabolic risk...
Article
Scope: Lack of biomarkers is a challenge for the accurate assessment of protein intake and interpretation of observational study data. We aimed to identify biomarkers of a protein-rich dietary pattern. Methods and results: The OmniHeart trial was a randomized cross-over feeding study which tested three dietary patterns with varied macronutrient...
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Taste perception is a primary driver of food choices; however, little is known about how perception of all five tastes (sweet, salt, sour, bitter, umami) collectively inform dietary patterns. Our aim was to examine the associations between a multivariable measure of taste perception—taste perception profiles—and empirically derived dietary patterns...
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Background Parental involvement has been shown to favorably affect childhood weight management interventions, but whether these interventions influence parental diet and cardiometabolic health outcomes is unclear. Objective To evaluate whether a 1-year family-based childhood weight management intervention altered parental nutrient biomarker concen...
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Sexual dimorphism in the immune system is evidenced by a higher prevalence of autoimmune diseases in women and higher susceptibility to infectious diseases in men. However, the molecular basis of these sex-based differences is not fully understood. We have characterized the transcriptome profiles of peripheral blood monocytes from males and postmen...
Article
Background Significant associations between total nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and incident stroke have been reported in some prospective cohort studies. We evaluated the associations between incident stroke and serum concentrations of nonesterified saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fatty acids. Methods and R...
Article
Poor diet quality is strongly associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. This scientific statement emphasizes the importance of dietary patterns beyond individual foods or nutrients, underscores the critical role of nutrition early in life, presents elements of heart-healthy dietary patterns, and highlights str...
Article
Engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviors is suboptimal. The vast majority of the US population does not meet current recommendations. A healthy lifestyle is defined by consuming a healthy dietary pattern, engaging in regular physical activity, avoiding exposure to tobacco products, habitually attaining adequate amounts of sleep, and managing stres...
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Excess visceral adiposity is associated with increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In the U.S. approximately 60% of adults have visceral obesity. Despite high calorie and fat, small, well-controlled clinical studies suggest that avocado consumption has favorable effects on body weight and visceral adiposity. Additionally, short-ter...
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Backgrounds and aims: Elevated common carotid artery intima-media thickness (carotid IMT) and diminished flow-mediated dilation (FMD) are early subclinical indicators of atherosclerosis. Serum total non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations have been positively associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. The relations between individual NEFA...
Article
Background: Lifestyle interventions are the first-line treatment for obesity, but participant weight loss is typically low. Objectives: We evaluated the efficacy of an alternative lifestyle intervention [Healthy Weight for Living (HWL)] compared with a modified Diabetes Prevention Program (m-DPP). HWL was based on a revised health behavior chang...
Article
Background - Carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) is a transcription factor that responds to sugar consumption. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and genetic variants in the CHREBP locus have separately been linked to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations. We hypothesized SSB...
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Full-text available
Background Greater whole grain (WG) consumption is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, few prospective studies have examined WG or refined grain (RG) intake and intermediate cardiometabolic risk factors. Objectives We examined the longitudinal association between WG and RG intake on changes in waist circumference...
Article
Background: The Paleo diet is a popular dietary pattern based on interpretation of evolutionary diets. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relative dietary quality of theoretical, modern-day Paleo meal plans, in comparison with national nutrition guidance. Methods: This analysis used data from the Adhering to Dietary Approaches for P...
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Background The risk of stroke in individuals with very low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations remains high. We sought to prioritize predictive risk factors for stroke in Chinese participants with LDL-C concentrations < 70 mg/dL using a survival conditional inference tree, a machine learning method. Methods The training data...
Article
Background Current approaches to studying relations between taste perception and diet quality typically consider each taste—sweet, salt, sour, bitter, umami—separately or aggregately, as total taste scores. Consistent with studying dietary patterns rather than single foods or total energy, an additional approach may be to study all 5 tastes collect...
Article
Objectives To understand how eating behaviors, susceptibility to the food environment, and perceived dietary habit strength differ across self-reported categories of adherence. Methods We used data in a sample (n = 2829) from Adhering to Dietary Approaches for Personal Taste (ADAPT), an online study conducted in self-identified popular diet follow...
Article
Objectives Carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been used as an early indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis. Multiple studies have identified significant associations between plasma total non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and risk factors associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between CIM...
Article
Objectives To evaluate the impact of a family-based weight management intervention for children with overweight/obesity on parental nutrient biomarker concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF). Methods Secondary analysis from a randomized-controlled, parallel-arm clinical trial. Families were recruited from a largely Hispanic populati...
Article
Objectives To assess self-reported differences in food purchasing habits and diet-consistent food availability among recent vs. long-term plant-based diet (PBD) followers compared to those who are not actively following a specific diet but report “trying to eat healthy” (TTEH). Methods The sample consisted of PBD (n = 1820, whole-food plant based/...
Article
Objectives To evaluate the nutrient adequacy of theoretical, modern-day Paleo meal plans relative to the U.S. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Methods This analysis used data from the Adhering to Dietary Approaches for Personal Taste (ADAPT) Feasibility Study, which captured data on 9 726 self-reported, popular diet followers. Paleo respondents (...
Article
Objectives Understanding individual-level drivers of food intake is critical when personalizing dietary guidance. One likely driver is taste perception; yet, limited data relate perception of all 5 tastes (sweet, salt, sour, bitter, umami) to dietary patterns (DPs). Our aim was to determine whether a multivariable measure of taste perception, taste...
Article
To formulate precision nutrition prescriptions, it is essential to understand the relationship between dietary assessment, ethnicity and cardiometabolic disease. Erythrocyte (RBC) fatty acid (FA) profiles reflect long-term dietary fat intake but have not been rigorously compared with short-term FA intake in women of African ancestry who have parado...
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Background: Healthy dietary patterns are related to better cognitive health in aging populations. While levels of individual nutrients in neural tissues are individually associated with cognitive function, the investigation of nutrient patterns in human brain tissue has not been conducted. Methods: Brain tissues were acquired from frontal and tempo...
Article
Objective: Evidence suggests perception of sweet, salt, sour, bitter, and umami tastes may be independently related to food preferences and intake. Our objective was to determine whether a collective measure of taste perception for all 5 tastes—“taste perception profiles”—was related to adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedD). Methods: Participant...
Article
Background: Experimental studies have found that the functionality of HDL cholesterol may be lost in the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM). Objectives: We aimed to elucidate whether DM modified the association between HDL-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. Methods: Included were 91,354 Chinese adults (8244 p...
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The long-term impact of carbohydrate quality on abdominal weight gain is not fully understood. We aimed to examine the prospective relation of a carbohydrate quality index (CQI; defined by four criteria: dietary fiber, glycemic index, whole grain-to-total grain ratio, and solid-to-total carbohydrate ratio), total, cereal grain, vegetable, and fruit...
Article
Background Significant associations have been reported between serum total nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and incident nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) in some prospective cohort studies. Little is known about whether individual or subclasses (saturated, polyunsaturated [n‐6 and n‐3], an...
Article
Among elderly participants from the Cardiovascular Health Study, we found that non-esterified trans fatty acid levels had a significant prospective association with hip fracture risk. Other non-esterified fatty acid classes were not associated with hip fracture risk. Introduction: Serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are bioactive metabolic i...
Article
Objective Inflammation worsens joint destruction in osteoarthritis (OA) and aggravates pain. Saturated and n-6 fatty acids (FAs) increase, whereas n-3 FAs reduce inflammation. We examined whether FA levels affected the development of OA. Design We studied participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis study (MOST) at risk of developing knee OA....
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Background: Heart failure (HF) is highly prevalent among older adults and is associated with high costs. Although serum total nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) have been positively associated with HF risk, the contribution of each individual NEFA to HF risk has not been examined. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the association of...
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Background Studies regarding whether light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have generated mixed results. Further, few studies have examined the potential impact of alcohol consumption on diverse disease outcomes simultaneously. We aimed to prospectively study the dose-response associa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sexual dimorphism in the immune system is evidenced by a higher prevalence of autoimmune diseases in women and higher susceptibility to infectious diseases in men. However, the molecular basis of these sex-based differences is not fully understood. We have characterized the transcriptome profiles of peripheral blood monocytes from males and postmen...
Article
Objective Obesity and dysmetabolism are major risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF). Expansion of fat depots is associated with increased circulating total non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), elevated levels of which are associated with incident AF. We undertook comprehensive serum measurement of individual NEFA to identify specific association...
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Optimizing diet quality in conjunction with statin therapy is currently the most common approach for coronary artery disease (CAD) risk management. Although effects on the cardiovascular system have been extensively investigated, little is known about the effect of these interventions in the colon and subsequent associations with CAD progression. T...
Article
Scope Serum metabolomic markers of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were previously reported. We investigated if urine metabolomic markers were similar in an independent clinical trial. Methods and Results In the DASH‐Sodium trial, participants were randomly assigned to the DASH diet or control diet, and received three sodiu...
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Among school employees, it has been reported that poor physical and mental health, as well as high stress and large workloads, have resulted in high absenteeism and low retention. The consequences of unhealthy behaviors and stress can extend to students, impacting academic achievement and school costs. Our objective was to examine the impact of sch...
Article
Background and aims The independent effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on chronic inflammation through their downstream lipid mediators, including the specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM), remain unstudied. Therefore, we compared the effects of EPA and DHA supplementation on monocyte inflammatory respon...
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Diet quality and statin therapy are established modulators of coronary artery disease (CAD) progression, but their effect on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and subsequent sequelae that could affect CAD progression are relatively unexplored. To address this gap, Ossabaw pigs (N = 32) were randomly assigned to receive isocaloric amounts of a Wester...
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In the field of human nutrition, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard for establishing causal relations between exposure to nutrients, foods, or dietary patterns and prespecified outcome measures, such as body composition, biomarkers, or event rates. Evidence-based dietary guidance is frequently derived from systemat...
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Guidelines for designing, conducting, documenting, and reporting human nutrition randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have as yet to be developed and disseminated as reference for investigators, funders, regulators, institutions, assessors, trainees, and others involved in human nutrition research. Diet-related interventions can include diet and/or...
Article
Background Emerging research indicates that eating timing may influence dietary intake and metabolic health. However, studies to date have not examined the association of multiple measures of eating timing with both dietary intake and metabolic health in adults with overweight and obesity. Objective To examine the association of multiple measures...
Article
Objective: Compare the postprandial fatty acid metabolism of isotopically labeled stearate [U-13C18:0] and oleate [U-13C18:1]. Approach and Results: In conjunction with a randomized-controlled crossover trial, 6 hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women (≥50 years; body mass index: 25.6±3.0 kg/m2; LDL [low-density lipoprotein]-cholesterol ≥110 mg/...
Article
Implementation of prevention policies has often been impeded or delayed due to the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with hard clinical outcomes (eg, incident disease, mortality). Despite the prominent role of RCTs in health care, it may not always be feasible to conduct RCTs of public health interventions with hard outcomes due to logist...
Article
Objectives: Studies suggest an association between elevated total serum cholesterol (TC), particularly low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and osteoarthritis (OA). We evaluated the association between total cholesterol, LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and risk of knee OA. Methods: We studied participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis st...
Article
Background Night eating has been associated with an elevated risk of obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. However, there is no longitudinal study on whether habitual night eating, regardless of diet quality and energy intake, is associated with arterial stiffness, a major etiological factor in the development of cardiovascular disease...
Article
Background: Dietary carbohydrate type may influence cardiometabolic risk through alterations in the gut microbiome and microbial-derived metabolites, but evidence is limited. Objectives: We explored the relative effects of an isocaloric exchange of dietary simple, refined, and unrefined carbohydrate on gut microbiota composition/function, and se...
Article
It is critical that diet quality be assessed and discussed at the point of care with clinicians and other members of the healthcare team to reduce the incidence and improve the management of diet-related chronic disease, especially cardiovascular disease. Dietary screening or counseling is not usually a component of routine medical visits. Moreover...
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Full-text available
Objective To describe characteristics of self-identified popular diet followers and compare mean BMI across these diets, stratified by time following diet. Design Cross-sectional, web-based survey administered in 2015. Setting Non-localised, international survey. Participants Self-selected followers of popular diets ( n 9019) were recruited to t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Experimental studies found that the functionality of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) may be lost in the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM). We prospectively tested whether DM modified the association between HDL-C concentrations and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: Included were 91,354 Chinese adults (8,244 participan...
Article
Background: Inverse associations have been reported between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and circulating cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. Postulated mechanisms include reduced bioavailability of intestinal cholesterol and alterations in endogenous cholesterol synthesis. Objective: To explore the effect of daily supplem...
Article
Background: DNA methylation patterns associated with habitual diet have not been well studied. Methods: Diet quality was characterized using a Mediterranean-style diet score and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index score. We conducted ethnicity-specific and trans-ethnic epigenome-wide association analyses for diet quality and leukocyte-derived D...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives A gastrointestinal tract (GI) that allows for bacterial translocation has been associated with enhanced systemic inflammation and may play a critical role in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Diet quality and statin therapy are established modulators of CAD, but their effect in GI health is relatively unexplored. Jejunal...
Article
Objectives Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are effective in reducing plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations but have divergent effects on LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. Differential regulations of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities are possible mechanisms of their d...
Article
Objectives Carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) is a transcription factor that responds to sugar consumption. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and genetic variants at the CHREBP (also known as MLXIPL) locus have separately been linked to dyslipidemia. We hypothesized that SSB intake may modify the associations betw...
Article
Objectives A meta-analysis of 11 CHARGE cohorts (N = 63,599) suggested that genetic variants within or near the CHREBP locus may modify the associations between sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The study objective was to replicate these findings in a la...
Article
Objectives Night eating habits have been associated with elevated risk of obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, longitudinal study is lacking on whether habitual night eating, regardless of overall diet quality and total energy intake, is associated with arterial stiffness, a major preclinical pathologic change of CVD. T...
Article
Objectives In humans, perception for each taste (sweet, salt, sour, bitter and umami) has been independently related to food preferences and intake. Yet, the collective influence of perception of all 5 tastes on diet and cardiometabolic health remains unexplored. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the relations between a collective measure...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives High RNA quality is a prerequisite for accurate PCR and sequencing results. Dissecting a specific tissue fraction from frozen samples while maintaining RNA quality is challenging. Starting with frozen pig jejunum segments, we describe a novel method to isolate epithelial cell RNA while minimizing contamination with smooth muscle cell RNA...
Article
Objectives Significant associations between plasma total non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and incident ischemic stroke have been reported in some but not all prospective cohort studies. Given the functional and structural diversity among circulating NEFA, the association of individual or sub-groups of circulating NEFAs may provide ad...
Article
Rationale Consumption of whole‐grains is negatively associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk but quantification of whole‐grain intake is challenging. Alkylresorcinols (ARs) are biomarkers of whole‐grain intake. Current methods for AR quantification involve a time consuming multi‐step separation process that hampers applicability in large‐s...
Article
Food cravings are a desire for specific foods which, if uncontrolled may lead to excess energy intake and weight gain. However, information on the relation between food cravings, dietary intake, and indices of metabolic health is limited. This study used baseline data from females (n = 229; aged 40.9 ± 0.7 years; BMI 34.7 ± 6.4 kg/m²) who were depe...
Article
Background: In animal models cis-palmitoleic acid (9-hexadecenoic acid; 16:1n-7c), a lipokine, improves insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and lipoprotein profiles; in humans trans-palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7t) has been associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. The response to dose-escalation of supplements containing cis- and trans-palmit...